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First printed 1919 
Reprinted 1939, 1953, 1960 

Printed in Great Britain 


St. JoHN AND THE Rosser. ‘ Frontispiece 

INTRODUCTION . : , ; : : : xi 


INTRODUCTION . ; ; : : : . 3-27 

The minstrels of Greek legend were supposed to 
have performed wonderful deeds by the power of 
music. But the new minstrel, the Word of God, 
does greater works in real life. His power is shown 
in saving men from slavery to daemons ; and also 
in giving order and harmony to the universe. 
He is the New Song ; and yet old, for He was ‘in 
the beginning.” He alone reveals God to men. 


Sanctuaries, oracles, sacred springs and trees are now 
out of date. The mysteries; derivation of the word 
‘mystery ’; originator of mysteries. Mysteries of 
(i.) Aphrodite, (ii.) Demeter, (iii.) Attis and Cybele. 
Story of Persephone. The mysteries of Dionysus. 
Rites of the Corybantes and the Cabeiri. The Ele- 
usinian formula. These mysteries are profane 
and unholy ; Heracleitus witnesses against them. 
Greeks, not Christians, are the real atheists. 


DeEscrIPTION OF THE GREEK Gops . : 53—101 

Seven causes of idolatry. Many gods of the same 
name. Gods were really men; examples to prove 
this. The immorality of the gods, with examples. 
Goddesses equally guilty. The Greek games are 
all held in honour of dead men. Origin of phallic 
emblems in Dionysus-worship. Gods have even 
been slaves. They have human feelings and 
needs. Zeus was once alive, but is now dead. 
Greeks themselves call the gods by stupid and 
indecent names; Egyptian animal worship is 
better than this. Greeks also worship animals ; 
examples. Are the Greek gods daemons, or 
secondary divinities? Certainly they are not 
guardians of men, but savage and man-hating 
creatures, as is proved by human sacrifices. Such 
daemons must be avoided like wild beasts. Men 
are better than daemons, é.g. Solon than Apollo. 
The gods’ temples are really tombs, 

Tue WorsuHipe oF STATUES : { . 101-143 

ae first images were unwrought wood and stone ; 
in later times they were made into human shape. 
They are all the work of men; as is shown by 
many examples. Even the image of Sarapis in 
Alexandria is of human workmanship. The dei- 
fication of Antinous is another example of god- 
making; his tomb is nowa temple. The Sibyl 
predicts the destruction of temples with their 
images. Heracleitus scoffs at image-worship. 
Images are without life, and sacrifices do them 
no good. The lowest animals are better than 
any statues. God’s true image is mental, not 
material. Rulers despise statues, and insult 


them. Thievesstealthem. Fire and earthquakes 
destroy them. Sculptors make them look like 
their own favourites. Both kings and private 
persons, scorning image-worship, have styled 
themselves gods. The epitaph of Hippo shows 
that all gods were once men. They are now un- 
clean spirits that haunt tombs, and their statues 
are simply earth and art. The fascination of art 
has led men to fall in love with statues ; now it 
leads men to worship them. Stories of gods are 
full of immorality; but Christians are living 
images of God, and must not listen to them. 
Indecent pictures hung in houses; indecent 
symbols on rings; shameful emblems displayed 
in public. Image-making is forbidden to Chris- 
tians. Men must seek after God, and not after 
any created thing. 

Tue Witness oF PHILOSOPHY . : . 145-163 

Early philosophers supposed the elements to be 
first principles. This veneration of matter is 
mere atheism. It originates with barbarians. 
Other philosophers sought for a higher first 
principle, as the Infinite, or Mind. The Stoic 
doctrine of Immanence. The Peripatetic doc- 
trine ; God the soul of the universe. Epicurus,. 
-A crowd of minor philosophers who exalt the 
elements. But Plato is a better guide ; together 
with Euripides and Democritus, he knows the 
majesty of the true God. Whence came Plato’s 
wisdom? From barbarians, as he confesses, 7.e. 
from the Hebrews. Antisthenes, Xenophon, 
Socrates, Cleanthes and Pythagoras also knew 
the truth, 




Tue Witness oF Poetry : : y .£68+175 

Poetry is entirely concerned with fiction, yet it cannot 
help bearing some witness to truth. Examples 
from Aratus, Hesiod, Sophocles, Orpheus. Even 
comic poets know the truth, for instance, Men- 
ander. Homer, too, and many others speak ill 
of the gods ; but especially Euripides. 

Tue Witness oF Hesrew PropHecy » 173-195 

The sacred writings are simple in style, but of great 
power. A prelude from the Sibyl. Many quota- 
tions to show the majesty of the one true God 
and His love for man; from Jeremiah, Isaiah, 
Moses, Hosea, Solomon, David. But Christ the 
Word speaks with even greater authority. He 
invites us into His kingdom, to be sons of God. 
Punishment awaits unbelievers. We must then 
obey God *‘ to-day.” The meaning of ‘‘ to-day.” 
We must choose between God’s grace and His 
displeasure. Salvation is beyond price; yet it 
can be bought for faith and love. God is our 
teacher, through the scriptures. All may become 
His children. 

Tue Ciais or Custom . ; i “aes oy RY 

Ought men to abandon their traditional ways? Yes, 
just as children abandon childish ways. Custom 
is the real obstacle to godliness. It refuses 
all guidance. The sight of filthy and degraded 
priests ought to bring men to God, who is a 
loving Father. Yet some men are like worms 



and swine, loving what is foul. God has a splen- 
did inheritance for His children; heaven and 
earth are theirs without cost. An innate faith 
in goodness is possessed by all, and is worthy of 
trust. Custom is stupid ; it deifies mere human 
beings, and sets up stones for worship. God’s 
Word is His true image; and man’s mind is an 
image of the Word. Custom is rooted in ignor- 
ance. But ignorance is only an excuse for him 
who has never heard God’s message. Custom 
destroys men. It is utterly absurd. Those who 
follow it are like drugged men ; they also become 
like stones when they worship stones. Men are 
the really sacred things, not animals or stones. 
Unbelievers are deaf and blind in heart; or like 
serpents, wriggling on the earth. Life is the 
reward for finding God. Divine wisdom helps 
man to do life’s duties well. God’s children follow 
God’s laws, which are severe, but health-giving. 
The Word has brought untold blessings to men. 

Goo’s Pian oF REDEMPTION . ; vrs OB7--051 

Man was created innocent and free; but he fell 
through pleasure. The Word became incarnate, 
and died on the Cross to save him. So man gains 
more than he lost. The Word is now man’s 
teacher. He brings light and reveals God. The 
night of earth gives place to the day of God. 
The Word is also an amulet that can save from 
sin. This is ever God’s purpose—to save men. 
It is proclaimed to men by Christ’s bloodless 
army. Those who obey God become His delight 
as well as His handiwork, and they inherit a 

AQ ix 


Fina, ExHorTATION . : : ,.. 2a1—263 

Custom must be shunned as a'deadly peril. It is like 
Circe’s island. Follow Odysseus’ example, and 
be bound to the Cross. Be warned by the mad- 
ness of Pentheus. The Word’s mysteries are 
sober ; performed by pure maidens and righteous 
men. These mysteries alone give a vision of 
God. Christ is the true hierophant. He offers 
rest and immortality. It is sheer madness to re- 
main in ignorance when truth is within reach. 
Man can become a friend and son of God, but 
only by following Christ. Finally, the reader is 
exhorted to make for himself the great choice 
between life and destruction. 


TERIES . : : : . - 3879-390 

INDICES : : ° : : - 391-409 


Few facts are known to us concerning the life of 
Clement of Alexandria. His title comes from the 
city which was the scene of all his important work ; 
but an early tradition spoke of him as being an 
Athenian by birth, and this may be correct. The 
date of his birth can be fixed roughly at 150 a.p. We 
are told nothing of his parentage or early training. 
It seems clear, however, that he was not a Christian 
to begin with. He is so well acquainted with the 
mystery cults that there is a strong probability that 
he had been initiated into some of them. We have 
it on his own authority that he wandered through 
many lands and heard many teachers. Six of these 
he singles out for mention, though not by name; 
they were “blessed and memorable men,” who spoke 
“plain and living words.” Doubtless all of them 
were Christians. The last of the six, who was “ first 
in power,’ and whom he found in Egypt, is almost 
certainly Pantaenus, then head of the Catechetical 
School at Alexandria. Here Clement’s wanderings 



ceased. He became a presbyter of the Church, and 
taught in Alexandria for more than twenty years, 
succeeding Pantaenus as head of the School. On 
the outbreak of persecution under Severus in 202 a.p. 
he left Alexandria, never to return. We get one 
more glimpse of him; in 211 a.p. he was the bearer 
of a letter from Alexander, afterwards bishop of 
Jerusalem, to the Church at Antioch. Jn this letter 
he is described as “ Clement the blessed presbyter, 
a virtuous and esteemed man . . . who upheld and 
extended the Church of the Lord.” Alexander was 
one of Clement’s old pupils, and a fellow-pupil with 
the great Origen. Clement must have died not long 
after this letter was written; for the same Alexander, 
writing to Origen a few years later, speaks of him 
together with Pantaenus as “ those blessed men who 
have trodden the road before us.”’ 

The extant works of Clement are as follows :— 
the Exhortation to the Greeks; the Pedagogue or Tutor ; 
eight books of Stromatets or Miscellanies; a short 
treatise entitled, Who is the rich man that shall be 
saved? together with some fragments called Selections 
from the Prophets, being comments upon portions 
of the Scriptures. There are also a number of short 
extracts from the writings of a certain Theodotus 
with comments thereon. Of the lost works the most 
important is the Hypotyposes,or Outlines,a commentary 
upon the Scriptures. Possibly the Selections from the 
Prophets formed part of this work. 



The writings of Clement are considerable in 
extent, and remarkable in character. Hardly a page 
can be found without some quotation from the Old 
or New Testaments. Besides this, Clement makes 
constant references to the Greek poets, dramatists, 
philosophers and historians. He can illustrate his 
argument by a passage from Plato, or by lines from 
Homer or Euripides. He can strengthen his attack 
by quoting Heracleitus or Democritus. Items of 
information about curious, absurd or immoral Greek 
customs he can glean from a crowd of minor authors 
whose works have now perished. It is said that he 
mentions by name more than three hundred such 
authors, of whom otherwise we know nothing. 
Some of these may have been known to him only 
through books of extracts; but there can be no 
question as to his thorough reading of Plato and 
Homer. For Plato he has a sincere admiration, and 
Platonic expressions and ideas, to say nothing of 
direct quotations, are everywhere to be met with in 
his writings. Generally speaking he betrays no 
interest in his authorities except in so far as they 
are useful to establish some point. But this wide 
reading is evidence of a large and generous mind, 
that welcomed the true and the good wherever they 
might be found, confident that every ray of light 
proceeds from the same sun. 

This fearless acceptance of truth from every 
available source makes Clement not only important 



for his own times, but also interesting for the world 
of to-day. He was faced by a problem that ever 
recurs, the problem of blending old truth with new. In 
the second century Christianity had become a power. 
No longer was the Church weak, poor and neglected. 
Educated men inquired about its faith, and asked 
admittance within its fold; but they would bring 
with them an inheritance of thought and culture, 
unknown to the simple Christians of an earlier age. 
The question was bound to arise, What relation has 
this to the Christian faith? Is it to be set aside as 
superfluous, or injurious? Or is all the good in it to 
be accepted and welcomed, a proof that God’s revela- 
tion extends in a measure to all men, to Greeks 
as well as Jews? Clement himself had come to 
Christianity with a mind steeped in Greek learning, 
and he answered this question with clearness and 
confidence. Greek learning was not to be rejected. 
Philosophy at its best had stood to the Greeks in 
the same relation as prophecy to the Jews; it had 
been, he held, a preparation for Christ. It abounded 
in glimmerings and foreshadowings of the divine 
teaching, and could not have come from the devil, 
as timid Christians maintained. It was therefore a 
proper object of study, and the exercise of human 
reason which it pre-supposed could do no harm. to 
the Christian faith. Thus Clement, taking his stand 
upon the oneness of truth, laid down the lines upon 
which Christian theology could safely proceed. 



But while Clement asserted that a real revelation 
had been made to the higher minds of Greece, he 
knew well how slight was its effect on the popular 
morality and religion. Hence the fierce attack 
which is the subject of his first work, the Exhortation 
to the Greeks. With bitter scorn he describes the 
mysteries, seizing upon any disgraceful legend or 
piece of childish ceremonial which seems to stamp 
them as worthless and debasing. As for the gods, 
with their human needs and passions, they are 
subjects for ridicule, to which Clement adds a 
burning indignation when he thinks of the low 
standard of morality attributed to them in the 
current mythology. The worship of images, too, is 
stupid; the true God cannot be represented in 
material form. Yet Clement can prove by quotations 
that philosophers, Plato especially, and even poets, 
had clearly taught the unity, supremacy, and good- 
ness of God. But the greatest witnesses of all were 
the Hebrew prophets, through whom God gave His 
promises to men. The Greeks are prevented from 
accepting the truth by Custom, that dead weight of 
inherited tradition, which must be abandoned. 
Christianity offers man the true mysteries, culminating 
in the vision of God. 

Thus the Greek religion which Clement attacks 
is a thing far removed from the lofty conceptions of 
Plato or Aeschylus. It is the religion of the multitude 
in the Greek-speaking world. Five hundred years 



before this, Plato censured the immoralities of the 
gods in terms hardly less severe than those of 
Clement, but Plato’s words were ineffective to change 
what he himself was heartily ashamed of. The 
Christian Church, however, under the leadership of 
men like Clement, was slowly gathering the common 
people into a society which upheld a higher view of 
the divine character, and demanded a correspondingly 
higher standard of human conduct. No doubt the 
evil of the popular religion is exaggerated ; certainly 
Clement omits all reference to its good. Yet there 
must have been enough of the evil before men’s 
eyes to make Christian life and teaching stand out 
in noble contrast. In the house, in the street, in 
the market-place, at feasts, assemblies and religious 
processions, Christian converts were exposed to 
sights and sounds from which they had learnt in- 
stinctively to shrink. It is such things, and ali that 
was bound up with them, that Clement denounces. 
To-day we may admire Greek art without paying 
much attention to the mythology which was then 
inseparable from it; we may probe mystery religions 
in search of those elements of good which made 
them for centuries the chief spiritual food of the 
common people. Such discrimination is not to be 
looked for in the second century. Clement claimed 
a place for philosophy in the Church; later on a 
home was found for art too, and even the funda- 
mental ideas of the mysteries were not refused 


admission. Time was necessary to show what could 
be assimilated and what could not. In Clement’s 
day Christianity was still struggling for existence, 
and popular religion was its deadliest enemy. This 
fact should serve as an excuse for the over-elabora- 
tion of his attack and for one or two passages which 
are unpleasant to a modern reader, 

In preparing the present translation I have had 
the great advantage of being able to work from the 
text of Stihlin, published in 1905. All students of 
Clement must be grateful, not only for this clear 
and accurate text, but also for the references 
collected by Stihlin, which throw light on many a 
difficult passage. The text printed here is sub- 
stantially that of Stahlin’s edition, though I have 
occasionally preferred the conjectures of other 
scholars or retained the manuscript reading where 
Stahlin departs from it. All deviations of any im- 
portance from the ss. are noted at the foot of each 
page. So far as concerns the Evhortation, the chief 
extant ms. is the Parisian, referred to by Stahlin as 
P. A description of this ms. is to be found in the 
introduction to Stiihlin’s text (vol. i. pp. xvi—xxiii). 
Depending on P is the Codex Mutinensis, known 
as M. 

This translation was first drafted several years 
ago as part of a complete edition of the Exhorta- 
tion to the Greeks; and I am still working towards 



the accomplishment of this larger plan. <A grateful 
acknowledgment is due to the committee of the 
Bodington Memorial Fund, in connexion with the 
University of Leeds, for grants which have materially 
assisted the progress of my work. I desire also to 
record my deep indebtedness to the late Dr. Joseph 
B. Mayor, who in the closing years of his life gave 
me most generous and patient help both in the 
details of the translation and in my general study of 
Clement. Most of all, I thank Professor W. Rhys 
Roberts, of the University of Leeds, at whose sug- 
gestion I first began to read Clement, and to whose 
kindly encouragement and ungrudging help is 
largely due my perseverance hitherto in so difficult 
an undertaking. 



Tue chief editors of Clement of Alexandria are as follows :— 
Joun Porter, Archbishop of Canterbury. His edition 
in two vols. was issued at Oxford in 1715, and is 
reprinted in Migne, P.G. vols. viii. and ix. 
Witi1am Dinporr, 4 vols. Issued at Oxford in 1869. 
Orro Stauirn. 3 vols. Issued at Leipzig 1905-1909. 
This supersedes all previous editions. 

Out of the very large literature that has grown up 
around Clement’s works the following books in English 
may be mentioned :— 

Bisoop Kaye. Some Account of the Writings and 
Opinions of Clement of Alexandria. London, 1835. 

Biece. The Christian Platonists of Alexandria. Oxford, 

Horr. Six Lectures on the Ante-Nicene Fathers. 
London, 1895. 

Hrrewcock. Clement of Alexandria (Fathers for English 
Readers series, S.P.C.K. 1899). 

Totumnton. Clement of Alexandria: a Study in 
Christian Liberalism. 2 vols. 1914. 

Patrick. Clement of Alexandria (The Croall Lecture 
for 1899-1900). 1914. 



The whole of Clement’s extant works (with the excep- 
tion of the Extracts from Theodotus and the newly-dis- 
covered Ewvhortation to Endurance) are translated into 
English in The Ante-Nicene Christian Library by the Rev. 
W. Wilson. The vols. marked Clement of Alexandria, 
I. and II., contain the Evhortation to the Greeks, the 
Pedagogue or Tutor and the Stromateis. The Rich Man’s 
Salvation is to be found at the end of the volume marked 
Lactantius II., and the Se/ections from the Prophets and 
various Fragments are at the end of a small volume 
entitled Early Liturgies: Fragments. 

The Seventh Book of the Stromateis is translated by 
the Rev. J. B. Mayor in Hort and Mayor’s edition of that 
book. Cambridge, 1902. 

The Rich Man’s Salvation has been translated by 
P. M. Barnard (Who is the Rich Man that is being saved ? 
Early Church Classics series. §.P.C.K. 1901). 

The Fragment entitled Ewhortation to Endurance, or, To 
the Newly Baptized has been translated by J. Patrick in 
his book Clement of Alexandria, pp. 183--185. 



(For the story see pp. 357-365.) 

The Illustration reproduces (by kind permission of the 
Master and Fellows) a page from a manuscript Apocalypse? 
in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge, which is perhaps 
the finest example of the English art of its time, viz. the 
middle of the thirteenth century. It is one of the very few 
representations of the story of St. John and the Robber which 
occur in mediaeval art. The inscriptions, in Anglo-French, 
explain the scenes quite adequately. 

Picrure 1 (top of page).—Here is how St. John asks for 
the youth, and how he is in the forest with the robbers. 

On label (St. John says to the Bishop) Restore me him 
whom I entrusted to you, and, by the witness of the Holy 
Church which you govern, I demand of you the youth whom 1 
commended to you. (The Bishop says) He is dead. Verily 
he is dead to God; for he is gone away full of all mischief, 
and in the end he is become a wicked robber, and now he is in 
the mountain with a great company of robbers and hath taken 
the mountain for to spoil and to kill and to rob the people. 

Picrure 2.—Here is how the youth fled, and how St. John 
gallops after him and calls him gently. 

(St. John says) Fair son, why dost thow flee from thy 
father? Wherefore dost thou flee from an old man unarmed ? 
Have pity on thyself and have no fear, for thow canst still 
have hope of life. Fair son, siay ! 

Picture 3.—Here is how St. John kisses the youth’s right 
hand, and how he baptizes him, and how he leads him back to 
the Church from whence he had gone out. 

1 This Apocalypse has recently (1909) been edited for the Roxburghe 
Club by the Provost of King’s. 


ne ak bei essde igen rs ea 
Ae shqong, a) dcx 0k Youur Neh 0} hen Hoge GY i, gintenor nd 
Bn eae na ne 

“i wow! ba aod’ duoly qe ron ee (agen ys 

Virsutiens cha fio sen anor sol, joel), ety 

Bisa Aerie, works: woh, SAN, et: id Rms 

LBM tot - AUANS 

May Vda, A winedek- ibe 2 sek gi, pe 

rep tomtaaachgh ted iak of p.m. De 

Moe, ry, wn i A 

xt sak 
ean oe 

word ps 1 





‘Apdiov 6 OnBaios kat “Apiwy 6 My Ovpvatos 
Gypen pev Horay wouw, polos de audw: Kal Td 
dopa eloere TobTO “EdAjveav aderar | X0pe, TEXVN 
TH povouch) 6 pev lyOdv SeAedoas, 6 dé O7Pas 
Terxyioas. Wpdkios dé addos copuorns (aAXos odtos 
po0os “EM gv«0s) erOdaeve Ta Onpia yupvi TH 
won Kal o7) TO d€vdpa, TAS pyyous, peTeputeve TH 
povalkh. e€xoun” av cou Kat aAAov Tovrous adeAdov 
dinyjoacbar pobov Kat wdov, Evvopov tov Aoxpov 
Kat tettvya tov IIvOuKov. maviyyupis ‘EAAnviK7) 
emt vexp@ Spakovtt auvexpotetto IlvGot, emutaduov 
EpmreTov adovtos Edvomou: vuvos 7 Opivos odews 

# Arion was returning from Sicily to Greece laden with 
prizes and presents. The sailors thought to kill him for his 
wealth, but after playing his lyre he jumped into the sea. 
Dolphins, charmed by the music, gathered round him, and 
one of them took the bard on its back to Corinth. 

> The stones were said to have moved into their proper 
places at the sound of Amphion’s music. 



Ampuion of Thebes and Arion of Methymna were Minstrels of 
both minstrels. Both are celebrated in legend, and /28en4 
to this day the story is sung by a chorus of Greeks wonderful 
how their musical ‘skill enabled the one to lure a 4°33’ 
fish * and the other to build the walls of Thebes.? Amphion 
There was also a Thracian wizard,°—so runs another eames 
Greek legend,—who used to tame wild beasts simply 

by his song, yes, and to transplant trees, oaks, by 

music. I can also tell you of another legend and 

another minstrel akin to these, namely, Eunomus the Eunomus 
Locrian and the Pythian grasshopper.4 A solemn ara 
assembly of Greeks, held in honour of a dead serpent, stasshopper 
was gathering at Pytho,’ and Eunomus sang a funeral 

ode for the reptile. Whether his song was a hymn 

¢ j.e., Orpheus. Cp. Euripides, Rhesus 924, dewg cogiorg 

4 Strictly cicala, here and elsewhere. 

¢ i.e, Delphi. According to the Greek legend the 
serpent was the ancient guardian of the Delphic shrine, 
and was slain by Apollo. 



8 P. 


i ¢ AY) ‘f > ” x / . > \ PS) \ > \ > / 
nv 1 Won, ovK Exw A€yew: aya dé Hv Kal exOd- 
7 / ¢ 
pilev wpa Kavpatos Kivowos, omnvika of rértuyes 
b70 tots meTAAous Hdov ava Ta Spy Oepopevor HALw. 
y0ov d€ apa od 7TH SpdKovTt TH vexp@, TO Ilv- 
a ~ 3 A ~ ~ ~ /, a , / . - >} 4 
Ax, adAa 7G Oe@ 7H ravaddm adrovopov wdyy, 
tav Etvopov Pedtiova vouwv: pyyvuTar yops) To 
Aoxp@: éfimrarat 6 rér7E TH Cvy@: érepérilev vis 
an / ~ ~ 
emt KAddw TO Gpydvw: Kal TOO TéTTLyOS TH doparte 
appoodpevos 6 @dds THY AEimovcay averArjpwoe 
xXopdynv. ovKovy won TH Edvoyuov dyerar 6 rér7€, 
¢€ ¢ ~ / ~ > / A 
ws 0 polos BovreTar, yadxobv avaorncas Ivbo07 
tov Kvvomov abti 7H KOdpa Kal Tov cvvaywviariy 
~ ~ ¢ \ ¢ \ ? / \ a e / 
tod Aoxpod: o d€ Exwy édintata Kal ddeu Exwv, 
bd ~ 
“EXAnot dé €ddKer* broxpitns yeyovevar rovotkys. 
IT7 87 odv pvOors Kevots memotevKate, OéXyecbat 
~ \ ~ e€ / 3 / \ 
frovaiky Ta Ca drodapBavovtes; adAnfeias Sé 
duty TO mpoowmov TO dardpov jdvov, ws o.Kev, 
emimAaorov eivat doKet Kal Tots amorias bro7eé- 
mTwKev opbaduots. Kubarpwv dé dpa Kat ‘EAcKa@v 
Kat Ta “Odpvadyv dpy Kal Opaxadv, TeAcoriHpia ris 
mAavns, Ova TA wvaTHpia® TeHelacTat Kal KAOvpVYTAL. 
eyw peVv, El Kal “000s clor, SvoavacyeT@ Tocavrats 
EKTpaymooupevats auudopais: tutv S€ Kal TaV 
Kak@v at avaypadat | yeyovacu dpdata Kat Tav 
/ ¢€ ce \ / re > \ 
dpayatwy ot vroKxpitai Bupndias Oeduwata. adda 
1 doce? Wilamowitz. 

2 redXeoTHpia THs wrdvys, did Ta wvoTHpia Schwartz. 7ede- 

« Mt. Cithaeron was sacred to Zeus; Mt. Helicon to the 
Muses; and the Thracian mountains were the home of 
Dionysus-worship. For the meaning of these mountain- 
cults in Greek religion see A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. pp. 100-163. 


in praise of the snake, or a lamentation over it, CHAP. 
I cannot say; but there was a competition, and : 
Eunomus was playing the lyre in the heat of the 
day, at the time when the grasshoppers, warmed by 
the sun, were singing under the leaves along the 
hills. They were singing, you see, not to the dead 
serpent of Pytho, but to the all-wise God, a spontane- 
ous natural song, better than the measured strains of 
Eunomus. A string breaks in the Locrian’s hands ; 
the grasshopper settles upon the neck of the lyre 
and begins to twitter there as if upon a branch; 
whereupon the minstrel, by adapting his music to the 
grasshopper’s lay, supplied the place of the missing 
string. So it was not Eunomus that drew the grass- 
hopper by his song, as the legend would have it, 
when it set up the bronze figure at Pytho, showing 
Eunomus with his lyre, and his ally in the contest. 
No, the grasshopper flew of its own accord, and sang 

of its own accord, although the Greeks thought it to 
have been responsive to music. 

How in the world is it that you have given Why believe 
credence to worthless legends, imagining brute 3yqyoe"" 
beasts to be enchanted by music, while the bright disbelieve 

ne truth? 
face of truth seems alone to strike you as deceptive, 
and is regarded with unbelieving eyes? Cithaeron, Mountains 
and Helicon, and the mountains of Odrysians and 22rg¢ 
Thracians,* temples of initiation into error, are held 
sacred on account of the attendant mysteries, and 
are celebrated in hymns. For my own part, mere Dramas are 
legend though they are, I cannot bear the thought ae 
of all the calamities that are worked up into tragedy ; misfortune | 
yet in your hands the records of these evils have ness ~ 
become dramas, and the actors of the dramas are 
a sight that gladdens your heart. But as for the 



car. yap Ta jev Spdpara Kal TOUS Ajvailovras TOLNTGaS, 
Tédeov 10n TapowodvTas, KiTT@ TOV dvadjcarres, 
adpaivovras EKTOTIWS rederh Baxxuxh, avrots 
caTupos Kat OAidow pawory, ov Kat T@ GAAw 
Sayovwyv Xopa, < ev »1 ‘Educaive Kal Kibarparr KaTO- 
KAciowpev YEYNPAKOoW, KaTaywpev dé dvebev e€ 
obpavav aAjnfevav aja pavorary Ppovrjcer els Opos 
dytov Ge0b Kal Yopov TOV ayLov TOV mpodnTLKOV. 
7 O€ ws OTL pddvora. THAavyes amootihBouca pas 
karavyatera maven TOUS EV OKOTEL xvAwdoupLevous 
Kal THs mAdVYNS TOVs avOpatrous amadAaTTéTW, THY 
bmepTaTyv opéyovoa dekiav, THv avveow, €ls aw- 
/ e \ > / \ > / ¢ 
Tnpiav. ot d€ avavetoavTes Kai avaxvavtes ‘EA- 
Kava pev Kat Kifaip@va Katadeurovtwyr, otkovyvTwv 
\ / “ct. 2 \ \ > / 4 \ 
dé Luwy: “ &k yap Luv efehevoerau vopios, Kal 
Adyos Kuptou e€ ‘lepovoaAnp,,” Adyos ovpavios, 0 
yvnovos aywrioTns emt TO TavTos KOO[LOV Dear pw 
otepavovpevos. adder dé ye 6 Etvomos 6 euds od 
\ / / > 4S A / > \ \ 
TOV Tepmavopov vo[Lov oddé Tov Kaziwvos, ovd€ pay 
Dpvyvov 7) Avé.ov 7) Acipiov, adda Tis Kaus 
dppovias TOV aidvov vopLov, Tov pepwvupov TO Geod, 
TO dopa TO Kawov, TO AevitiKov, “ vyevOés 7 a- 
/ ~ > / ¢ / ) / \ 
xoAdv Te, Kak@v emiAnfes amavtTwv.” yAvKU TL Kal 
aAnfiwov dapwakov mreGobs * éyKéxpatat T@ dapat. 
1 <év> inserted by Mayor. 7? rév@ovs Reinkens and Stihlin. 

¢ Clement is not referring to the works of the great 
dramatists, but to the contests at the Lenaea, a festival 
held annually at Athens in honour of Dionysus. In 
Clement’s day the competitors would be for the most: part 
poets of a very minor order. > Isaiah ii. 3. 

© The modes (apuovla, see p. 12, n. a) were the scales in 
which Greek music was written. Phrygian, Lydian and 
Dorian were the chief modes, others being, it would seem, 
formed from them by modification or combination. The 



dramas and the Lenaean poets, who are altogether onap, 
like drunken men,? let us wreathe them, if you like, 

with ivy, while they are performing the mad revels Confine 
of the Bacchic rite, and shut them up, satyrs and irene tags 
frenzied rout and all,—yes, and the rest of the com- their sacred 
pany of daemons too,—in Helicon and Cithaeron tae 
now grown old; and let us bring down truth, with 
wisdom in all her brightness, from heaven above, to But bring 
the holy mountain of God and the holy company g37 is 
of the prophets. Let truth, sending forth her rays mountain, 
of light into the farthest distance, shine every- sive 
where upon those who are wallowing in darkness, and 

deliver men from their error, stretching out her 
supreme right hand, even understanding, to point 

them to salvation. And when they have raised their 

heads and looked up let them forsake Helicon and 
Cithaeron to dwell in Sion; “for out of Sion shall whence 
go forth the law, and the Word of the Lord from Word, he 
Jerusalem,” ® that is, the heavenly Word, the true true _ 
champion, who is being crowned upon the stage of ae 
the whole world. Aye, and this Eunomus of mine 

sings not the strain of Terpander or of Capio, nor yet 

in Phrygian or Lydian or Dorian mode’; but the Who sings 
new music, with its eternal strain that bears the ee en 
name of God. This is the new song, the song of 

Soother of grief and wrath, that bids all ills be forgotten.¢ 

There is a sweet and genuine medicine of persuasion ¢ 
blended with this song. 

Dorian mode was of a solemn character, answering to our 
minor scale ; the Phrygian and Lydian were brighter. 
4 Homer, Odyssey iv. 221. 
e A slight change in the Greek, suggested by Reinkens, 
would give the meaning ‘* remedy against grief.” 




*Epot pev odv Soxodaw 6 Opdxios exeivos "Opdevs ! 
\ ¢ A A e aA »” A ) 
Kat 6 @nBatos kai 6 Mnbupyvaios, avdpes twes odK 
avopes, amalrnAot yeyovévar, mpooynpati <te>? 
pLovoiKys Avpnvaprevor tov Biov, evtéxvw Twt yon- 
Tela SayLovavrTes els duadblopds, UBpes opyialores, 
nev exevalovres, TOUS avOpurrous emt Ta. elowAa 
Xetpaywyhoar mpadror, vat pv AlBors Kal Evrors, 
TouTEeoTW dydApace KaL oxraypapiars, dvouKoso- 
pfjoa THv oKaldTyTa Tob eOous, THY KaAjY OvTwWS 
exeivynv eAcvbepiay THv U7’ obpavoyv TEeTOATEVpLEeVWY 
Wodats Kal émmdais éaydtn SovAcia KatalevEartes. 
ci >AAN’ > - / 5 c HY) A ie ¢€ > \ . 2999 > \ 
od Towoade 0 Wd0s 6 Emos ovd’ Els paKpav 
Katadvowv adikrar tHv SovAciay THY muKpav THY 
TUPAVVOUVTWY Sayove, ws O€ Tov mpaov Kal 
piravbpurrov Tijs feooeBeias peTdyov mpas Cuyov 
avbes els ovpavous dvaxahetrae Tovs Els yhv eppy- 
fLévous. pLovos yobv T@v TwTOTE TA apyaAdewraTa 
Onpia, Tods avOpuzrous, éeriOdoevev, mTNVA [Lev TOUS 
Kovdous avT@v, épmeTa d5€ Tovs amaTe@vas, Kal 
A€ovras prev Tovs Dupikovs, avas d€ Tods SoVviKOUs, 
4 \ \ € / / \ \ / ¢ 
AvKous 5€ TOvS apmaKTiKoUs. Aor dé Kai EvAa oF 
a” A \ \ / > / A 
adpoves: mpos S€ Kat AiGwv dvaroOnro7T€pos avopw- 
TOS dyvoia BeBamtispévos. piaptus jyety mpopntexn) 
Tapita pon, ovvwoos dAn Betas, TOUS év ayvoia 
Kal avola KaTaTeTpyLpevovs oikteipovaa: “‘ duvaros 
yap 0 Beds ek ta&v AlOwy ToUTwY eyetpar TéKVA TO 
aA / ” a“ r / \ > A \ AX ‘ 
Bpadm.” 6s KateAenoas Thy ayabiav THY ToAA}Y 
1 [Opgdeds] Wilamowitz. 
2 <re> inserted by Wilamowitz. 

« For examples see pp. 35-43. 
6 St. Matthew iii. 9; St. Luke iii. 8 


In my opinion, therefore, our Thracian, Orpheus, cHap, 

and the Theban and the Methymnian too, are not 
worthy of the name of man, since they were deceivers. Orpheus, 
Under cover of music they have outraged human life, s7P20", 
being influenced by daemons, through some artful sated 
sorcery, to compass man’s ruin. By commemorating oi 
deeds of violence in their religious rites, and by 
bringing stories of sorrow into worship,“ they were 
the first to lead men by the hand to idolatry; yes, Ana 
and with stocks and stones, that is to say, statues at itolnere 
and pictures, to build up the stupidity of custom. 
By their chants and enchantments they have held 
captive in the lowest slavery that truly noble free- 
dom which belongs to those who are citizens under 

But far different is my minstrel, for He has come the 
to bring to a speedy end the bitter slavery of the heavenly 
daemons that lord it over us; and by leading us 
back to the mild and kindly yoke of piety He calls 
once again to heaven those who have been cast 
down to earth. He at least is the only one who He tames 
ever tamed the most intractable of all wild beasts— s4vage men 
man: for he tamed birds, that is, flighty men; 
reptiles, that is, crafty men; lions, that is, passion- 
ate men ; swine, that is, pleasure-loving men ; wolves, 
that is, rapacious men. Men without understand- 
ing are stocks and stones; indeed a man steeped in 
ignorance is even more senseless than stones. As 
our witness let the prophetic voice, which shares in 
the song of truth, come forward, speaking words of He changes 
pity for those who waste away their lives in ignorance 0") +-& 

men without 

and folly,—* for God is able of these stones to raise madeneend: 
up children unto Abraham.” 8 And God, in compas- erate 

sion for the great dulness and the hardness of those ™*? 



5 P. 


‘ \ , ~ > A > / 
Kal THY okAnpoKapdiay TOV eis THY GAnBerav AcAL- 
Owpevwv hyepev GeoaeBelas orépua aperis atabo- 
prevov ek AiOwv exeivwv, TOV AiBois TeTLGTEVKOTWY 
> ~ oy > > / A \ / 
etvav. avOis odv toBddAovs twas Kai madysBodovs 
bmokpitas edhodetovtas dikavoovyvyn “ yevryiywata 
> ~ ”» / / > \ \ / ” 
exlovav "’ KéxAnké mov: aAAa Kal TovTwy el Tis 
~ ¢e e ~ 
TOV odhewy peTavorjoat Exwv, ETTropLEvos 67) TH Adyw 
es Toy. ” / ce a?) ce A wy A Hy 
avOpwros”’ yiverat “ Beod. NUKovs ”’ dé aAAous 
adAnyopet mpoBatTwv Kq@otous Tpprecpevous, TOUS 
ev av Opestranv poppats dpmaKTuKods aivirTopevos. 
Kal mdvra apa Tabra, 7a, aypustara Onpia Kal Tovs 
TovovTous Aifovs 7 ovpavios won avr7) peTepOp- 
pwoev eis avOpasrrous npepous. ““ huev yap, Huev 
mToTe Kal els avontor, arrevlets, TAavesLevot, 
dovAevovres OSovats Kat emiupiats trotkiAas, é€v 
Kakia Kal dOdvw diudyovtes, oTvynrol, ee 
> , a te ¢ > a feeiGe eee 
aAArAous, i) pow 7 amooToAuKn ypad7):| 
de 7 Xpnororys Kal Y piravOpwrria emepavy Too 
owTihpos Hav Geod, ovK €€ € Epyeoy : Tov ev Suxavoovvy, 
a ETOUOG LEV nets, GAAA Kata TO avtod éXeos 
EOWOEV mpas. 
@ A \ av ” > fa / 
Opa To dopa TO Kawvov doov laxvoev avOpairrous 
ex AiOwy Kat avOpusrous eK Onptov TeTrolnKey. of 
de TyVddhws vEeKpol, ol THs OVvTWS ovons dpLeToXoL 
Cwijs, akpoatat povov yevouevor TOD aopatos av- 
“A \ ~ 
eBiwoav. TotTd ToL Kal TO mav eKdopnoev eu- 
EADS Kal THY oToLxeiwy THY Stadwriav eis TAa€w 
¢ / ~ 
everewe ovpdwvias, iva 81 odos 6 Kdapos abT@ 
Gpyovia yévntar: Kal OddatTrav pev aviKkev e- 
Avpernv, ys S€ emBaivew KexwddAvKey adbtiy, yh 
&” gumadw éotepéwoev depopevnv Kat opov adr7nv} 
1 airy Stahlin. avrg mss. 



whose hearts are petrified against the truth, did raise CHAP. 
up out of those stones, that is, the Gentiles elie trust 

in stones, a seed of piety sensitive to virtue. Again, 

in one place the words “offspring of vipers” @ are 
applied to certain venomous and deceitful hypocrites, 

who lie in wait against righteousness; yet if any 
even of these snakes chooses to repent, let him but 
follow the Word and he becomes a “ man of God.’ ® 
Others are figuratively called “ wolves” ¢ clothed in 
sheepskins, by which is meant rapacious creatures in 

the forms of men. And all these most savage beasts, 

and all such stones, the heavenly song of itself 
transformed into men of gentleness. “For we, 

yea we also were aforetime foolish, disobedient, de- 
ceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in 
malice and envy, hateful, hating one another,’ as the 
apostolic writing says; “but when the kindness of 
God our Saviour, and His love toward man, appeared, 

not by works done in righteousness, which we did 
segs but according to His mercy He saved 

ois how mighty is the new song! It has made The New 

men out of stones and men out of wild beasts. They $078 3!8° 

gave order 
who were otherwise dead, who had no share in the and 

real and true life, Paated when they but heard the pa git 
song. Furthermore, it is this which composed the "verse 
entire creation into meledious order, and tuned into 
concert the discord of the elements, that the whole 
universe might be in harmony with it. The ocean 
it left flowing, yet has prevented it from encroach- 
ing upon the land; whereas the land, which was 
being carried away, it made firm, and fixed as a 
¢ St. Matthew iii. 7; St. Luke iii. 7. ee Peers, Wie bh. 
¢ St. Matthew vii. 15. @ Titus iii, 3-5. 
B 11 


6 P. 


” / \ \ \ \ ¢ \ > LA. 
emnfev Oararrys* val pnv Kal TrUpos OpynVv eéudArAakev 
aépt, otovel Awpiov appoviav Kepdoas Avdiw: Kat 
THVv aépos anny yvypoTnTa TH TmapamAoKH Tob 
~ “ 
mupos eTiPdcevev, Tovs vedtous TOV CAwy Pboyyous 
~ \ \ \ Ss A > / 
TovTous Kipvas eupeA@s. Kal 67 TO dopa TO aK7- 
~ / ~ / 
parov, epeiopa TOV CAwy Kal appovia TOY TavTWwY, 
~ A ie ~ 
amo TOV pécwv eT Ta TépaTa Kal amo TOV aKpwv 
\ ~ 
emt Ta peoa diatabev, 7pudcato Tdd€ TO 7aV, Ov 
Kata THY OpdKiov ovary, Tv TapamAnoatov *lov- 
Bad, Kara de tH Tatpiov Tod Beod BovdAnow, Hv 
> / / ¢ \ > MS) \ \ > ~ ¢ 
eC(rAwae Aavid. 6 d¢ ex Aavid Kal apo adrod, 6 
~ ~ \ A 
tod Beob Adyos, Avpay pev Kal KiGdpav, Ta abvya 
dpyava, vrepidwv, Kdopov S€é Tévde Kal 51) Kal TOV 
GuiKpov Koopov, TOV avOpwror, puyjy Te Kal COua 
avTod, ayiw mvevpwaTe appoodpevos, Padrer TO OED 
dua Tod TmoAvdwvov dpydvov Kal mpocdder T@ Sp- 
yavw TO avOpwTw. “od yap ef KiOdpa Kal addr0ds 
\ \ > 49) / \ \ ¢ / > \ 
Kal vaos e“ot* KiOdpa dia THY appoviav, avAds 
dua TO mvetpua, vads did Tov Adyov, W H pev 
KpéKn, TO d€ eumrven, 6 dé YwpHoy Tov KUpLov. val 
\ ¢ A ¢ / ¢ / e ~ 
pynv o Aavid 6 Baorevs, 6 KiBapiarys, od puKpa 
mpoabev euvyolnuev, mpodtpenev ws THY GAjnbear, 
> / \ > / ~ yw ¢ val > \ 
ameétpemre O€ ElOWAwY, ToAAOD ye der tyvetv adrov 
Tous daiovas adnbet ampds adrod SwxKopevous 
LovatKky, 7) TOD LaovdA évepyoupevov } exeivos * ddwv 
/ \ > 
fovov avTov tdcaro. Kadov 6 KUplios épyavov éu- 
1 rod Laovd évepyouuevov Mayor. 7@ Laovdd évepyounevy M, 

TW Evavdos 6 évepyvtpuevos P, 
? éxelvos Stahlin, 

@ See p. 6, n. ¢. > See Genesis iv. 21. 

© The source of this quotation is unknown. It may bea 
fragment of an early Christian hymn, the metaphors being 


boundary to the sea. Aye, and it softened the rage 
of fire by air, as one might blend the Dorian mode 
with the Lydian ¢; ; and the biting coldness of air it 
tempered by the intermixture of fire, thus melodiously 
mingling these extreme notes of the universe. What 
is more, this pure song, the stay of the universe and 
the harmony of all things, stretching from the centre 
to the circumference and from the extremities to the 
centre, reduced this whole to harmony, not in accord- 
ance with Thracian music, which resembles that of 
Jubal,? but in accordance with the fatherly purpose 
of God, which David earnestly sought. He who 
sprang from David and yet was before him, the Word 
of God, scorned those lifeless instruments of lyre and 
harp. By the power of the Holy Spirit He arranged 
in harmonious order this great world, yes, and the 
little world of man too, body and soul together; and 
on this many-voiced instrument of the universe He 
makes music to God, and sings to the human instru- 

ment. “For thou art my harp and my pipe and my 
temple” ¢—my harp by reason of the music, my pipe 
by reason of the breath of the Spirit, my temple by 
reason of the Word—God’s purpose being that the 
music should resound, the Spirit inspire, and the 
temple receive its Lord. Moreover, King David the 
harpist, whom we mentioned just above, urged us 
toward the truth and away from idols. So far was he 
from singing the praises of daemons that they were 
put to flight by him with the true music; and when 
Saul was possessed, David healed him merely by play- 
ing the harp.4 The Lord fashioned man a beautiful, 

plseested by such passages as Psalm lvii. 8; 1 Corinthians 
vi. 19 

ad See 1 Samuel xvi. 23. 



The New 
Song is the 
Word of Gog 

Who makes 
music to 
God through 
the universe 
and through 


\ b / > \ 
CAP. Tvouv Tov avOpwirov e€eipydcato Kat eElkova THY 


C] ~ > / \ ? \ 4 A >? ~ ~ 
€avtod" apeAer Kal avtos dpyavov eat. Tod Oeod 
TavapLoviov, epredes Kal Gytov, copia UmepKdopLos, 
ovpavios Adyos. 
/ \ > Aly ¢ ~ ~ / ¢e /, 
Ti 81 otv 70 dpyavoy, 6 Tob Beot Aoyos, 6 KUptos, 
\ \ a \ \ / > \ 
Kal TO dopa To Kawov fPovrceTar; od0adpods 
avaretdoar TudA@v Kal Ta avotEar kwhdv Kal 
okdlovras Tw 700€ 7) TAaVwpevous eis SuKaLOGUYnY 
xXelpaywyhaa, Yeov avipwrois adpatvovow ém- 
deifar, tratoa. P0opdv, vKjoa. Odvarov, viovs 
> A“ / / / Any, 
atrevets duaAAdEat Tratpi. dPiAavOpwiov To opyavov 
Tob Oeod- 6 Kupios edcei, TavdeveL, TpOoTpeTrel, 
vovleret, ole, pudarrer KL peobov jy Tijs 
pabicews ek Teptovaias BactActav ovpavav ém- 
ayyeAAeTat, TOOTO povov aTroAatwv Ud, 6 owlo- 
peba. Kaxia pev yap THV avOperrenv em PooKeTal 
plopar, 7 O¢ dAjJeva a womep 1 pehirra., Avpawopery, 
TOV OVTWY ovder, emt povns Ths avOpuwv aydd- 
Acrau owTnplas. exets obv Thv emayyeAav, ExELs 
TV piravipwmiay: THs. Xdpuros petahdpBave. 
al JLOv TO dopa TO own prov [L7) KaLvov oUTwS 

trohaBns ws oKedos 7) ws outa: " 7™po Ewopo- 
pov {, yap wie Kat “ ev apxi] ay O Aoyos Kat 0 Adyos 
my T™pos TOV Geov Kal Geos nv 0 Adyos”’ * maAaed de 

7» mAavyn, Kawov dé 7 adAjfea daiverar. eit odv 
apyaiovs Tovs Dpvyas duddoKovow aiyes pvbiKa, 
elite av Tovs "ApKkadas of mpoceArvous avaypagortes 

@ Psalm cix. 3 (Septuagint). 

>’ St. John i. 1 

¢ See the stery in Herodotus ii. 2. Psammetichus, king 
of Egypt, being desirous uf discovering which was the most 
ancient people, put two children in charge of a herdsman. 



breathing instrument, after His own image; and cHapP, 
assuredly He Himself is an all-harmonious instrument! 
of God, melodious and holy, the wisdom that is above 

this world, the heavenly Word. 

What then is the purpose of this instrument, the The Word's 
Word of God, the Lord, and the New Song? To San oa 
open the eyes of the blind, to unstop the ears of the toward men 
deaf, and to lead the halt and erring into the way of 
righteousness ; to reveal God to foolish men, to make 
an end of corruption, to vanquish death, to reconcile 
disobedient sons to the Father. The instrument of 
God is loving to men. ‘The Lord pities, chastens, 
exhorts, admonishes, saves and guards us; and, over 
and above this, promises the kingdom of heaven as 
reward for our discipleship, while the only joy He 
has of us is that we are saved. For wickedness feeds 
upon the corruption of men; but truth, like the bee, 
does no harm to anything in the world, but takes 
delight only in the salvation of men. You have then 
God’s promise; you have His love to man: partake 
of His grace. 

And do not suppose that my song of salvation is The Word is 
new in the same sense as an implement or a house. Seatac 
For it was “before the morning star’’*; and, “in yet ces 
the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with painiiig 
God, and the Word was God.’ ® But error is old, 
and truth appears to be a new thing. Whether then 
the Phrygians are really proved to be ancient by the 
goats in the story®; or the Arcadians by the poets 

Goats were to be brought to them for giving milk, but no 
human speech was to be uttered in their presence. The first 
articulate sound they made was taken to be the Phrygian 
word for bread; hence the king assumed that Phrygians 
were the primitive race. 





TounTat, ElTE pry av Tovs Atyumtious ot Kal T™pw- 
Thv TavTHY avaphvar THV yy Pods TE Kal avOpa- 
TOUS GveipwsacovTes: GAN’ ov 7™po ye Tod KOoHOV 
TOvdE TOUTWY ovde els, _Tpo d€ THS TOD KOOHOU 
KataPoAjs mets, of TH Seiv Ececbar ev are 
TpOTEpoV VEVEVN EVOL TO Od, Tov Geot Aoyou TO 
Aoyucd Trdopare mpets, ov ov apyatlouer, é ore “* ev 
apx7 0 Adyos hv.’ add’ ore ev mv 0 Adyos avwlbev, 
apy? Jeia TOV mdvTwV 7) hv TE Kal €oTW: OTL € VOY 
ovopia eAaBev TO mdAae Kafwounpevor, OuvapLews 
aé.ov, o Xpworos, KQLVOV dopd jLol KeKAnrat. 
Airws * _yooy 0 Aoyos, | 6 Xpuoros, Kat Tob civa 
maAau nuas (WV yap ev Hed), Kat Tob ev elvau’ vov 
67) eredavy avlpudtrots avTos obTos O Aoyos, 6 
jLovos apdw, Feds TE Kal dvipwros, amdavTwv 7Ltv 
alrvos ayala@v: map’ ob To &d Civ ExdOacKopLevor 
els aldvov Cony Tapareumopebe. KATO yep Tov 
feamecvov exeivov Tou _Kupiov amootoAov “ 1) xapts 
7) TOO Deod oWTT}pLos maow avOpurrous emehavn, Ta 
devovoa meas, Wa apvnodevor TrHV do¢Bevav Kal 
TAS KOOpLLKAS emBupias owppovers Kal OtKaLws Kal 
evoeBas Cyowpev ev T@ viv al@ve, Tpoodex oper ou 
THY paKaplav eArrida KaLL emupaverav ths b6€ys Tob 
peydAou Geod Kat ow@THpos Tay "Inoot Xpiotob. 
TOOTS €OTL TO dopa. TO KaWwov, y) emripavera y) vov 
exAdpipaca ev yutv Tod ev apxn ovTos Kal TpoovTos 
Aoyov: erepavy d€ evayxos o Tpowy oaaes em 
epavn 6 ev TH Ovte wv, Otte “6 Adyos? Tv -mpos 

1 airvos Stahlin. ob7os mss. ® Aoyos 6s MSS. 

¢ St. Jobn i. 1. > Titus ii. 11-13. 
¢ Literally, ‘‘ He who exists in Him who exists.” 



who describe them as older than the moon ; or, again, CHAP, 
the Egyptians by those who dream that this land 
first brought to light both gods and men; still, not 
one of these nations existed before this world. But 

we were before the foundation of the world, we who, 
because we were destined to be in Him, were begotten 
beforehand by God. We are the rational images 
formed by God’s Word, or Reason, and we date from 
the beginning on account of our connexion with 
Him, because “the Word was in the beginning.” @ 
Well, because the Word was from the first, He was 
and is the divine beginning of all things ; but because 
He lately took a name,—the name consecrated of old 
and worthy of power, the Christ,—I have called Him 

a New Song. 

The Word, then, that is the Christ, is the cause The Word 
both of our being long ago (for He was in God) and so 
of our well-being. This Word, who alone is both on earth 
God and man, the cause of all our good, appeared 
but lately in His own person to men; from whom 
learning how to live rightly on earth, we are brought 
on our way to eternal life. For, in the words of 
that inspired apostle of the Lord, “the grace of 
God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men, 
instructing us, to the intent that, denying ungodli- 
ness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly and 
righteously and godly in this present world, looking 
for the blessed hope and appearing of the glory 
of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ.” ® 
This is the New Song, namely, the manifestation 
which has but now shined forth among us, of Him 
who was in the beginning, the pre-existent Word. 

Not long ago the pre-existent Saviour appeared on 
earth; He who exists in God ° (because “ the Word 



cap. Tov Gedv,”’ drdacKados, émepavy @ Ta mavra 


Sednurovpynrar Adyos, Kal To Civ ev apy peta 
Tob mAdoat TApaLoXav ws OnpLoupyos, 70 eb Civ 
edidaéev emupaveis ws SiddoKados, va TO ael Civ 
VoTepov ws Feds xopynyijc7. 

‘O 6€ od viv ye mpaTov q@KTELpEV nas THs 
mAdvns, adv’ dvwlev apxnlev, vov oe 70 azron- 
Avpeévous emupavels TEPLTETMKED. TO yap Trovnpov 
Kal épmnotiKov Onpiov yontedov KatadovAobrat Kat 
aixilerat eiaétt viv Todvs avOpumovus, euoli Soxetv, 
BapBapikds TYyswpovpevov, ot veKpois Tovs atyua- 
Adtovs ovvdetv Agyovrat capacw, €oT av adrois 
Kal cvocaT@ow. 6 yoov mOvn|pos ovToat TUpavvos 
Kal OpdKwv, ovs av olos Te Ht eK yeveTis opere- 
picacbar, rAiBois Kat EvAois Kal aydAwacw Kai 
TolovTois Tiolv EelowdAocts mpocodiyfas TH Seror- 
dayovias aOXAiw Seopa, TobTo 47 TO Aeyomevor, 
Cadvras émudépwv ovvebaev adbrovs, €or av Kal 
cupdbapGow. ob 57) yxapw (eis yap 6 anmarewy 
avwlev pev tiv Evav, viv d€ 7dn Kal Tods adAous 
avOpumrous eis Oavatov trodépwr) efs kat adros <6 >? 
emikoupos Kat Bonfos juiv 6 KUpLos, Tpopnviwyr 
apxnlev mpodytikds, viv de dy Kat evapyas eis 
cwTnplav TapaKarAav. 

Ovywuev obv amootoAuKh meBopuevor Tapayyedia 
Tov apxovtTa THs e€ovolas Tod aépos, Tob mveEv- 
patos Tob viv évepyotvtos €v Tots viots THS arreL- 
Oeias,”’ Kal T@ owrThps TH Kupiw Tpocdpapwper, 
6s Kal vv Kal Gel mpovTpeTev els owTypiav, dia 


1 4 Mayor. in Mss. 2 <o> inserted by Mayor. 

« St. John i. 1. » Ephesians ii. 2. 


was with God”) appeared as our teacher; the cuap. 
Word appeared by whom all things have been created. ! 
He who gave us life in the beginning when as 
creator He formed us, taught us how to live 
rightly by appearing as our teacher, in order that 
hereafter as God He might supply us with life 

This was not the first time that He pitied us for He has 
our error. He did that from heaven from the eee ee 
beginning. But now by His appearing He has through | 

° Le the serpent’s 
rescued us, when we were on the point of perishing. wiles, we 
For the wicked, crawling wild beast makes slaves of Were about 

zg peris 

men by his magical arts, and torments them even 
until now, exacting vengeance, as it seems to me, 
after the manner of barbarians, who are said to bind 
their captives to corpses until both rot together. 
Certain it is that wherever this wicked tyrant and 
serpent succeeds in making men his own from their 
birth, he rivets them to stocks, stones, statues and 
suchlike idols, by the miserable chain of daemon- 
worship; then he takes and buries them alive, as 
the saying goes, until they also, men and _ idols 
together, suffer corruption. On this account (for 
it is one and the same deceiver who in the 
beginning carried off Eve to death, and now does 
the like to the rest of mankind) our rescuer and 
helper is one also, namely, the Lord, who from the 
beginning revealed Himself through prophecy, but 
now invites us plainly to salvation. 

Let us then, in obedience to the apostolic precept, 
flee from “the prince of the power of the air, the 
spirit that now worketh in the sons of disobedience.” ? 

And let us take refuge with the Saviour, the Lord, 
who even now exhorts men to salvation, as He ever 

BQ 19 


OAP. Tepdtwv Kal onwetwr ev AiydrrTw,ev eprpiw < de>" dia 
ap. Te THS Barov Kal THs aKodovbovons xdpite dulAav- 
/ / / ¢ / / / 
Opwrias Oeparraivns dixny ‘EBpatos vedéAns. tov- 
Twv pev 67 TH dOBw Tovs oKAnpoKapdiovs 7pov- 
” \ A \ / ~ / 
Tpemev’ on d€ Kal dia Mwoéws tod rravaddov 
\ ~ / ¢ oh \ A ~ 
Kal TOO pidadn fous Hoaia Kal mavTos Tob 7mpo- 
pytiKoo xopod AoyucedTepov emi TOV Aoyov em 
oTpépe Tovs dra = KEKTTMEVOUS* Kal €o0” omy pev 
AowWopetrat, €oTw 8 ov Kal ameret: Tovs dé Kal 
Opyvet tOv avOpmimwv: ddev dé adrXous, Kablazep 
iatpos ayalos tTa&v vooovvTwy cwydTwY Ta EV 
\ \ \ / ~ > / \ 4 ” 
Ta dé Kal ovdypw diaipOv, emikaiwy dé adda, Ears 
8’ od Kal amompiwyv, el mws olov Te KaY Tapa [Epos 
7) péAos tov avOpwrov byiavat. moAvdwvos ye oO 
ow77p Kat modvtpomos els avOpwimwv owrTypiay: 
amrechk@v vovbere?, Aovdopovpevos emrraTtpeder, Ponvav 
reel, piMuv TapaKanel, dua Barov Aadet (onpetwv 
exetvou Kal TepaTwv expn cov) Kal T@ Tupl deditreTaL 
TOUS avOpaous, avdarov EK kiovos hv pddgya, 
detypa 6 opob xdpiros Kat ddoBov: éav UraKkovons, TO 
as, €av _TapaKovons, TO Top. emrevd7) € Kal 
Klovos Kat Bdarov 7 oapé TYLLWT EPA, mpophrar 
pet exetva pleyyovrat, adros ev ‘Hoate 6 KUpLoS 
AaAdv, adros ev ‘HAia, ev ardpate “mpobnt av 
>? / \ \ > > > / \ / 
autos: od de ar’ ei mpodrrats py) TLoTEvELS, 
~ > ¢€ / \ \ + . \ \ 
pobov & dtrodAauBdvers Kai todvs avdpas Kal TO 
1 <dé> inserted by Stahlin. 

2 ros ®ta Mayor. rods ra &ra MSS. 

@ Or, ‘**to reason.” The Greek Logos means either 
‘*Word” (personal), or ‘‘rational word,” ‘*reason” (im- 
personal). All through his writings Clement plays upon 



did, by wonders and signs in Egypt, and in the CHAP. 
desert by the burning bush and the cloud thaws of oa ins 
through favour of His love, followed the Hebrews Lord ex- 
like a handmaid. By the fear that these wonders Pa 
inspired He exhorted the hard-hearted; but after- by signs 
wards, through all-wise Moses and truth- loving Isaiah Then 

and the whole company of the prophets, He converts fiouirar 
to the Word “ by more rational means those who have prophets 
ears to hear. In some places He rebukes; in others 

He even threatens; some men He laments; for others 

He sings: just as a good doctor, in dealing with 
diseased bodies, uses poulticing for some, rubbing for 

others, and bathing for others ; some he cuts with a 

knife, others he cauterizes, and in some cases he 

even amputates, if by any means he can restore the 

patient to health by removing some part or limb. 

So the Saviour uses many tones and many devices 

in working for the salvation of men. His threats 

are for warning; His rebukes for converting; His 
lamentation to show pity; His song to encourage. 

He speaks through a burning bush (for the men of 

old had need of signs and portents), and He strikes 

terror into men by fire, kindling the flame out of a 

cloudy pillar, as a token at the same time of grace 

and fear,—to the obedient light, to the disobedient 

fire. But since flesh is of more honour than a pillar 

or a bush, after those signs prophets utter their voice, 

the Lord Himself speaking in Isaiah, the Lord Him- 

self in Elijah, the Lord Himself in the mouth of the Finally the 
prophets. As for you, however, if you do not trust eee 
the prophets, and if you suppose both the fire and having 
the men who saw it to be a legend, the Lord Himself 

this double meaning of Logos. Other instances occur on 
pp. 27, 275, 277. 




Top, avros cot Aadjoer 6 KUplos, yf és ev Hoppa 
Beod b drrdpxewv ovr dpmay Lov Hynoaro TO €lvat toa 
bed: éxévwoev 5€ éavtov’’ 6 diroiKTipuwy Oeds, 
coat tov avOpwrov yAyouevos: Kat adbros 77 
col evapy@s 6 Adyos Aade?, Svawmav THv amoriav, 
val dnt, 6 Adyos 6 TOO Deod avOpwros yevopevos, 
iva 07) Kal od Tapa avOpwmov pdbns, 7H ToTE apa 
avOpwros yévntat Beds. 

Ei’ ov« dromov, ® dido, Tov pev Oedv det 
mpoTperew mas em aperny, mpas de dvadveobat 
THY wperevav Kal dvaBareobar THY owTnpiav ; 7 
yap ovdxt kal “lwavyns emt owrnpiav TapaKaret KaL 
TO 7av yiverau pwv7 MporpenreKy) ; mudwpeba 
Tolvuv avroo: “ris mo0ev cis avd pav ; ”  “AXias 
prev ovdK pet, Xpuoros dé elvar apyvijcetaw dwv7 
de opohoyncer év épjuw Bodoa. Tis obv €oTw 
‘Lwavyns ; ws TUTw AaBeiv, jefeorw eimretv, pwvr) 
Tob Adyou mpoTpeTTiK?) Ev epryuw Bowoa. i Bods, 
® dwvn; “ eimé kal nuiv.”’ “ edfeias mrovetre Tas 
ddovs Kuplov. mpoopojos “"Iwavyns Kat 7 dwvr) 
Tpodpoj.os Tob Aoyov, dwv7 TrapaKAnrucy, 7™po- 
eTouuialovoa els cwrnpiay, port) mpoTpémovea els 
KAnpovomiay ovpavav: Sd” jv 7 oTetpa Kal epynuos 
| ayovos ovKeTt. 

Tavrnv pot tTHv Kvodopiav mpocléamicev ayyéAou 
dwvn* mpddpopos wy Kaen, Too Kupiou, oretpav 
evayyeArCopery yuvaiKa, Ws ‘lwavvns THY epyiiov. 
Sua TavTnv Towvv Tob Adyou THY dwvyv 7) aTEipa 

@ Philippians ii. 6-7. > Homer, Odyssey i. 170, ete. 

¢ See St. John i. 20-23. 4 Odyssey i. 10. 

¢ Isaiah xl. 3, caer in St. Matthew iii. 3; St. Mark 

i. 3; St. Luke iii. 4; St. John i. 23. 
J eo Elisabeth < ‘St. Luke i. 7-13. 



shall speak to you, He “who being in the form of CHAP. 
God did not count His equality with God as an : 
opportunity for gain, but emptied Himself,’ % the 
God of compassion who is eager to save man. And 
the Word Himself now speaks to you plainly, 
putting to shame your unbelief, yes, I say, the Word 
of God speaks, having become man, in order that 
such as you may learn from man how it is even 
possible for man to become a god. 

Then is it not monstrous, my friends, that, while 
God is ever exhorting us to virtue, we on our part 
shrink from accepting the benefit and put off our 
salvation? Do you not know that John also invites us Jonn also 
to salvation and becomes wholly a voice of exhorta- ¢xports to 
tion? Let us then inquire of him. “Who an 
whence art thou?” ® He will say he is not Elijah ; 
he will deny that he is Christ; but he will confess, 
“a voice crying in the desert.”’* Who then is John? 
Allow us to say, in a figure, that he is a voice of the 
Word, raising his cry of exhortation in the desert. 
What dost thou ery, O voice? “Tell us also.” 4 
“ Make straight the ways of the Lord.”@ John is 
a forerunner, and the voice is a forerunner of the 
Word. It is a voice of encouragement that makes 
ready for the coming salvation, a voice that ex- 
horts to a beavenly inheritance; and by reason of 
this voice, the barren and desolate is fruitless no 

It was this fruitfulness, I think, which the angel’s John’s voice 
voice foretold. That voice was also a forerunner of 2nd he 

the Lord, inasmuch as it brought good tidings to a are two 
barren woman,f as John did to the desert. This (7yyrewers 
voice of the Word is therefore the cause of the 

barren woman being blest with child and of the 




car. edreKvel Kal 7) Epyuos Kapmogopet. at mpodpopot 

700 Kupiov dwvat dvo, ayyédov Kat “lwavvov, 
aivicoovral jo TIjv evaTroKeysevyy awTnpiav, ws 
emupavévtos Tob Adyou Tobde edrEKVias Huds KapTrOV 
dmevéycacba, Cwiy aidiov. audw yotv és tadtov 
dyayotca Ta pwva 1) ypadr) cadnviler TO Ta: 
‘“GeovadTw % ob TiKTovoa pyédtw Pwviy 7 ovK 
Odivovea, 6Tt TAclova TA TEKVA THS epyy.ov waAdov 
i) ths éxovons Tov dvdpa.” mtv ednyyedilero 
dyyedos, yds mpottpeev “Lwavvns voijoar tov 
yewpyov, Cyrioae TOV avbpa. ets yap Kal O avros 
obTOS, 6 THs OTElpas avyp, O THs Epyj.ov yewpyos, 
6 Ths Oelas eumrAjoas Suvdwews Kal THY OTEipay Kat 
Tih €pnov. eel yap moAAa 7a TéEKVa THs evyevods, 
dais 8€ hv Sia ameiBevay 1% modvTas aveKalev 
‘EBpaia yuri}, 7 oteipa tov avdpa AapBaver Kai 7 
Zpnuos Tov yewpydv: eita 7 pev Kap@v, y de 
motav, dudw Sé pntépes dia Tov Adyov: amiaTots 
Sé eloére viv Kal oreipa Kal pros mreptAcizreTau. 
‘O pev *Iwavvys, 6 Kijpv§ Tob Aoyou, TavTn 7 
mapekdAer ETOLLoUS yiveo0ar eis Bob, Too Xpiarod, 
mapovoiay, Kal TobTo Hv 6 jvicceto 7 ZLaxapiov 
own}, dvapéevovoa Tov mpddpomov Tod Xptiorobv 
KapToV, wa THs dAnGeias To das, 6 Adyos, TV 
mpodyTikav aiviyydtwv THY pvoTiKiY aToAvonTaL 
cowry, edayyédiov yevdouevoss od de et mobeis 

@ Isaiah liv. 1. When Clement says that Scripture brings 
together the two voices, he is interpreting the first clause of 
this quotation as referring to the desert, and the second as 
referring to the woman. 

» j.¢., the Gentiles ; cp. Stromateis ii. 29. 1. 

¢ See St. Luke i. 20, 64. 



desert bearing fruit. The two forerunning voices of cHap. 
the Lord, that of the angel and that of John, seem .,2 
to me to speak darkly of the salvation laid up in meaning 
store for us, namely that, after the manifestation of ofthe 
this Word, we should reap the fruit of productiveness, 
which is eternal life. Certainly the Scripture makes 

the whole matter plain by bringing together the two 
voices. For it says, “ Let her hear that brings not 
forth ; let her that is not in travail utter her voice ; 

for more are the children of the desolate than of her 

that hath an husband.” * We are they to whom the 
angel brought the good tidings; we are they whom 

John exhorted to recognize the husbandman and to 

seek the husband. For He is one and the same, the 
husband of the barren woman and the husbandman 

of the desert, He who has filled both the barren 
woman and the desert with divine power. For since 

the woman of noble birth had many children, but 

was afterwards childless through unbelief,—that is, 

the Hebrew woman who had many children to begin 
with,—the barren woman ? receives her husband and 

the desert its husbandman. So then by reason of 

the Word both become mothers, the desert of fruits 

and the woman of believing children; yet even now 

the words “barren” and “desert” remain for un- 

In some such way as this John, the herald of the John 
Word, summoned men to prepare for the presence gene 
of God, that is, of the Christ. And this was the for God’s 
hidden meaning of the dumbness of Zacharias, which orang 
lasted until the coming of the fruit which was fore- 
runner of the Christ,-—that the light of truth, the 
Word, should break the mystic silence of the dark 
prophetic sayings, by becoming good tidings. But 



cAP. dev ws aAnfds Tov Bedv, Kabapoiwy peradduBave 



Oeomperav, od dadvns tretdAwy Kal Tawidy Twwv 
epiw Kat topdipa TeTouctAweveny, Sucaroavyny dé 
avadnodpevos Kal THs éyKpatelas Ta, méraAa TE pt- 
Oguevos troAuTpaypover Xpiatov: “ éyw yap ety 7 
Oupa,’ dyai mov: nv éexpabetv Set vofjoa GeAjoacr 
tov Qeov, dws uiv abpoas Ta&v otpavav ava- 
4 A / \ \ ¢€ ~ / / 
meTaon Tas TUAas: AoyiKal yap at Tob Adyou mvAaL, 
miatews | avovyvtjevar Kredi: “ Pedy oddeis eyvw, 
> A ¢ e\ it e vn“ ¢ e\ > / +”? / 
El [47] 0 VioOS KaL @ av O vids amoKaddyn.”’ Ovpav 
dé ed 010° OTL THY ATOKEKAELOpMEeVHY Tews 6 avoLyVdS 
VoTEepov amoKkad’mrer Tavoov Kal Seikvucw a pNde 
yvOva olov te hv mpdtepov, ei pr Sia Xprorod 
> / 
TeTIopevjprevols, Ot OV povov Beds emomTEVETAL. 


"Advta towvv abea pr moAvmpaypovetre pundé 
Bapdbpwy otdpuatra tepateias eumAca 7 AEBy- 
ta Weompwriov 7 Tpizoda Kippaiov 7 Awéw- 
vatov xaAketov" yepdvdpvov de Paprpors Epijaus 
TETULNLEVOV Kal TO avTobe poavretov avTH dput 
j4ewapacpevov pvous YEyNpaKoor kataeipare. 
gealynrat yoov iY Kaoradias myn Kal Kohogévos 
adAn any}, Kat Ta GAAa Opoiws TéOvnKE vapaTta 

@ St. John x. 9. > See p. 20, n. a. 

¢ St. Matthew xi. 27. 

4 ¢.g., the cave of Trophonius at Lebadeia in Boeotia. 

¢ Clement refers to the Libyan oracle of Zeus Ammon. 
There was a close connexion between this and the oracle of 
Zeus at Dodona. For the existence of a sacred oak in 



as for you, if you long to see God truly, take part cHap, 
in purifications meet for Him, not of laurel leaves 

and fillets embellished with wool and purple, but Purif- 
crown yourself with righteousness, let your wreath Staats 
be woven from the leaves of self-control, and seek for the 
diligently after Christ. ‘“ For I am the door,’ He of God 
says somewhere; which we who wish to perceive 

God must search out, in order that He may throw 

open wide for us the gates of heaven. For the gates 

of the Word are gates of reason,? opened by the key 

of faith. “No man knoweth God, save the Son, and 

him to whom the Son revealeth Him.”* And I 
know well that He who opens this door, hitherto 
shut, afterwards unveils what is within, and shows 
what could not have been discerned before, except 

we had entered through Christ, through whom alone 

comes the vision of God. 


Do not therefore seek diligently after godless Sanctuaries, 
sanctuaries, nor after mouths of caverns full of 0)%,_... 
Jugglery,? nor the Thesprotian caldron, nor the Cir- and springs 
rhaean tripod, nor the Dodonian copper. As for the Brace 
old stump honoured by the desert sands,’ and the 
oracular shrine there gone to decay with the oak 
itself, abandon them both to the region of legends 
now grown old. The Castalian spring, at least, is 
all silent. So is the spring of Colophon; and the 

rest of the prophetic streams are likewise dead. 
Libya see A. B. Cook, Zeus, vol. i. pp. 364-366. Strabo 

(54 B.c.-a.D. 24) says that in his day the oracle was ‘*‘ almost 
entirely deserted ” (Strabo 813), 


uf) By 5 


pavruca Kat 01) TOO TUPov Keva ope pev, Guws 
6° obv dueAjAeynrau Tois idious ouvepevoarra 
pvbots. Sdinynoat np Kal Ths addXns pavruchs, 
pardov de paviKijs, Ta, axpnora XpnoTnpLa, TOV 
KAdpuov, Tov Hivtior, tov Ardupeéa, Tov “Apdudpew, 
Tov T “AoA, * TOV “Ap diroxor, el be Rovner, Kal 
TepaTooKoTrous Kal olwvooKomrous Kal Tovs ovelpoov 
KpiTas aVvLepov avy avTots: OT}Gov de opob Tapa. 
Tov I1v6cov Tovs dAevpopavrets aywv | Kal Kpifo- 
pedvrers KaL TOUS ELETL Tapa Tots moots TEeTUYLN- 
pévous eyyaotpyvlovs: vat pany addvta Alyumtiwv 
Kat Tuppyvav vexvopavtetar oxoTw Trapadiddabwr. 
pavuka TatTa ws adnfas avOpdimwv amiotwv 
codiaTypia Kal mAavys axpatov KuBevTypia* cuv- 
€umopo. THade THS yonTtelas alyes at éml pav- 
TUKHY HoKnEevar Kal Kopakes avOpwros xpav b70 
avOpaTrwv dSidacKopevor. 

toe i€t cou KaTaA€youl Ta pLVOTHpLA; OvK 
eSopx7j roman per, womep — AdneBeddqy déyovow, 
amoyupvesco be ev para ava Tov Tijs dAn betas Aoyov 
THV yonTelav THY eyKeKpuppEernv adtots Kal adtovs 
ye Tovs KaXovpevovs tua@v Beovs, dv at tederat 
<ai>? puvotiKal, olov emt oxnvis tod Biov tots 

roy f’AmddXw is probably corrupt. dv Tpoddviov (Cobet) 
aa Tov Méypov (Wilamowitz) have been suggested. Mark- 
land puts rév ’A7é\\w before tiv Kidpiov, a re-arrangement 
which has been followed in the translation. 
2 <ai> inserted by Mayor. 

« An attempt has been made here to reproduce the 
striking word-play which is a constant feature of Clement’s 
writing. For other examples see pp. 37, 191 (n. 6), 199 (n. a), 
255 (n. d), 299 (n, a). 



Stripped of their absurd pretensions, though none 
too soon, they are at last thoroughly exposed ; the 
waters have run dry together with the legends 
attached to them. Relate to me the utterly vain 
utterances * of that other form of divination,—I should 
rather say hallucination,7—the oracles of Apollo, 
Clarian, Pythian and Didymean, and those of Amphi- 
araus and Amphilochus; and, if you will, devote to 
destruction along with them the soothsayers, augurs 
and interpreters of dreams. At the same time, take 
and place by the side of Pythian Apollo those who 
divine by flour, and by barley,? and the ventriloquists¢ 
still held in honour among the multitude. Yes, and 
let the sanctuaries of Egypt and the Tuscan oracles 
of the dead be delivered over to darkness. Homes 
of hallucination in very truth they are, these schools 
of sophistry for unbelieving men, these gambling- 
dens of sheer delusion. Partners in this business of 
trickery are goats, trained for divination ; and ravens, 
taught by men to give oracular responses to men. 
But what if I were to recount the mysteries for 
you? I will not burlesque them, as Alcibiades is 
said to have done, but will thoroughly lay bare, in 
accordance with the principle of truth, the trickery 
they conceal; and as for your so-called gods them- 
selves, to whom the mystic rites belong, I will display 
them on the stage of life, as it were, for the spectators 

> Flour and barley were used in the sacrifices, and 
omens were obtained by watching the movements of the 
¢ The Greek word is used in the Septuagint to denote 
those who have ‘‘ familiar spirits,” such as the witch of Endor 
(1 Samuel xxviii. 7). Their ventriloquism was employed to 
simulate the voices of the spirits ; see Isaiah viii. 19 (‘* that 
chirp and that mutter”). Also Leviticus xix. 31, etc. 

on AP. 

The gods 
of the 


12 P. 


ths aAnbeias éexxukAjow Gearais. Avovucov poae- 
© vddny opyralovor Bakyou wpopayia TH tepopaviav 
dyovres Kal teAiokovct Tas Kpeovopias THY povwy 
aveotempevor tots odeow, emodoAvlovtes Evdav, 
Evav éexeivyny, dv nv 4 mAdvn TapnKodovbycev Kat 
onjetov opyiwy Baxxik@v ddis eoti TeTeAcop€vos. 
auTika yoov Kata THv axpibh Tav “EBpaiwy dwvnv 
TO ovona TO “Kua Sacvvepevov Eppnvevetar odus 
7» | OnjAeva: Anew d€ Kal Kopy Spapa 707 eyeveoOny 
pvoTUKOV, Kal THY mAdvnY Kal THY apTayny Kal TO 
mév0os adtaiv ’EXevois dadovyet. 

Kat pou boxe? ta Opyia Kat Ta pvoTypia Seiv 
erupodoyeiv, Ta pev amo Ths opyns THs Anots tijs 
mpos Aia yeyernpevns, Ta, d€ amd Tod puvoous 
Tod ovppe nNKOTOS mepl TOV Avévucov el 6€ Kal 
amo Mvuotvtés twos ’Artixod, dv ca KUVN yea | d1a- 
pbaphvar “AzroMo8uxpos déyer, od pbovos: dpa 
dedofaorau TQ pLvoTT pia emuTupeBiep TYLA. TWApEoTe 
dé Kal ddAws pvOrpid cou voetv dvTLoTotyoUvT wy 
TOV ypayudatwyv Ta pvoTipia: Onpevovor yap «i 
Kat aAdou ties, atap 67 Kal of pdbor ot ToLoide 
@Qpaxdv rods PapPapixwratovs, Dpvydv Tovs 
avoytoTatous, ‘EAArjvwv tods devordaipovas. ddovTo 
otv 0 THade apéas Ths andrns avOpwrrols, EtTEe 6 
Adpdavos, 6 Mntpos bedv karadeiEas Ta pwvoTHpia, 
elite "Heriwyv, 6 Ta Lapobpdkwv dpyia Kat TeAeTas 

a ««Kva” (eda, evdv) is one form of the cry ‘‘evoe” or 
**evae” (evo?, eval) uttered by worshippers in the orgiastic 
rites of Dionysus. 

’ Clement catches at a slight verbal resemblance as 
affording some support for his idea that there is a connexion 
between Eve and the Bacchic serpent. Elsewhere (Stroma- 



of truth. The raving Dionysus is worshipped by cuap. 
Bacchants with orgies, in which they celebrate their 
sacred frenzy by a feast of raw flesh. Wreathed with Dionysus 
snakes, they perform the distribution of portions of 

their victims, shouting the name of Eva,* that Eva 
through whom error entered into the world; and 

a consecrated snake is the emblem of the Bacchic 
orgies. At any rate, according to the correct 
Hebrew speech, the word “hevia’”’ with an aspirate 
means the female snake.? Demeter and Persephone 

have come to be the subject of a mystic drama, and Demeter 
Eleusis celebrates with torches the rape of the fohece 
daughter and the sorrowful wandering of the mother. 

Now it seems to me that the terms “orgy” and Derivation 
“‘mystery’’ must be derived, the former from the aye ee 
wrath (orgé) of Demeter against Zeus,° and the “mystery” 
latter from the pollution (mysos) that took place in 
connexion with Dionysus.¢ But even if they are 
named after a certain Myus of Attica, who according 
to Apollodorus was killed in hunting, I make no 
objection. Your mysteries have received the glory 
of funeral honours! You may also, in another way, 
suppose them to be hunting-stories (mytheria), since 
the letters correspond; for as surely as there are 
men who hunt wild beasts, so do legends like these 
hunt the rudest among Thracians, the silliest among 
Phrygians, and the daemon-fearers among Greeks. A 
curse then upon the man who started this deception The alleged 
for mankind, whether it be Dardanus, who introduced eee 
the mysteries of the Mother of the Gods; or Eétion, 
who founded the Samothracian orgies and rites; or 

teis iii. 80. 2) he gives the Hebrew derivation, Eve= Life (see 
Genesis iii. 20), 
¢ See p. 35. @ See p. 73. 


13 P. 



dToaTHAdLEVOS, elte 6 Dpvé eéxetvos 6 Midas, 6 
Tapa Too ‘O8pvcou pabeav, erera diabovs Tots 
UTroTeTayfLevous evTEXVOV amar. ov yap jee 6 
Kuzpuos é vnowwT ys Kuvvpas Topametoae oT’ av, 
Ta Trept tiv “Adpoditny waxA@vra opyia €K vuKTOS 
HpLepa Tapadobvat ToAroas, PiroTipovpevos Hevacat 
/ i / \ \ > / 

mopyynv moXitida. MeAdutroda d€ tov “Apvidaovos 
dAdo. daciv e& Aly’mrov petakopica: TH ‘EAAdS« 
tas Anots é€optas, mévGos dtyvovpevov. tovtous 
éywy av dpxyexakxouvs drjcayu pv0wv abéwy Kai 
devovdayovias dAcOpiov Tmarépas, o7répjLa. Kalas 
Kal plopas eyKarapuTevoavras TO Bie TO pvoTapia. 

dn d¢, Kal yap Katpos, ara tua@v Ta opyva 
eLehéyEw amdtns Kal Tepateias epumec. Kal €L 
peponate, emyehaceate pahov trois uvbors tuadv 
ToUrous Tois TYLOPEVOLS. ayopevow de davagpavdov 
TA KEKPULLEVA, OVK aldovjevos A€yev & TpocKuVEtV 
ovK alayvveole. a piev odv “ adpoyevis’’ TE Kal 
: KUTPOyerT}s, ” 7 Kwpa pidyn (TV “Adpodirny 
Aéyw, THY “ dir opndea, OTL pn d€eov efehadvOn, ” 
pndéwy exelvwv Tov droKeKoppeveny Odpavob, T&v 
Adyvwv, TOV LEeTaA THY TOMY TO KOLA BeBiacpevenr), 
ws acedyav bpy pLoptwv aos [Adgpodiry | 2 yiverau 
Kapos, eV Tais teAeTats TavTns THS TE aylas 
nOovns TEKH pLov Tis yorijs ardv xovBpos Kal 
gdarros Tots pvovpévors THY TEXVNV THY pouxurry 
emdiSoT au” vOpLLopa dé eladépovow abr ot pvov- 

1 [’Adpodirn] Schwartz. 

~ 4 This phrase is quoted from Hesiod, Theogony 200. 
See also Liddell and Scott under (1) giAowundyns and (2) 


that Phrygian Midas, who learnt the artful deceit cHap., 
from Odrysus and then passed it on to his subjects. ™ 
For I could never be beguiled by the claims of the 
islander Cinyras, of Cyprus, who had the audacity to 
transfer the lascivious orgies of Aphrodite from night 

to day, in his ambition to deify a harlot of his own 
country. Others say that it was Melampus the 
son of Amythaon who brought into Greece from 
Egypt the festivals of Demeter, that is, the story of 
her grief celebrated in hymns. These men I for my 
part would call originators of mischief, parents of 
godless legends and deadly daemon-worship, seeing 
that they implanted the mysteries in human life to 

be a seed of evil and corruption. 

But now, (and high time too,) I will convict your Description 
orgies themselves of being full of deception and Danes 
jugglery, and if you have been initiated you wil 
smile the more at these legends you are wont to 
honour. I will tell openly the secret things, and 
will not shrink from speaking of what you are not 
ashamed to worship. There is, then, the “foam- 
born” ‘“Cyprus-born” goddess, the darling of 
Cinyras. I mean Aphrodite, who received the @.) of 
name Philomédes because she was born from the *??7' 
médea,* those lustful members that were cut off 
from Uranus and after the separation did violence to 
the wave. See how lewd are the members from 
which so worthy an offspring is born! And in the 
rites which celebrate this pleasure of the sea, as a 
symbol of her birth, the gift of a cake of salt and a 
phallos is made to those who are initiated in the 
art of fornication; and the initiated bring their 
tribute of a coin to the goddess, as lovers do to a 



14 P. 


Anots 8é€ pvorjpia att Atos mpos pnrépa 
Ajpntpa adpodiotot oupTdoKat Kal pis (ovK 
oid" o TU P® Aourrov, wynTpos 7) yuvakds) THs Anois, 
Hs 67) Xapw Boyes mpooayopevjvac déyerat, < Kal >* 
iKeTmptat Avs Kal mop. xoAjs Kal KapdtovAkiar Kat 
dppytoupytae: Tavra ot Dpvyes teAicKovow ”Arride 
Kal KuBedy Kat KopvBacw: TeOpvdnKacw d€ ws 
apa amoomdaas 6 Leds Tob Kpiob Tovds Sdvpous 
déepwv ev peaois eppube tots KdAmois tHS Anods, 
TyLwmpiav wevdn THs Bratas ovpmAoKs exTwvdwv, 
ws eavTov Onley exTeudv. ta atpuPora THs pvr}- 
cews TavTns €k Tepiovaias TrapaTeDévta 01d” Ste 
Kwhoe yédkwra Kat py yeAaceiovow dtyiv ba 
tovs | €Aéyxous: “ ék Tupmdvov édayov: ék Kup- 
dAov émov: éxepvoddpyoa: tmo Tov maocTov 
tréduv.” tadra ody UBpis Ta ovuBora; od yA€eUy 
Ta pvornpte.; ti 8 ef Kal Ta émidowma mpoobeiny ; 
Kvel pev 7 Anunrnp, dvarpepera be 1 Kopn, 
putyvuta. 8 adfis 6 yevrvijoas obroal Leds TH 
Depedarrn, TH tdia Ouyarpt, pera THY EeNTEepa TV 
Ane, éxAabdpevos Tod mporépou pvoous (7arTip 
Kal POopeds Kopns 6 Levs*) Kat piyvuTar Spacey 
YEVO}LEVOS, és 7, edeyx Geis. LaBaliov | yoov 
pvaTynpiwy  avpuPodov Tots pvovpievors 6 dua 
KoArTouv eds: Opdiccoy d€ €oTW ovTos, dueAKopevos 
Tob KoATov THv TeAovpevwr, Edeyyos aKpacias 

1 al Lobeck. «ai mss. 2 <xal> inserted by Schwartz. 
3 ratnp .. . Zeis. These words are not found in Euse- 
bius (Praep. Ev. ii. 3), and are rejected as a gloss by Stahlin. 

@ j,e. the Grim or Terrible One. 

’ Compare this formula of the Phrygian with that of 
the Eleusinian mysteries, quoted on p. 43. See also the 
Appendix on the Mysteries, p. 388. 



The a of Demeter commemorate the cHap. 
amorous embraces of Zeus with his mother Demeter, ¢; at 
and the wrath of Demeter (I do not know what to eae 
call her for the future, mother or wife) on account 
of which she is said to have received the name 
Brimo”%; also the supplications of Zeus, the drink of 
bile, the tearing out the heart of the victims, and 
unspeakable obscenities. The same rites are per- (iii.) of 
formed in honour of Attis and Cybele and the Cr hete ae 
Corybantes by the Phrygians, who have spread it the Cory- 
abroad how that Zeus tore off the testicles of a ram, oui 
and then brought and flung them into the midst of he same 

ose of 

Demeter's lap, thus paying a sham penalty for his Demeter 
violent embrace by pretending that he had mutilated 
himself. If I go on further to quote the symbols of 
initiation into this mystery they will, I know, move 
you to laughter, even though you are in no laughing 
humour when your rites are being exposed. “I ate 
from the drum; I drank from the cymbal; I carried 
the sacred dish; I stole into the bridal chamber.’’ ? 
Are not these symbols an outrage? Are not the 
mysteries a mockery? But what if I were to add 
the rest of the story? Demeter becomes pregnant; The 
the Maiden grows up; and this Zeus who begat her eee 
has further intercourse, this time with Persephone 
herself, his own daughter, after his union with her 
mother Demeter. Totally forgetful of his former 
pollution Zeus becomes the ravisher as well as father 
of the maiden, meeting her under the form of a 
serpent, his true nature being thus revealed. At 
any rate, in the Sabazian mysteri ies the sign given to 
those who are initiated is “the god over the breast” ; 
this is a serpent drawn over the ‘breast of the votaries, 
a proof of the licentiousness of Zeus. Persephone 




Atos. Kvet Kat 7) Depegarra maida raupdjoppov' 
aérer, Pyot Tis TrounTis eldwAKos, 

tadpos SpaKovTos Kal maTIp Tavpov dSpaxwr, 
ev oper TO Kpudiov, BouKddos, TO Kevtpiov,+ 
Bovkodtkov, otpar,” Kévtpov Tov vapOynKa émuKadav, 
ov 61) avaotépovow ot Baxryxor. PovAer Kal Ta 
Depedarrys avboroyea Sunynowpas cou Kal TOV 
xahabov Kal THY apmayny THY b770 “Adwvews Kal 
TO xdopa* THs ys Kat tas Bs tas EvBovAéws 
Tas ovyKataToleioas taiv Beatv,® dv ay aitiav év 
Tots Ocopodoptors epanilorres Xotpous eupar- 
Aovow ; TaUTnY tiv pvboroyiav at yuvatkes rot- 
Kiws KATO mow €optalovat, _Ocopodopia, UKtpo- 

. bopia, “Appnto 0 ta, 70 Aur omws THV Depeharrns 
e PP”) p p } p n 

exTpaywoobaat apTayny. 

ale. yap Avovdcov pvatipia TtéAcov andvOpwra: 
Ov eloere maida ovTa evoTAw KUwWijcEL TEpLyo- 
pevovTay Koupijtav, d0Aw dé SroSbyrwv Turavwy, 
amaTnoavres mrauSapucsdeow aluppacw, obTou 5) 
ot Turaves dueomacay, ETL vamlaxov ¢ ovTa, WS 6 THS 

Teder is TrounTys “‘Oppeds dynow 6 Oo @paiees: 

K@vos Kal pouBos Kal Talyvia KayTrectyula, 
~ / 4 > ¢ / 
pnda te xpvoea Kala trap’ “Komepidwv dvyv- 


\ ~ ¢ ~ ~ ~ \ > ~ 4 3 
Kal THOE vp Tis TedeTHS TA aypeta otuBoda ovK 
axpetov eis KaTtayvwow mapabécbar: aorpdyaros, 

1 xevtplov Dindorf. xévTpov mss. 

2 év .. . olua] dv Specr Kpidiov BovKodho KévTpov’ Pépwv 
[7o—otwar] Tournier. 

4 eae jowuac Dindorf. denyjooua Mss, 

4 ydoua from Eusebius. oxicpa mss. 
5 reiv Geotvy Wilamowitz. 77 @e¢ Rohde. 



also bears a child, which has the form of a bull. To be cHap. 
sure, we are told by a certain mythological poet that ™ 

The bull begets a snake, the snake a bull ; 
On hills the herdsman bears his mystic goad,— 

the herdsman’s goad being, I think, a name for the 

wand which the Bacchants wreathe. Would you The rape of 
have me also tell you the story of Persephone Pe'sePhone 
gathering flowers, of her basket, and how she was 

seized by Hades, of the chasm that opened in the 

earth, and of the swine of Eubouleus that were 
swallowed up along with the two deities,” which 

is the reason given for the custom of casting swine 

into the sacred caverns at the festival of the 
Thesmophoria? This is the tale which the women 
celebrate at their various feasts in the city, Thesmo- 

phoria, Scirophoria, Arretophoria, where in different 

ways they work up into tragedy the rape of 

The mysteries of Dionysus are of a perfectly savage The _ 
character. He was yet a child, and the Curetes were sealing 
dancing around him with warlike movement, when 
the Titans stealthily drew near. First they beguiled 
him with childish toys, and then,—these very Titans 
—tore him to pieces, though he was but an infant. 
Orpheus of Thrace, the poet of the Initiation, speaks 
of the 

Top, wheel and jointed dolls, with beauteous fruit 
Of gold trom the clear-voiced Hesperides. 

And it is worth while to quote the worthless ? symbols 
of this rite of yours in order to excite condemnation : 
« The Greek reads, ‘tthe two goddesses”; but Clement 

can hardly have meant this. 
> For the word-play see p. 28, n. a. 



Ger odatpa., a7popthos, pnaa, popBos, é EDOTITPOV, TTOKOS. 

16 P. 

“AOnva Lev ov TH Kapolav Too Avovicov tdedo- 
pevn IlaAAas € €K TOU m™dAAew Ty Kapolav mpoonyo- 
pev0n* of dé Tirdves, ot Kat dvaomdacavres avTov, 
A€Byta Twa Tplrrooe emBévtes Kat tot Avoviaov 
euPaddovtes TA pen, Kkabyibouv TpoTepov ETELTO 
dBeAlokots mepuTetpavtes “‘brretpexov ‘H¢atorouo.”’ 
ZLevs de VaTE epov emupaveis (et Beds tv, Taxa TOV 
THS Kvions TOV OTT LEVEY Kpe@v peradapuv, 7s 
67 To yEepas Aayetv ”” opodoyotow Spav ot Aeot) 
Kepauv@ tovs Tirdvas aikilerae kat Ta jréAn Too 
Avovicov "AnoAAwr 7H maidt Tapakatatiferat 
Katabdar. 06 dé, ov yap nmretOynce Avi, eis tov Ilap- 
vacoov dépwv KarariBerat Sveomagpevov TOV VEKpOv. 
Ez Oédeus oe éemomreboa Kal KopuBavrwy opyia, 
Anv Tob vexpod dowrkide erexaduibdtyv Kal KaTa- 
otéebavre eOaarnv, dépovres emt yaAKhs aomidos 
to Tas Umwpetas Tob "OAVpTov. Kal Tatr’ EoTL 
Ta pvoTypia, ouveAdvTe ddavar, povor Kat Tadot ot 
d€ (epets of THVde, os "AvaxtoteAcaTas ots jeAov 
Kadety Kadobot, mpooemiTepatevovTar TH ouudopa, 
oropilov amayopevovtes céAwov emt tpamelys Tt- 
Gévar- otovrar yap 81) €« Tod aiwatos Tob azrop- 
pvevros TOO KopuBavruxob TO o€Awoy EKTEPUKEVAL" 
womep dyreher Kat at Jeopodopialoveat THs powds 
Tovs KoKKous TapapuAdrrovaw €abiew Tovs amo- 

« Pallas from pallein. 

>’ Homer, /liad ii. 426. Over Hephaestus, #.e. the fire. 

© Iliad iv. 49. 

“« The ‘* Princes” are the Corybantes or Cabeiri. See 
Pausanias x. 38. 7. 



the knuckle-bone, the ball, the spinning-top, apples, CHAP, 
wheel, mirror, fieece ! Now Athena made off with 
the heart of Dionysus, and received the name 
Pallas from its palpitating.* But the Titans, they 
who tore him to pieces, placed a caldron upon a 
tripod, and casting the limbs of Dionysus into it first 
boiled them down; then, piercing them with spits, 
they “held them over Hephaestus.”® Later on 
Zeus appeared ; perhaps, since he was a god, because 
he smelt the steam of the flesh that was cooking, 
which your gods admit they “receive as_ their 
portion.”° He plagues the Titans with thunder, 
and entrusts the limbs of Dionysus to his son 
Apollo for burial. In obedience to Zeus, Apollo 
earries the mutilated corpse to Parnassus and lays it 
to rest. 

If you would like a vison of the Corybantic The ; 
orgies also, this is the story. Two of the Corybantes re ae 
slew a third one, who was their brother, covered the 
head of the corpse with a purple cloak, and then 
wreathed and buried it, bearing it upon a brazen 
shield to the skirts of Mount Olympus. Here we see 
what the mysteries are, in one word, murders and 
burials! The priests of these mysteries, whom such 
as are interested in them call “ Presidents of the 
Princes’ rites,’ % add a portent to the dismal tale. 
They forbid wild celery, root and all, to be placed on 
the table, for they actually believe that wild celery 
grows out of the blood that flowed from the murdered 
brother.é It is a similar custom, of course, that is 
observed by the women who celebrate the Thesmo- 
phoria. They are careful not to eat any pomegranate 

¢ For this legend of the Corybantes see A. B. Cook, 
Zeus, i. 107-108. 



OAP. meTTWKOTAS yaual, ex TOV ToD Atov¥acov aiwatos 
otayovwv BeBrAaoTnKévar vopilovoatt ras pouds. 
Kafeipovs d€ tovs KoptBavras KaAobvres Kal 
Tederiy KaBerpuery KkatayyeMovow: avTa yap on) 
TOUTW Tw adeApoKTovan THY Klorny dveAoueven, ev 7) 
to tod Atovtaov aidotov améKeito, eis Tuppyviav 
KaThyayov, evdKAeots EuTopor doptiov: KavTatla 
duetpiBétynv, duyade ovTe, THY moAvTipytov evacBelas 
dvdacKaAiayv, atdoia Kal KloTyy, Opyoxevew Tapa- 
Beweven Tuppnvois. du Hv aitiay ovK ametKoTws 
tov Atovucdv twes "Attw mpocayopevec0a JéAovow, 
alooiwy |oTepnevov. 

Kat ti Gavpacrov ef Tuppnvot ol t BapBapor aloypots 
ovTws teAioKovTat malypacww, ¢ omou ye “AOnvaiors 
Kat TH AAAn ‘EAAdéu, aidotpac Kat A€éyew, alayvvns 
eum Acws 7 mepl THY Aja pvbodroyia ; GAwpevy 
yap 7 Ano KaTO CyTnow THs Ouyarpos THs Kopys 
Tepl THY "Edevotva (77s ’"Artixhs 5€ éore TobTO TO 
Xwpiov) a amoKapvet Kat dpéate emailer Avrroupev7. 
tobTo Tots pevoupevors amayopeveTat €lo€Te vov, 
iva p21) Soxotev of teTeAcopevor pyretoBac THY 

17 P ddupoperny. wKouv | be THVUKAOE THY ‘EXevoiva ot 
“ynyevets: évépara avtois BavBw Kat AvoavAns 
Kat TpumtddAenos, ete S€ EvproAmds te Kal EdBov- 
devs: BovkodAos 6 TpimroAcuos Hv, mouujy dé 6 
EtpodAmos, avBurns d€ 6 EdBovdeds: ad’ dv to 
EdvpodAmdav Kat To Kyptxwv 10 tepodavtikov 87) 
totto “Abyvyo. yevos yvOnoev. Kat 57) (od yap 
avijow p27 obvxt eizetv) Eevicaca 1) BavBw tiv Anw 

1 youifovca Wilamowitz. vopifouce mss. 

@ i.e. Persephone. 
> Literally, ‘*the hierophantic clan.” The hierophant 



seeds which fall to the ground, being of opinion that 
pomegranates spring from the drops of Dionysus’ 
blood. The Corybantes are also called by the name 
Cabeiri, which proclaims the rite of the Cabeiri. 
For this very pair of fratricides got possession of the 
chest in which the virilia of Dionysus were deposited, 
and brought it to Tuscany, traders in glorious wares! 
There they sojourned, being exiles, and communicated 
their precious teaching of piety, the virilia and the 
chest, to Tuscans for purposes of worship. For this 
reason not unnaturally some wish to call Dionysus 
Attis, because he was mutilated. 

Yet how can we wonder if Tuscans, who are 
barbarians, are thus consecrated to base passions, 
when Athenians and the rest of Greece—I blush 
even to speak of it—possess that shameful tale 
about Demeter? It tells how Demeter, wandering 
through Eleusis, which is a part of Attica, in search 
of her daughter the Maiden, becomes exhausted 
and sits down at a well in deep distress. This 
display of grief is forbidden, up to the present 
day, to those who are initiated, lest the worshippers 
should seem to imitate the goddess in her sorrow. 
At that time Eleusis was inhabited by aborigines, 
whose names were Baubo, Dysaules, Triptolemus, 
and also Eumolpus and Eubouleus. Triptolemus 
was a herdsman, Eumolpus a shepherd, and Eu- 
bouleus a swineherd. These were progenitors of 
the Eumolpidae and of the Heralds, who form the 
priestly clan’ at Athens. But to continue; for J 
will not forbear to tell the rest of the story. Baubo, 

(see Appendix on the Mysteries, p. 385) was chosen from 
= Eumolpidae, the dadouchos or torch-bearer from the 



The rite 
of the 

The tale 
of Demeter 
aud Baubo 


18 P. 


opeyer KuKE@va avThH THs Se dvawopev7)s AaBetv 
Kal metv ovK eGehovons (zrevOipys yap Vv) 7reEpt- 
adyns 7 BavBe yevopern, ws drrepopabetoa o7Gev, 
dvaorée\erau TO aidota Kal ETBELICVUEL TH beD- 1 
be TEpTETAL TH Oper 7 Ajw Kat pLoAus Tore déxerau 
TO ToTOV, jobecioa TO Oeduare. TAaUT €OTL Ta 
Kpuda trav "A@nvaiwy pvathpia. tadrd TOL Kal 
“Opdeds dvaypader. Tmapabjcopat d€ cou avTa Tob 
Opdews TO em, i” éyns waptupa THs avavoxvvTias 
TOV pvoTAywyov' 

“A > ~ / > 4 A \ / 
Ws elmotoa mémAovs aveotpeTo, detEe Se Travra | 
/ A Ss 
GwpATos Obdé TpéTOVTA TUTOV: Traits 8 Hev “laxyxos, 
/ ~ ~ 
xeipl TE pv pintacKe yeAdv BavBots b7o KoAzous* 
¢ > > \ Ss ‘8 Q / iS 3 ae A ~ 
7 O Emel ovv peldnoe Ded, peidna ev Ova, 
de€ato 8° aiddov dyyos, év @ KUKEwY EVEKELTO. 

KaOTL TO ovvOnua °EAevowiwv pevoTnpio: " ev7)- 


epyaodrevos ‘ ameDeuny ets KaAaBov Kal éx xaAddbov 

els KLOTHY. ”  Kadd ve TO, Jecpara Kat beg TMpeTovra. 

aga peev obv vuKTos Ta TeA€omaTa Kal TUpdS Kat 

tod. ““ peyadnjropos, paddov d€ patarodpovos 

*Epexbevdav Onpov, ™pos d€ Kal TOV acy 

‘EMyvwv, ototwas “ weve. teAevTycavTas doo 
1 éyyevoduevos Lobeck. 

# The Greek word represents a mixed drink composed of 
barley-meal, grated cheese and Pramnian wine. The same 
word is used for the draught mentioned in the formula of 
the Eleusinian mysteries. 

» Lobeck suggested ‘*having tasted,” which meaning 
can be obtained by a slight change in the Greek; see 
note on text. This would bring the passage more into 
line with the Phrygian formula quoted on p. 35. I have 



having received Demeter as a guest, offers her a CHAP. 
draught of wine and meal.” She declines to take 
it, being unwilling to drink on account of her 
mourning. Baubo is deeply hurt, thinking she has 
been slighted, and thereupon uncovers her secret 
parts and exhibits them to the goddess. Demeter is 
pleased at the sight, and now at last receives the 
draught,—delighted with the spectacle! These are 
the secret mysteries of the Athenians! These are 
also the subjects of Orpheus’ poems. I will quote 
you the very lines of Orpheus, in order that you may 
have the originator of the mysteries as witness of 
their shamelessness : 

This said, she drew aside her robes, and showed 

A sight of shame; child Iacchus was there, 

And laughing, plunged his hand below her breasts, 
Then smiled the goddess, in her heart she smiled, 
And drank the draught from out the glancing cup. 

And the formula of the Eleusinian mysteries is as The 
follows: “I fasted; I drank the draught; I took Pleusinan 
from the chest ; having done my task,’ I placed in 

the basket, and from the basket into the chest.” 
Beautiful sights indeed, and fit for a goddess! Yes, 

such rites are meet for night and torch fires, and for 

the “ great-hearted’’—I should rather say empty- 
headed—people of the Erechtheidae,° with the rest 

of the Greeks as well, “whom after death there 

translated the reading of the mss., leaving the English as 
vague as is the Greek. It seems fairly clear, however, that 
some of the worshippers’ acts are symbolic imitations of 
what the goddess is supposed to have done. See Appendix, 
p. 384, n. 3. 

¢ The great-hearted people of Erechtheus are mentioned 
in Homer, Iliad ii. 547. Erechtheus, a legendary king of 
Athens, had a temple, the Erechtheum, on the Acropolis. 

C 43 


CAP. odd€ EAmovTaL.” Tice 41) pavreverau “HpdkaAectos 
19 P.O "Egéovos ; a, vuKrimo|Aots, pedyous, Baxxous, Arjvaus, 
pvorats, if Tovrous darevhet Ta peta Odvarov, Tovrous 
pavTeveTat TO Trip: “ra yap vouiloueva Kata av- 
Opamrous pvoTnpLa aviepwort pevobvra.”” 
djLos ov Kal drroAnypes Kev?) TA pvoTHpiat Kal 
Tod OpdovTos amatn Tis éoTLW Opyoxevojern, TAS 
GpvyTovs GVTWS pUHoELs Kal TAS Gvopyvdorous 
TeAeras evoeBeta, vobw TpooTpeTromeveny otar de 
Kal at Korat at pootucat’ del yap dmroyupvdrcau 
Ta dywa avrav Kal Ta dppyra efeimretv. ov onoopat 
TaUTAa Kal TuUpapides Kal Tohdrrat Kal moTava 
Todvoudara yovdpor TE addy Kat Opaicuy, Opytov 
Avovicov Baccdpov; ovxt de p powat 7 pos Totade Kal 
Kpddav” vdpOnkés Te Kal KUTTOL, mpos dé Kal POoi is Kal 
peeves ; TavT eorw adray Ta ayia. Kal Tpoo- 
ert Ins ® O€udos_ TO droppyta avpBora 0 opiyavov, 
Avyvos, Eidos, Krels yuvaucetos, Os €oTU, cddrjws 
Kal pLvoTLK@s eElmely, pdpLov yuvaretov. @ THs 
eudavods ones. mdaAau pev dvOpebrrous 
owdpovobow eTiuKadAuL La WOOVAS vv§ 7 Vy CL TEN LEVI) 
vovi d€ Tots pvovp.evors meipa * TIS dxpacias vv& 
eott Aadoupevn, Kal TO 7p ehéyxer Ta maby 
Sadovxovpevov. amdaBecov, w lepodavra, TO Tip: 

lira muoriipea after xev) Mayor: after dpdxovros Mss. 
? Kpddat Morellus. xapdia: Mss. 
3 I'4s Wilamowitz. 77s Mss. 
4 teipa Wilamowitz. 7 iepa mss. 

« See the mention of the chest in the Cabeiric rite, p. 
41, and in the Eleusinian formula, p. 43. 

> Gé Themis is the result of an emendation of Wilamowitz, 
accepted by Stéhlin. It necessitates only a minute change 



await such things as they little expect.” Against cHap. 
whom does Heracleitus of Ephesus utter this gy. eitus 
prophecy? Against “night-roamers, magicians, bears 
Bacchants, Lenaean revellers and devotees of the Les 
mysteries.” These are the people whom he those are 
threatens with the penalties that follow death ; for in ile 
these he prophesies the fire. “ For in unholy fashion ™YS'*""* 
are they initiated into the mysteries customary 

among men.”’ 

The mysteries, then, are mere custom and vain The myster- 

opinion, and it is a deceit of the serpent that men profane and 
worship when, with spurious piety, they turn unholy 
towards these sacred initiations that are really pro- ee 
fanities, and solemn rites that are without sanctity. 
Consider, too, the contents of the mystic chests @ ; Contents of 
for [ must strip bare their holy things and utter the ee ace 
unspeakable. Are they not sesame cakes, pyramid 
and spherical cakes, cakes with many navels, also 
balls of salt and a serpent, the mystic sign of 
Dionysus Bassareus? Are they not also pome- 
granates, fig branches, fennel stalks, ivy leaves, round 
cakes and poppies? These are their holy things! 
In addition, there are the unutterable symbols of Gé 
Themis,? marjoram, a lamp, a sword, and a woman’s 
comb, which is a euphemistic expression used in the 
mysteries for a woman’s secret parts. What manifest 
shamelessness! Formerly night, which drew a veil 
over the pleasures of temperate men, was a time for 
silence. But now, when night is for those who are 
being initiated a temptation to licentiousness, talk 
abounds, and thetorch-fires convict unbridled passions. 
Quench the fire, thou priest. Shrink from the 
in the Greek. The deity referred to is then the earth- 
goddess, of whom Demeter and Cybele are other forms. 



20 P. 


aidéoOnre, dqdobyxe, Tas Aapmddas: éAdyyer cov 
TOV “Taxxov TO hOs* emritpexpov dmroxpripae TH 
VUKTL Ta pvoTHpia* oKdTEL TeTYULACOW TA dpy.a. 
TO mop ody vmoxpiverars eAéyxew Kal KodAdlew 
~ ~ > / A / > / \ 
Tatra ta&v abléwy ta pvotypia: abéous dé 
feov HyyvoyjKacw, tadiov d€ bro Titrdvwv dia- 
omw@pevov Kal yUvaov tevOody Kal dpia GppyTa ws 
adn Bas om aioxvvns dvavoxvvTws o¢Bovow, Ourri} 
EVEOXTILEVOL TH | abeoryTL, Tporepa pe, Kal? nv 
ayvoovar TOV Deov, TOV OVTWS ovra. pa yvepilovres 
Deov, € eTEpa be Kal devtépa 57) Tavry TH TAGvy Tous 
ovK OvTas ws OVvTas vouilovTes Kal Beods TovTOUS 
> / \ > ” v7 ~ \ ? \ 
dvop.alovTes ToUs OVK OVTWS dvTas, UGAAoV Sé OvdE 
ovras, povov dé Tod ovdpuaTtos TeTUXNKOTaS. Sia 
TobTS ToL Kal 6 amrdaToAos died€yyer FUas “ Kai 
oy / ” / ce ~ ~ ~ > / 
nre E€vor”’ éywr “ THv Siabykav ths emayyeAias, 
eArrida pu) €xovTes Kal aleou ev TH KOopW.””’ 
A > \ / ~ ~ ~ a 
TloAAa Kayaba yévoito TH THV Ukvav Baorre?, 
Gotis mote Hv [’Avdyapots].1 obdtos tov moAiTyv 
Tov €avTod, Tv mapa Kulixnvots untpos THv Dedv 
TeXeTHV aTropiovpevov Tapa UKVais TYuTTAVEY TE 
1 [’Avdyapors] Casaubon. 

@ Clement means that fire is God’s instrument for judg- 
ment (cp. 1 Corinthians iii. 13) and punishment (St. Matthew 
xviii. 8, etc.). The torch-fires of Eleusis are at once a 
revelation of misdoings and a premonition of the retribution 
to come ; hence they are fulfilling the fire’s appointed task, 
and not merely playing a spectacular part. 

>’ The Greek &@eos means something more than ‘*‘ godless,” 
and yet less than the positive English word ‘‘ atheist.” It 
was applied (see next paragraph) to philosophers who denied 



flaming brands, torchbearer. The light convicts cuap, 
your lacchus. Suffer night to hide the mysteries. 
Let the orgies be honoured by darkness. The fire 
is not acting a part; to convict and to punish is its 

These are the mysteries of the atheists.2 And Greeks are 
I am right in branding as atheists men who are [Herel 
ignorant of the true God, but shamelessly worship a 
child being torn to pieces by Titans, a poor grief- 
stricken woman, and parts of the body which, from 
a sense of shame, are truly too sacred to speak of. 
It is a twofold atheism in which they are entangled ; 
first, the atheism of being ignorant of God (since 
they do not recognize the true God); and then this 
second error, of believing in the existence of beings 
that have no existence, and calling by the name of 
gods those who are not really gods,—nay more, who 
do not even exist, but have only got the name. No 
doubt this is also the reason why the Apostle con- 
victs us, when he says, “ And ye were strangers from 
the covenants of the promise, being without hope 
and atheists in the world.” ° 

Blessings be upon the Scythian king, whoever he Noble 
was. When a countryman of his own was imitating ¢“™P!® 
among the Scythians the rite of the Mother of the Scythian 
Gods as practised at Cyzicus, by beating a drum and pee 

the existence of the gods; also to Christians, partly on the 
same ground, partly because they could show no image of 
their own God. As used here, the word conveys a theo- 
logical rather than a moral imputation, so that ‘atheist ” 
is the nearest rendering. Clement continually retorts that 
his adversaries were the true atheists. See p. 145. 

¢ Ephesians ii. 12. ‘* Without God” is the rendering in 
both the Authorized and the Revised Versions; but 
** atheist” is necessary here to bring out the point. 



21 P. 


emuKTUTODVTA Kal KupBadov emnyotvra Kal Tob 
" TpaxyAov Twa peqvaydprav eSNpTNLEvoy, KareTogev- 
ev, ws dvavOpov avrov te Trap “EAAnou yeyevnpe- 
vov Kat Ths OnAcias Tots dows UKvbav ddacKadov 
vooov. wv 1 xapw (ov yap ovdapas dmoKpuTTéov) 
favualew €mevot jeoe OTW zpome Edjpepov Tov 
"Akpayavrivov Kal Nuxdvopa tov Kuzpiov Kai 
Ataydpav xat “Iamwva ta Mndiw } rov te Kupyvaiov 
ia / > a i 2 >) + > A 
emt ToUTOUS EKetvov ([o ] ®eddwpos ovoua avTa) 
Kat twas aAAouvs ovxvovs, cwhpovws BeBuwxoras 
Kal kalewpaxoras ogvrepov mov tov dAoLToV 
avOpwimwy tiv audi tods Oeods todtovs mAarny, 
> / > ‘ie > \ \ > / b] \ 
afous emuceKAnKaow, el KaL THY ddr Gevav avriy 
pea) vevonKoTas, aAAa, THY agree ye STWMTEVKOTAS, 
Omep ov OpLUKpov els arn Devav ® dpovycews € Cmrupov 
avapverat OTe phLa @v oO pev Tus Tapeyyug Tots 
Alyumrious, “ et Deods vopilere, 1 Opynvetre adtovs 
pndé KomTecbe: el d€ mevOeire avrous, pennere 
rouTous nyetabe eivat Beovs,”’ 6 8 “Hpakdréa ex 
EvAov AaBwv KatecKevacpévoy (ETvye be Efwv Tu 
7 e > / (ag s / Chall, 4 / ”) am 
otKol, ola elKOs) eta 67), @ Hpdxdes, elirev: 

“yov cou 797) KaLpos, womep Etpucbe?, a ard.p d7) Kal 
Hptv vmoupyjaa. TOV TproKaiwéKaTov tobrov aOAov 
Kat Avayopa Tovifov * Tapackevdoal.” KaT adTov 
els TO Tp evelyKev ws EvAov. 

1 +m MyNlw Miinzel. dv pajdcov Mss. 
2 [6] Dindorf. 
8 dd7Oevav Sylburg. dd7Gelas Mss, 
4 rotwov Cobet. Todor mss. 

@ Literally a ‘*menagyrtes” or ** metragyrtes,” that is, a 
wandering priest of Cybele, the Mother of the Gods. See 

. 168, n. a, for a further description of these priests. 

> Herodotus iv. 76. 



clanging a cymbal, and by having images of the cyap. 
goddess suspended from his neck after the manner 1! 
of a priest of Cybele,* this king slew him with an 
arrow,” on the ground that the man, having been 
deprived of his own virility in’ Greece, was now 
communicating the effeminate disease to his fellow 
Scythians. All this—for I must not in the least The term 
conceal what I think—makes me amazed how the eee 
term atheist has been applied to Euhemerus of applied 
: ; : by Greeks 
Acragas, Nicanor of Cyprus, Diagoras and Hippo of 
Melos, with that Cyrenian named Theodorus and a 
good many others besides, men who lived sensible 
lives and discerned more acutely, I imagine, than 
the rest of mankind the error connected with these 
gods. Even if they did not perceive the truth itself, 
they at least suspected the error; and this suspicion 
is a living spark of wisdom, and no small one, which 
grows up like a seed into truth. One of them thus 
directs the Egyptians: “If you believe they are 
gods, do not lament them, nor beat the breast; but 
if you mourn for them, no longer consider these 
beings to be gods.”® Another, having taken hold 
of a Heracles made from a log of wood—he happened, 
likely enough, to be cooking something at home— 
said : “Come, Heracles, now is your time to under- 
take this thirteenth labour for me, as you did the 
twelve for Eurystheus, and prepare Diagoras his 
dish!” Then he put him into the fire like a log. 
¢ The philosopher referred to is Xenophanes. See 
Plutarch, 4 matorius 763 p and De Is. et Osir. 3798. Mourn- 
ing for dead gods was a conspicuous feature of some ancient 
religions. In Egyp:* Osiris was mourned for (see the 
reference to his funeral rites on pp. 109-11); in Asia Minor, 
Attis ; and Adonis in Syria. The ‘* weeping for Tammuz” 
of Ezekiel viii. 14 is an example of Adonis-worship. 


22 P. 


"Axporntes dpa apablas abedrns Kat Sevodaypo- 
via, @v €KTOS pévEelw GTOVdacTEoV. OvxX opds TOV 
tepodavTnv Tijs adn Betas Mwoea TpooTarrovTa 
OAadiav Kal GTO KEKOpLILEVOV pea) exkAnoaralew, Kal 
Tpooere TOV ek Topvns; aiviTTeTat dé da pev 
TOV mpoTépwv Tov afeov TpoTov Tov THs Oelas Kai 
yovijov Suvdpews eatepypevov, dia Se Tod Ao.zrod 
Tob Tpitov Tov ToAAOvs emrvypadhopevov WevdwrUj.ous 
Beods avti Tob povov dvtos Deod, wWomep 6 EK TIS 
mopvns Tods toAAods emuypadeTar Tatépas ayvoia 
Tod mpos adAnfevav tratpos. Hv dé Tis euduTos 
apxyaia mpos ovpavov avOpuitrois Kowwvia, ayvoia 
pev eokotiopevn, advw dé mov SivexOpwcKovea Tod 
okoTous Kal avaAdpmovoa, olov 81 exetvo A€AeKTat 


ca A ¢€ ~ / > ” r) / 
opds Tov visod Tdvd’ dmeipov aifépa 
\ ~ / ” > ¢€ A > > 4 
Kat yhv mépi€ exovl’ bypais ev ayKddAas; 

A) aN 

@ ys OxT HO Karl ys exw edpav, 

GoTts ToT €f av, SvaTémaaTos elovdety, | 

Kat 60a dAXa Towabra mrounTav gdovar maides. 
"Evvowa dé TapTnwevat Kal Tapnypevat THS 
evfetas, oA€F prac ws adn Bas, TO ovpaviov purer, 
Tov avOpwrov, otpaviov é&étpeav Siaitns Kal 
eeravucav emi yhs, ynivous mpooavexyew avaTei- 
cacat TAdopaow. of pev yap ev0éws audi THV 

@ ** Hierophant” is the literal rendering. For the 
hierophant’s office see p. 40, n. 6, and Appendix p. 385. 
> See Deuteronomy xxiii. 1, 2. 



It appears then that atheism and daemon-worship cHap. 
are the extreme points of stupidity, from which we ,.U. 
must earnestly endeavour to keep ourselves apart. and daemon- 
Do you not see Moses, the sacred interpreter % of the Tee 
truth, ordering that no eunuch or mutilated man stupidity 
shall enter the assembly, nor the son of a harlot ?? 

By the first two expressions he refers in a figure to 

the atheistic manner of life, which has been deprived 

of divine power and fruitfulness; by the third and 

last, to the man who lays claim to many gods, falsely 

so called, in place of the only real God ; just as the 

son of a harlot lays claim to many fathers, through 
ignorance of his true father. But there was of old ee 
implanted in man a certain fellowship with heaven, fellowship 
which, though darkened through ignorance, yet at With heaven 
times leaps suddenly out of the darkness and shines 

forth. Take for instance the well-known lines in 

which someone has said, 
Seest thou this boundless firmament on high, 
Whose arms enfold the earth in soft embrace ?° 
and these, 

O stay of earth, that hast thy seat above, 
Whoe’er thou art, by guessing scarce discerned ; 4 

and all the other similar things which the sons of 
the poets sing. 

But opinions that are mistaken and deviate from False 
the right—deadly opinions, in very truth—turned ¢Pimion 
aside man, the heavenly plant,’ from a heavenly man to 
manner of life, and stretched him upon earth, by PTA 
inducing him to give heed to things formed out of 
earth. Some men were deceived from the first 

¢ Euripides, Frag. 935. 
# Kuripides, Trojan Women 884—5. 
¢ Plato, Timaeus 90a; cp. p. 217. 

cg 51 


CAP. ovpavod Oéav dmrarespevot Kal oer movyn memarev- 
NM xétes TOV dorépwv TAS KLWI)CELS emBeuspevo 
eGavpacdy TE Kal efeBelacay, feovs €x Tod Oetv 
dvopacavres Tovs dorépas, Kal Tpocekdvnoav Tov, 
ws “Ivdoi, Kal oehqvny, ws Dovyes: ot d€ THY eK 
ys duopevery Tovs TEpous Spemropevor Kapmovs 
Anw Tov otrov, ws "AGnvator, kat Avovucov Thy 
autreAov, ws OnBator, Tpoonjyopevoay. aAAou Tas 
dpo.pas THs Kakias emaKomaavTes Deorovobar Tas 
avTiddcELs TpoaKLVobrTEs Kal TAS Guudopds. EVvTEd- 
Bev tas "Epwias kat tas Edpevidas Ladapvaiovs 
te kai IIpoorpomaious, éte 5€ "AAdotopas avaTe- 
mAdKaow of audt THY oKynViy TonTal. didocddwv 
dé On TWes Kal adTol peta TOdS TrOLNTLKOUS TAV 
ev opy malay dvevdwAorrovobor TUTrous: tov DdBov 
Kal tov "Epwra Kal THY Xapav Kal tv *KAmiéa, 
@amep apérer Kat "Emievidns 6 traAavos "YBpews 
kal “Avadelas ’APjvnow avaorjoas Bwpovs: ot 
dé €€ adt@v opuwpevor TOV Tpaypdatwv exbeobvrat 
tots avOpwmos Kal owuatiKas dvarAdatTovTal, 
Aixn tis Kal KAwfo Kai Adxeous Kal “Arpomos 
Kal Kiwopyevn, Arta Te Kal Carre, at "ArriKat. 
EKTOS €oTl elonynTucos TpOTrOS amarns Jedv 
TEPLTOUNTLKOS, Kal’ dv apiOodar Deovs Tous dwdeKa: 
dv Kal Peoyoviav ‘Hatodos adder Tv adrod, Kat 
oca Deohoyet “Opnpos. tehevtatos de droAcimeTau 
(€mra yap of amavtes ovTOL TpOTOL) 6 amo TIS 

@ This fanciful derivation comes from Plato, Cratylus 
397 c—p, where Socrates is made to say that the first Greeks 
had only the earth and the heavenly bodies for gods. Since 
these were in perpetual movement (thein, to run) they called 



about the spectacle of the heavens. Trusting solely cuar. 
to sight, they gazed at the movements of the heavenly yh teg of 
bodies, and in wonder deified them, giving them the idolatry (.) 
name of gods from their running motion.* Hence Spee 
they worshipped the sun, as Indians do, and the bodies 
moon, as Phrygians do. Others, when gathering the (ii) deifica- 
cultivated fruits of plants that spring from the earth, {0n,0! the 
called the corn Demeter, as the Athenians, and the the earth 
vine Dionysus, as the Thebans. Others, after re- (iii.) gods 
flecting upon the punishments of evil-doing, make ‘ented te 
gods out of their experiences of retribution, worship- calamities 
ping the very calamities. This is the source from 

which the Erinyes and Eumenides, goddesses of ex- 

piation and vengeance, as well as the Alastors,’ have 

been fashioned by the poets of the stage. Even (iv.) gods 
certain of the philosophers themselves, following the [2% 
men of poetry, came to represent as deities the types human 

of your emotions, such as Fear, Love, Joy, Hope; a 
just as, of course, Epimenides did of old, when he set 

up altars in Athens to Insolence and Shamelessness. 

Some gods arise from the mere circumstances of (v.) gods 
life deified in men’s eyes and fashioned in bodily weeee 
form; such are the Athenian deities, Right, the fairs 
Spinner, the Giver of lots, the Inflexible One, 
Destiny, Growth and Abundance. There is a sixth vi.) the 
way of introducing deception and of procuring gods, fi fhson 
according to which men reckon them to be twelve 

in number, of whose genealogy Hesiod sings his own 

story, and Homer, too, has much to say about them. 

Finally (for these ways of error are seven in all), (vii.) dei- 

se dled bk 
there remains that which arises from the divine “~ °"°% 

them gods (theot). On learning about other gods they 
extended the name to them. 
> 1.e. avenging deities. 



23 P. 


Oeias evepyeatas THs els Tovs avOpusrous Kata 
ywopevns Oppwpevos. TOV yap evepyeToovTa Ly) 
ovvuEvTEs Geov avérAacav twas owripas Avooxov- 
pous Kat “Hpakdda adcEikaxov Kat >AoKkAnmov | 
> / 

Aira pev at dAvoOnpai te Kal émiBAaBets map- 
exBaces Ths aAnfeias, KabéAKovaar otpavobev Tov 
avOpwrov Kat eis Bapabpov mepitpémovaa. €éAw 
de vyiv ev XP@ TOUS Beovs avrovs emidetEar Ozotol 
TWes Kal El TWes, W’ HOH more THs mhavns Angyre, 
avOus be TaAwdpopnonre els ovpavor. “ Hwev yep 
Tov Kal 7LEts TEKVA 6 opyis, ws Kal ot Aourroi: 6 bé 
Qeos aovatos wy ev eAcet, dia THY TOAANY ayamyv 
avTob, nv Hydmnoev Huds, OvTas On veKpods Tots 
TapamTwpacw ovvelworoinoev TH Xpiota@.”’ Cav 
yap 0 Adyos Kal <6>1 ovvtadels Xprot@ ovverysodrat 
Oe. of OE ert amoTou “ réKva. opyys ovopdlov- 
Tat, Tpepopeva o opyi” nLets dé ovK opyijs Opeppara 
ETL, ol THs TAdVNS dmeoTrao[Levol, docovres d€ emt 
tv adAjfevav. tavTy Tou Hels Ot THs avoplas vIOt 
mote Oia THY gdidavOpwriav tot Adyou viv viol 
yeyovapev Too Oeot- duty dé Kal 6 vueTEpos 
dmodveTar TroinTHs 6 “Axpayavrivos ’EumedoKAjs: 

TOLYApTOL xaderjow aAvovres KaKOTNOW 
” , Deter, / s 
OU TIOTE detAalwv ANEWV AwdrjaeTe Oujov. 

A \ \ a / \ / \ 

Ta pev 07) TActoTa penvbevtar Kal mémAGOTAL TeEpt 

~ aA © ~ Ul 
Jedv tyutv: ta dé 60a Kal? yeyevnobar breiAnmrat, 

~ > > ~ > ~ 
Tatra S€ mepl avOpwimwyv alcypav Kal aceAyas 

BeBiwkdoTwv avayéypamrac: 
1 <¢> inserted by Schwartz. 
2 goa xat Mayor. [kai] doa Stahlin. «al dca mss, 



beneficence shown towards men; for, since men did CHAP. 
not understand that it was God who benefited them, ™ 
they invented certain saviours, the ‘Twin Brothers, 
Heracles averter of evils, and Asclepius the doctor. 

These then are the slippery and harmful paths rExhortation 
which lead away from the truth, dragging man down [oaandon 
from heaven and overturning him into the pit. But for the 
I wish to display to you at close quarters the gods “““" 
themselves, showing what their characters are, and 
whether they really exist; in order that at last 
you may cease from error and run back again to 
heaven. ‘ For we too were once children of wrath, 
as also the rest; but God being rich in mercy, 
through His great love wherewith He loved us, when 
we were already dead in trespasses, made us alive 
together with Christ.”* For the Word is living, and 
he who has been buried with Christ is exalted 
together with God. They who are still unbelieving 
are called “children of wrath,” since they are being 
reared for wrath. We, on the contrary, are no longer 
creatures of wrath, for we have been torn away from 
error and are hastening towards the truth. Thus we 
who were once sons of lawlessness have now become 
sons of God thanks to the love of the Word for man. 

But you are they whom even your own poet, Em- 
pedocles of Acragas, points to in these lines: 

So then, by grievous miseries distraught, 
Ye ne’er shall rest your mind from woeful pains. 

Now the most part of the stories about your gods are 
legends and fictions. But as many as are held to 
be real events are the records of base men who led 
dissolute lives: 

@ Ephesians ii. 3-5. > Empedocles, frag. 145 Diels. 


24 P. 


Tudw Kal avin dé Badilere Kal TpiBov opbiv 
edletav mpodurovres amyAGere THY bv axavbav 
kai oxoAdTwv. Ti mAavdabe, Bpotol; tavcacbe, 
KaAAXimeTe oKoTinv vuKtos, pwTtos dé AdBeabe. 

Tatra wiv 7 Tpopyrucr) Tapeyyug KaL TounTeKy) 
LiBvdra- Tapeyyva de Kat 7) aAjGeva., yupvotoa 
mpoowneiwy Tov oxAov THY Oedv, ovvwvupiats Trot 
tas do€o7oulas dueAéyxovaa. 
Adrtixa yodv elaiv ot tpets Tovs Ziivas avaypa- 
\ \ >? / >? > / \ \ \ 
dovaw, Tov prev AiBépos ev "Apxadia, tw d5é Aowra 
Tot Kpdvov rraide, Tovtrow Tov pev ev Kprjrn, Oatepov 
PS \ b] 7A ov tA Cee PS) \ a / 2 ~ 
e ev Apkadia madw. etou de ot mévte “AOnvas 
e / \ \ ¢ / \ > / 
troTiVevtar, THY prev ‘Hdatorov, Ty A@nvaiav- 
trv d¢ Neidov, tiv Aiyumriav: Tpirny <TH >! rob 
Kpovov, tv modemou evpétw: teTrdprny TH Avs, 
nv Meoorjvio. Kopudaciay amo tis pntpos ém- 
/ a | ~ \ / \ / 
KexAjKkaow: emt maou THV ILdAAavtos Kal Tiravidos 
THs “QOkeavod, 7) Tov matépa dvoceBds Katabicaca 
1 <rhy> inserted by Wilamowitz. 

« Sibylline Oracles, Preface, 23-25, 27. 

> The word Sibyl was applied to prophetesses who 
delivered oracles at certain shrines, such as Cumae or 
Erythrae. It was appropriated by the authors of that long 
series of pseudo-prophetic verses which has come down to 
us under the title of the Sibylline Oracles. These date from 
various periods between the second century B.c. and the 
seventh century a.p. The earliest oracle is a Jewish work, 
written in Egypt. Many of the subsequent ones are of 
Christian, or Jewish-Christian, authorship. Their chief 
object was to denounce the folly of polytheism and image- 



But ye in pride and madness walk ; ye left CHAP, 
The true, straight path, and chose the way through WU 

And stakes. Why err, ye mortals? Cease, vain men! 
Forsake dark night, and cleave unto the light. 

This is what the prophetic and poetic Sibyl ® enjoins 
on us. And truth, too, does the same, when she 
strips these dreadful and terrifying masks from the 
crowd of gods, and adduces certain similarities of 
name to prove the absurdity of your rash opinions. 

For example, there are some who record three Many 
gods of the name of Zeus®: one in Arcadia, the son pee 
of Aether, the other two being sons of Cronus, the the same 
one in Crete, the other again in Arcadia. Some acs 
assume five Athenas: the daughter of Hephaestus, 
who is the Athenian; the daughter of Neilus, who is 
the Egyptian ?; a third, the daughter of Cronus, who 
is the discoverer of war; a fourth, the daughter of 
Zeus, to whom Messenians give the title Coryphasia 
after her mother. Above all, there is the child of 
Pallas and Titanis daughter of Oceanus. This is the 
one who impiously slaughtered her father and is 
arrayed in the paternal skin, as though it were a 

worship, and they are frequently quoted by the early © 
Christian Fathers. Clement would seem to have believed in 
the antiquity of those known to him, for he asserts (see 
p. 161) that Xenophon borrowed from them. 

¢ With this paragraph compare Cicero, De natura deorum 
iii. 53-59. Both Cicero and Clement are using the work of 
the ‘‘ theologians ” (theologoi), who tried to reduce to some 
system the mass of Greek legend. On the reasons for this 
multiplication of gods see Gardner and Jevons, Manual of 
Greek Antiquities, pp. 95-96. 

@ A goddess worshipped at Sais in Egypt, whom the 
Greeks identified with Athena. See Herodotus ii. 59, etc. 



25 P. 


A A >] / € A >] / ~ 
vat pv “Amdd\Awva oO jev ApuototéAns mpa@rov 
€ , A >A@ ~ > 50 A , /, / 
Hdalorov cat ’Abnvas (evtab0a 87 odiére mapHevos 
4 ’A@nva), Sevtepov ev Kprrn tov KupBartos, 
tpitov tov Atos Kal téraptov tov *ApKada TOV 
LuwAnvot- Noptos odros KEeKANTaL Tapa "Apkaow* 
’ A / \ / / % »” 
emt tovrows tov AiBuv Katadéyer Tov Appovos: 
¢ A / e A Py iz4 , , 
6 5€ Aidupos 6 ypappatiKos ToUTOLS EKTOV emrupepet 
4A /, / \ \ ~ > / 
tov Mayvntos. mocor de Kal viv AzroAAwves, 
dvaplOuntor Ovnrot Kal emixnpol? twes avOpwrot, 
elolv, of TapamAnciws Tots TpOELpHLEVvoLs €KELVOLS 
KekAnevot; Ti O Et Got Tovs moAAovs Eloy. 
2A Xr \ a“ A pli ~ A b] @ / a“ 
oxAnmovs 7) Tovs ‘Epuds tovs apiwoupevovs 7 
tous ‘Hdaiorous tovs pvboroyoupevous ; pny Kal 
TEPLTTOS e€ivat d0€w Tas aKOUS Dav tots moAAXots 
/ > 4 > / > > q@ / 
rovTous emukAvlwy dvduacw; adr at ye maTpides 
avrTovs Kal at TéXVaL Kai ot Biot, mpos O€ ye Kat OL 
taho. avOpaous yeyovotas dueAéyxovow. 
Y] ~ ¢ A A - 
"Apns yoodv 6 Kal Tapa Tots 7ownTais, WS OLOV TE, 

*Apes, Apes, Bpotodovye, [LLarpove, reryeoTAATa, 

e LAA , => \ > / e \ 
6 aAdompdcaAdos otros Kat avdpotos, ws ev 
> > ~ \ 
Ezrixappos oqo, Uraprudrns 7" Lodorhfjs be 
Opaka ofdev adrdv: dAAou 8é "ApKdda. Tobdrov de 
"O 8 8 / 6 \ een ~ fs) a 
pnpos dede08a pyaiv emt pijvas TproKaloeKa 

1 émixnpo. Mayor. émikovpot MSS. 

@ The skin usually worn by Athena is the aegis, a goatskin 
ornamented with the head of the Gorgon, whom she had 
slain. Clement’s story is evidently another explanation of 
the aegis. See Cicero, De natura deorum iii. 59. 



fleece.* Further, with regard to Apollo, Aristotle CHAP, 
enumerates, first, the son of Hephaestus and Athena 
(which puts an end to Athena’s virginity) ; secondly, 

the son of Cyrbas in Crete; thirdly, the son of 
Zeus ; and fourthly, the Arcadian, the son of Silenus, 
called among the Arcadians Nomius.? In addition 

to these he reckons the Libyan, the son of Ammon ; 

and Didymus the grammarian adds a sixth, the son 

of Magnes. And how many Apollos are there at 

the present time? A countless host, all mortal and 
perishable men, who have been called by similar 
names to the deities we have just mentioned. 
And what if I were to tell you of the many gods 
named Asclepius, or of every Hermes that is 
enumerated, or of every Hephaestus that occurs 

in your mythology? Shall I not seem to be 
needlessly drowning your ears by the number of 
their names? But the lands they dwelt in, the rhe gods 

arts they practised, the records of their lives, ven ale 
yes, and their very tombs, aos conclusively that lived and 
they were men. bhai bs 
There is for example Ares, who is honoured, so Examples 
far as that is possible, in the poets— pe ata 

Ares, thou plague of men, bloodguilty one, stormer of cities ;¢ 

this fickle and implacable god was, according to 
Epicharmus, a Spartan. But. Sophocles knows him 
for a Thracian, others for an Arcadian. This is the 
god of whom Homer says that he was bound in 
chains for a space of thirteen months: 

> 2.¢. the ‘* pastoral” god, from nomeus a shepherd. 
¢ Homer, Iliad v. 31 and 455. 



26 P. 


TAR wev ”Apns, ore pv "Otros Kparepos tT ’EdidArns, 
* aides “Ahuijos, Ojoav Kpatep@ evi Seopa: 
yadkéw 8° ev kepduw dédeTo Tpiokaldeka pvas. 

ToAAa Kayaha Kapes oxotev, of Katafvovow atta 
Tovs KUvas. LKvUOar dé Tods dvous tepevovTes [7 
mavéctwy, ws “AmoAAddwpds dyct kai KadAXipayos, 
MoiBos ‘YepBopéovow dvwy émuréAXerau tpois. 
6 atros dé adAaxob 
téprovow Aurapal DoiBov dvoodayiat. 
“Hdatotos dé, dv éppupev e& "OAvprov Leds “ Byrob 
amo Oeomeciow,’ év Ajuvw Katamecwv éxdAxeve, 
m™pwbeis To 7700€, 4 b70 dé KVHLOL paovro 
aparat.”’ EXELS. Kal iatpov, ovxt xahnea pLcvov ev 
Oeots: 6 de tapos piAdpyupos HV, "AoKdnmos 
ovopLa atT®. Kal co. TOV Gov Tapabjoopat TroLnTHY, 
tov Boudtiov UivSapov: 
ETpame KaKelvov aydvopt piocO@ ypvacs ev yxepot 
xepat 8° dpa Kpoviwv | piibas d0° apdoty amvoav 
otépvwv Kabetrev 
wKéws, allwr dé Kepavvos éevéoknibe * pdpor, 

Kat Edpumidns 


A \ A a if 
Zevs yap Kataxtas matda Tov Epov aiTLos 
> / 

AokAnmov, otépvorow éuBadrwv drdya. 
1 gumvody Pindar. dumvods MSs. 
2 évéoxnve Pindar. éoxnwe mss. 

@ Homer, Iliad v. 385-387. 

> Phoebus is of course Apollo. The thought of dogs 
being offered to Ares leads Clement on to describe, in a 
characteristic digression, an even more absurd sacrifice. 

¢ Callimachus, Fragments 187-8 Schneider. 



Such was the lot of Ares, when Otus and strong Ephialtes, oHap., 

Sons of Aloeus, seized him, and chained his limbs in strong I 
fetters ; 

And in a dungeon of brass for thirteen months he lay 
captive. ? 

Blessings be upon the Carians, who sacrifice dogs to 

him! May Scythians never cease offering asses, as 

Apollodorus says they do, and Callimachus too, in the 

following verse : 

In northern lands ass-sacrifices rise 
When Phoebus first appears.? 

Elsewhere the same writer says: 
Rich sacrifice of asses Phoebus loves.¢ 

Hephaestus, whom Zeus cast out of Olympus, “ from 
the threshold of heaven,’ @ fell to earth in Lemnos 
and worked as a smith. He was lame in both feet, 
“but his slender legs moved quickly under him.” ° 
You have not only a smith among the gods, but a 
doctor as well. The doctor was fond of money, and asclepius 
his name was Asclepius. I will quote your own poet, 
Pindar the Boeotian : 

Gold was his ruin ; it shone in his hands, 

Splendid reward for a deed of skill ; 

Lo! from the arm of Zeus on high 

Darted the gleaming bolt for ill ; 

Guatched from tue wiag his new-found breath, 
Whelmed the god in a mortal’s death’ 

And Euripides says: 

*T was due to Zeus ; he slew Asclepius, 
My son,—with lightning flame that pierced his heart.9 

@ Homer, Jliad i. 591. ¢ Iliad xviii. 411. 
J Pindar, Pythian Odes iii. 97, 100-105. 
9 Kuripides, Alcestis 3-4. 



27 P. 


ovTOS juev obv KEtTaL kepavvebels ev tots Kuvoo- 
oupidos opiots. PDudoxopos de ev Tivw Tocedadva 
dyno. Tysdobar tatpov, Kpovw de émuxeicbar LuKe- 
Atav Kal evra00a avTov rebapBac. ILarpoxArjs TE 
6 Movpios Kat Loporhys 6 6 vewTepos ev Tis! Tpa- 
ywolats totopetrov? roiv Avookovpow® rrépu- avOpw- 
Tw TWwe ToUTW TH AtocKotpw emiKnpw éyevéaOnv," 
€l Tw ikavos muoTwWoacbar “Ounpos TO Aedeyprévov 

A > » , , 5 
tovs 8 Oy KaTexev dvoiloos aia 

’ , > , ) 7 , 
ev Aakedaipovr ad&, didn ev marpide yatn. 

/ A Ae, \ ‘ / / 
Tpocitw d€ kat 6 Ta Kumpiaxa trounpata yparbas 

Kdotwp pev Ovntds, Gavarov 8€ ot atoa mézpwrat: 
b) \ a > > / rd + ” 
abrap 6 y abavatos IloAvdevKns, ofos “Apnos. 

~ A ~ > 4, LA \ > 
ToUTo pev TrounTiK@s epetaato: “Opnpos Se a€éto- 
mloTOTEpos avTod eimwv mept aydoty totv Atoo- 
/ \ \ \ \ ¢ / ” 2} 7 
Kovpow, mpos dé Kal Tov “HpakAda eidwdAov érdyEas- 
‘ ~ ” \ fe 7 ~ / ] / 
data’ yap HpakaAja, peydAwy émiictopa 
”) € / > \ > A @ \ 
epywv.” ‘Hpakdrdéa otv kati adtos “Opunpos bvnrov 
e / \ ¢ / \ 
oidev avOpurov, Tepwvupos 5€ 6 procogos Kal 
THv oxéow advtod bdyyetrar TOD GwpaTos, pLKpOV, 
dpitotpiya, pworrKov: Aucatapxos dé oxiliay, 
veupwon, péedava, ypuTov, vmoxaporor, TETAVO- 
TPLX.. obros otv 6 ‘HpakdAjs dvo mpos Tots 
TEVTYKOVTO ETN BeBiwxas KaTéoTpewe TOV Biov dua 
ths ev Oirn mupas | Kexndevpevos. 
1 @ tit Welcker. év rpici Mss. 
2 icropetrov Sylburg. icropelrwy ss. 

roiv Acocxovpow Sylburg. 7a Acocxotpw Mss. 
4 éyevéoOnv Dindorf. -yevéo@nv mss. 

2 Homer, Jliad iii. 243-244. 



This god, then, killed by the thunderbolt, lies on the 
frontier of Cynosuris. But Philochorus says that in 
Tenos Poseidon was honoured as a doctor. He adds 
that Sicily was placed upon Cronus, and there he lies 
buried. Both Patrocles of Thurium and the younger 
Sophocles relate the story of the Twin Brothers in 
some of their tragedies. These Brothers were simply 
two men, subject to death, if Homer’s authority is 
sufficient for the statement, 

they ere now by life-giving earth were enfolded, 

There in far Lacedaemon, the well-loved land of their 

Let the author of the Cyprian verses? also come 
forward : 

Castor is mortal man, and death as his fate is appointed ; 
But immortal is great Polydeuces, offspring of Ares. 

This last line is a poetic falsehood. But Homer is 
more worthy of credence than this poet in what 
he said about both the Brothers. In addition, 
he has proved Heracles to be a shade. For to him 
“‘ Heracles, privy to great deeds,” is simply “a man.” ¢ 
Heracles, then, is known to be mortal man even by 
Homer. Hieronymus the philosopher sketches his 
bodily characteristics also,—small stature, bristling 
hair, great strength. Dicaearchus adds that he was 
slim, sinewy, dark, with hooked nose, bright gleaming 
eyes and long, straight hair. This Heracles, after a life 
of fifty-two years, ended his days, and his obsequies 
were celebrated in the pyre on Mount Oeta. 

>4.e. an epic poem bearing the name of Cypris, or 
Aphrodite. The extant fragments are printed at the end of 
D. B. Monro’s Homeri opera et reliquiae (Oxford 1891), the 

above lines being on p. 1015. 
* Homer, Odyssey xxi. 6. 





The Twin 




Tas 5€ Movoas, ds *AAkpav! Ards kat Mvnpootvys 
yeveadoyet Kai ot Aowrol ToinTal Kai ovyypadeis 
exOeralovow Kat céBovow, dn dé Kat dAaL 7rdAcs 
provoeta tepevilovaow* atrats, Mucas® ovoas Oe- 
patravidas Tavtas ewrntar MeyakAw 4 Ovyatyp 7 
Makxapos. O be Mdkap AcoBiav pev €Baothever, du- 
epepeto dé del Tmpos TY yuvaira, Hyavarrer de 7 
MeyakAw trép THs peNTpos” Tt 8 ovK epeMe ; KaL 
Mvoas Depamawidas TavTas TooavTas Tov apiOov 
wvetra. Kal KaAet Moicas* Kata tiv didAeKxtov 
tiv Alodéwv. tavras ediddéato adew Kal Kia- 

/ \ / \ \ >? ~ ¢ \ 
pilew tas mpdaées tas madatas eupedAds. at de 
auvex@s KiBapilovaar Kal KaA@s KateTdadovoat Tov 
Makapa <OeAyov Kat Katémavov Tis épyfqs. ov 07) 
xapw % MeyardAw yapiotiypiov atras® dep tijs 
pntpos aveOnke yadkds Kal ava mavra éxéAevoe 
TYysaobar Ta ‘epd.. Kal at pev Motoat tovaide 7 
d€ toTopia mapa _Mupsiiw TO AeoBicy. 

“Axovere 67) obv TAY Tap" bpiv Gedy tovs epwras 
Kal Tas Trapadogous Ths akpaoias pvbohoyias Kal 
Tpavwara avTav Kal Seopa Kal yélwras Kal 
pedxas Sovdelas te ert Kal ovpmdcia cvptrAoKds 
T avd Kal ddxpva Kal 740 Kal payAdoas 7dovds. 
Kdhev jou Tov ITooeda Kal TOV Xopov Tov duedbbap- 
peveov on avrod, TH Apdutpirny, THY “Apupovny, 
THY "AXdorny, Ty MeAavinayy, TH “AAKvorny, Ti 
‘Inmobony, Thv Xuovyy, Tas ddAas Tas jLupias: ev 
ais O71) Kal TooavTats ovoats €Tt TOU Iocedavos 
bua@v €orevoywpeito Ta 740: KaAEL pou Kal TOV 

1 ’AdXkxuav Bergk. d&\kuavdpos Mss. 

* repevtSovow Sylburg. wey tfovow Mss, 
8 Mucas Stahlin. povcas mss. 



As for the Muses, Aleman derives their origin from cHap. 

Zeus and Mnemosyne, and the rest of the poets and Oagin oe 
prose-writers deify and worship them; to such an the Muses 
extent that whole cities dedicate “temples of the 
Muses” in their honour. But these were Mysian 
serving-maids purchased by Megaclo, the daughter 
of Macar. Now Macar, who was king over the 
Lesbians, was constantly quarrelling with his wife, 
and Megaclo was grieved for her mother’s sake. 
How could she be otherwise? So she bought these 
Mysian serving-maids, to the correct number, and 
pronounced their names Moisai, according to the 
Aeolic dialect. She had them taught to sing of 
ancient deeds, and to play the lyre in melodious 
accompaniment ; and they, by their continual playing 
and the spell of their beautiful singing, were wont to 
soothe Macar and rid him of his anger. As a thank- 
offering for these services Megaclo erected, on her 
mother’s behalf, bronze statues of the maids, and 
commanded that they should be honoured in all the 
temples. Such is the origin of the Muses. The ac- 
count of them is found in Myrsilus of Lesbos. 

Now listen to the loves of these gods of yours; to The incon- 
the extraordinary tales of their incontinence; to ede 
their wounds, imprisonments, fits of laughter, con- 
flicts, and periods of servitude. Listen, too, to their 
revels, their embraces, their tears, passions and dis- 
solute pleasures. Call Poseidon, and the band of 
maidens corrupted by him, Amphitrite, Amymone, 
Alope, Melanippe, Aleyone, Hippothoé, Chione and 
the thousands of others. Yet in spite of this great 
number, the passions of your Poseidon were still un- 

4 Moicas Miiller. pvoas mss. 
5 adras Stahlin. avrais Mss, 



28 P. 


“ArroMw MoitBos éeorw obTos Kal pedvres ayvos 
Kal ovBovdos ayablos: aAX ov TavTA 7) Lrepomn 
Neyer obd€ 7) Aifovoa ovde 7 “Apowdn ovde 7 
Levéinry ovoe 7 1, [poon odode 7) Mdpaqooa ovde 
n Vyfurrd Aq: NE bys yap etepuye pov” Kal TOV 
pedvrw Kat THY dbopav. atros te 6 Leds emt maow 
KETO, 6 “ maTnp Kal? buds “ avdpav te Oedv 
TE. ToaobTos mept Ta adpodiova eexvbn, Ws 
emBupiety prev aca, exarAnpobv de els maoas 
77 emBupiav. evetiutrAaro yoov yuvarkay oux 
HTTOV 7 aly@v o Opowray Tpayos. Kal ood, W 
“Opnpe, TeOavpaka Ta Troujpara: | 

> \ /, e793 / ~ / 
H, Kal Kvavenow Ee odpvar vedoe Kpoviwv: 
apBpdarat 5° dpa xairat emeppwaavto dvaKkTos 
> Mere) / v. 23 / ” 
Kpatos am abavato.o: péyav 8° édéAuEev *OAvp Tov. 

ceuvov avarAatres, “Opnpe, Tov Ata Kal veda 
mTepiamtTets avTa@ TeTYyYsnuevov. add’ éav emdetEns 
Lvov, avopwre, TOV KEOTOV, efehéyxera Kal Oo 
Zevs Kal 7) Koy karauoyéverat. els dcov 5° €Ay- 
Aarev * aoeXyelas 6 Leds € eEKElvos O pet “AAKurjyns 
Tocavras yduTabjcas vUKTas* ovde yap at vUKTES 
at evvea TH akordagoTw prakpal (amas dé euTradw 
1 6 é\pdaxev Dindorf. dved7daKxev Mss. 

@ Homer, Iliad i. 544 and elsewhere. 

> This was probably a sacred goat kept at Thmuis, and 
treated as the incarnate manifestation of some god. At 
the neighbouring town of Mendes such an animal ‘was 
worshipped, as we learn from Herodotus ii. 46; see also 
Clement, on p. 85 of this volume. Thmuis is mentioned in 
Herodotus ii. 166 as the name of a town and district in 
Egypt. The goat, like the bull, would be chosen for 
veneration on account of its procreative force. Clement 
regards it (ii. Stromateis 118, 5) as a type of the sensual man. 



satisfied. Call Apollo, too. He is Phoebus, a holy cHap, 
prophet and good counsellor! But this is not the eon 
opinion of Sterope, or Aethusa, or Arsinoé, or 
Zeuxippe, or Prothoé, or Marpessa, or Hypsipyle. 
For Daphne was the only one who escaped the pro- 
phet and his corruption. Above all, let Zeus come Zeus 
too, he who is, according to your account, “ father of 
gods and men.” “ So completely was he given over 
to lust, that every woman not only excited his desire, 
but became a victim of it. Why, he would take his 
fill of women no less than the buck of the Thmuitans ? 
does of she-goats. I am astonished at these verses 
of yours, Homer : 
Thus spake the son of Cronus, and nodded assent with his 
eyebrows ; 
Lo! ne ambrosial locks of the king flowed waving around 
Down from his deathless head; and great Olympus was 
It is a majestic Zeus that you portray, Homer; and 
you invest him with a nod that is held in honour. 
Yet, my good sir, if you but let him catch a glimpse 
of a woman’s girdle, even Zeus is exposed and his 
locks are put to shame. What a pitch of licentious- 
ness did this great Zeus reach when he spent so many 
nights in pleasure with Alemene! Nay, not even the 
nine nights @ were a long period for this debauchee,— 

¢ Homer, Iliad i. 528-530. Strabo says (354) that Pheidias 
had this passage in mind when he carved the famous statue 
of Zeus at Olympia. 

4 According to the usual story Heracles was begotten in 
three nights (Lucian, Dialogi deorum 10), whence he was 
called tpiéorepos (Justin Martyr, Oratio ad Graecos 3). It 
is possible that Clement has confused this with the ‘‘ nine 
nights” of Zeus and Mnemosyne which preceded the birth 
of the Muses (Hesiod, Theogonia 56). 



¢ A ¢€ aw 4A 5 
CAP, 6 Bios a axpacia Bpaxvs 7v), iva, a) Hpetv TOV dActt- 
Kakov o7reipyn Oedv. Atos vids ‘Hpardjs, Avws os 
aAnIds, 6 EK pwaKpas yevvdp.evos vuKTOS, TOdS [LEV 
4 \ / ~ /, 
abrovs tors dddexa ToAAG TadraiTwpnodpevos 
xpovw, tas be mevtyiKovta QWcariov Ouyatépas 
~ A ¢ ~ 
vuKtt diapGeipas pd, poryos ouod Kal vupdios 
ToooUTwY yevouevos Taplévwy. ovKovV azrELKOTWS 
ot mownTat “‘oxétAov’’ Todrov Kal “ alcvAcepyov’’ 
~ > a“ ~ 
amokadodow. paxpov 8 av ein potxelas adrod 
A A / A Ug , \ 
Tavrodamas Kal maidwy dinyetobar dOopds. ovde 
€ >] ~ 
yap ovdé Traidwy améaxovTo ot map’ bytv Geol, 6 
péev tis “YAa, 6 d€ ‘YaxivOov, 6 d€ IléAomos, 6 dé 
> ~ 
Xpvainmov, 6 Sé€ LTavuprdovs epavres. tovrous 
buav at yuvaikes mpookvvotvtwy todvs Geous, 
totovtovs dé evyéobwyv elvat tovs dvdpas Tovs 
~ > > A zA 
EAUT@V, OUTW Gwdpovas, W’ Waw Gporot Tots Oeots 
+ wv > 4 4 , 7 ¢€ an 
Ta toa elnAwxdres” TOUTOUS eOlovre: of Tatoes 
bpav spelt, iva Kal avopes ‘yevwvTat eiKova mop- 
velas evapyy? Tovs Deovs mapaAapBdvovres. 
AX’ of peév Gppeves adtois TOV Gedy tows LOvot 
QTTOVGL TrEpt TA appodiora* 

OnAvTepar dé Geat pevov aido? olkor éxaorn, 

gnow “Opmpos; aidovpevar at Peal? ae emvornta 
“Agpodi imnv idetv HepouxenpLevny. t d€ akoda- 
oraivovow éuTrabéatepov év TH Aeixern dedeuevar, 

"Has emi Tibwvd, LeAjvn <d° emir? Evdupion, 
1 évapy? Markland. évayi mss. 

2 [ai deat] Valckenaer: Stiéhlin. 
3 <0’ éml> inserted by Wilamowitz. 



indeed, a whole lifetime was short for his incontinence, CHAP. 
—especially when the purpose was that he might 1! 
beget for us the god whose work it is to avert evils. 
Heracles is the son of Zeus, begotten in this long Heracles 
night. And a true son he is; for long and weary as 
the time was in which he accomplished his twelve 
labours, yet in a single night he corrupted the fifty 
daughters of Thestius, becoming at once bridegroom 
and adulterer to all these maidens. Not without 
reason, then, do the poets dub him “abandoned ” 
and “doer of evil deeds.”* It would be a long 
story to relate his varied adulteries and his corrup- 
tions of boys. For your gods did not abstain even 
from boys. One loved Hylas, another Hyacinthus, 
another Pelops, another Chrysippus, another Gany- 
medes. These are the gods your wives are to 
worship! Such they must pray for their own 
husbands to be, similar models of virtue,—that they 
may be like the gods by aspiring after equally high 
ideals! Let these be they whom your boys are 
trained to reverence, in order that they may grow 
to manhood with the gods ever before them as a 
manifest pattern of fornication ! 

But perhaps in the case of the gods, it is the ae 
males only who rush eagerly after sexual delights, re equally 
while guilty 

Each in her home for shame the lady goddesses rested,” 

as Homer says, because as goddesses they modestly 
shrank from the sight of Aphrodite taken in adultery. 
Yet these are more passionately given to licentious- 
ness, being fast bound in adultery; as, for instance, 
Eos with “Tithonus, Selene with Endymion, Nereis 

¢ Homer, Iliad v. 403. > Odyssey viii. 324. 


CAP. Nypyis emt Aiakd Kal em IInAet Oé€ris, eri de 

ae. "Tacteove | Anpafrnp Kal ert “AbSviBs Depéparra. 
"Adpoditn de ém "A pet KATHOXULEVT petinAbev 
emi Kuitpav kat ’Ayxionv éynpev kat DadGovra 
eAdxa Kat Hpa “Aduvdos, eptdroveixer 5€ 7H Bowmde 
Kal amrodvadpevar dua pAAov at Beat yupvat mpoo- 
eltyov TO TOULEere, el TLS avr av dd€eu KaA7. 

“1 57 Kal Tovs ay@vas év Bpaxet Teprodevowpev 
Kal Tas emurupBious TavTact Tavnyupets KaTa- 
Aowpev, "lobia te Kat Néwea kat vba Kat ra 
ch ates, | / > / A A > ¢ / ¢ 
emt tovtos “OAvumia. Ilv8ot pév ody 6 dpaKwv o 
Ilv6tos OpynoKeverar Kal Tod dhews 1) Taviyyupis 
KatayyéAXerau Iv6ia: “Io@uot 5€ oxvBadov mpoo- 
/ > A e / \ / > / 
émtuoev edcewov 7 OaAatra Kat MeAcKépryv odvpe- 
tat Ta “IoOpuva: Neuéacr 5€ aAAo madiov *Apyé- 
propos Kek7jOevTAaL KaL TOD TaLdiov 6 emiTadtos 

/ / A We pale if > / 
mpooayopeverar Néuea: Lica d€ tuiv tados €or, 
> , € , , \ a ; 
oO ITaveAdnves, meoxov Dpvyos, kat tod IléAozos 
Tas yods, Ta ‘OAvpma, O Dediov operepilerat 
Levs. pevornpto. Hoav apa, ws EouKeD, ot aydves 
él vexpots diabAovpevor, WoTep Kal TA AOYLa, Kal 
dedjuevvTar audw. adda Ta pev emt “Aypa® pv- 
/ \ An] 3 € ~ ~ > ~ > / 
oTypia Kal Ta ev “AAywsobvre THS >"Arrikfns “AOnvyjot 
TepiwpiaTat’ aiayos dé dn KoopLKOV Ol TE ayaves 
1 "Taciwv Sylburg. idowv mss. 
2"Aype Meurs. od-ypac Mss. 

@4.¢. Hera. The epithet means, literally, ** cow- -eyed” ; ; 
but it is frequently applied to Hera in the Lliad (e.g. 1. 551) 
in the sense of ‘with large, bright eyes.” For the con- 
nexion between Hera and the cow see A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. 
pp. 444-457. 

> j.e. Paris, son of Priam of Troy. He judged Aphrodite 
more beautiful than Hera or Athena, and so roused the 
anger of these two goddesses against Troy. 



with Aeacus, Thetis with Peleus, Demeter with CHAP. 
Jasion and Persephone with Adonis. Aphrodite, 
after having been put to shame for her love of 
Ares, ped Cinyras, married Anchises, entrapped 
Phaéthon and loved Adonis. She, too, entered into 

a rivalry with the “goddess of the large eyes,’ @ 

in which, for the sake of an apple, the goddesses 
stripped and presented themselves naked to the 
shepherd,? to see whether he would pronounce one 

of them beautiful. 

Let us now proceed briefly to review the contests, Review of 
and let us put an end to these solemn assemblages Sais 
at tombs, the Isthmian, Nemean, Pythian, and, above they are 
all, the Olympian games. At Pytho worship is paid Ser 
to the Pythian serpent,’ and the assembly held in the dead 
honour of this snake is entitled Pythian. At the pythian 
Isthmus the sea cast up a miserable carcass, and the $*™°s 
Isthmian games are lamentations for Melicertes. At Isthmian 
Nemea another, a child Archemorus, lies buried, and 
it is the celebrations held at the grave of this child Nemean 
that are called by the name Nemean. And Pisa,— 
mark it, ye Panhellenic peoples !—your Pisa is the 
tomb of a Phrygian charioteer, and the libations 
poured out for Pelops, which constitute the Olympian olympian 
festivities, are appropriated by the Zeus of Pheidias. 

So it seems that the contests, being held in honour 
of the dead, were of the nature of mysteries, just as 
also the oracles were; and both have become public 
institutions. But the mysteries at Agra and those 
in Halimus of Attica? have been confined to Athens; 
on the other hand, the contests are now a world- 

* See p: 33 Re 6: 
4 See Appendix on the Mysteries, p. 382, 



80 P. 


Kal ot daddAoi ot Atovtaw émuteAovpevor, KaKds 
emivevepnuevor Tov Biov. 

Acovucos yap KateNeiv eis “Abou yAryopevos 
Hyvoet THY OdOV, , Umuaxvetrat dS atta ppdcew <tis >, 
IIpécvpvos rotvopa, od«|apurobi: 6 dé puucbds od 

/ > \ / fe \ > Us > ¢ 
Kahos, ard Avoviow KaAds* Kat adpodiatos jv 7 
xapis, 6 pucbos dv retro Avovvoos: Bovropeven dé 
TO Oe yéeyovey 7 aiTyats, Kal 57) dmuoxvetra 
mapééew atv7@, eb avalevEor, 6pKw TmuaTwadpeEvos 
TH bmdaxeow. paGev annpev? éemavyAbev avis: 
ov katadap Paver TOV IT pooupvov (ereOvyjcer yap)* 
apoavovjevos TO epaors o Aiovucos em To pvn- 
petov Opud Kal TracynTia. KAddov obv ouKis, ws 
ETUXEV, EKTEUWY AVopelov popiov oKevaleTaL TPdTIOV 
epeletai te TO KAddw, THY bTdcxeow exTEAOV TO 
vexp@®. wmduvnua tod malovs TovTov pvaTiKOV 

\ \ , Clay 4 / a > \ 
gardoit Kata modes avicravrar Avovdow: “ei [7 
yap Avovvow rom éemovotvto Kal buveov dona * 
id / > de ” FW A 92. \ °H / 
aldoloaty, avaidéoTata eipyaot av,®”’ dnow “Hpa- 
¢ > \ \ a \ / a 
KAevtos, “‘witos dé “Atdns Kat Ardvucos, oTew 
peatvovtat Kat Anvailovow,” od dia THY péOnv Tod 
cwpmaTos, Ws eyw oluat, TocobTov Gcaov bia TV 
emroveld.aTov THs aceAyelas fepopavtiav. 

Eixdtws dpa of Tovoide budv Oeot < dobAot >,* SodAot 

Q ~ / LAA \ \ \ 5 ~ Eid / 
mada@v yeyovotes, aAAa Kai mpo*® tav EiAwtwv 

1 <zis> inserted by Dindorf. 
2 Gouatra Heinsius: Stahlin. dgouara, 4 Dindorf. 
3 elpyacr’ dv Schleiermacher. eipyaorac mss. 
4 <do00\o> inserted by Schwartz. 
5 apd Miinzel. pds mss. 

* Heracleitus, Frag. 127 Bywater, 15 Diels. Dionysus 


wide disgrace, as are also the phalloi consecrated to cHap. 
Dionysus, from the infection of evil which they have ™ 
spread over human life. 

This is the origin of these phalloi. Dionysus was origin of 
anxious to descend into Hades, but did not know the ‘¢ Phalicl 
way. Thereupon a certain man, Prosymnus by name, 
promises to tell him; though not without reward. 

The reward was not a seemly one, though to Dionysus 

it was seemly enough. It was a favour of lust, this 
reward which Dionysus was asked for. The god is 
willing to grant the request; and so he promises, 

in the event of his return, to fulfil the wish of 
Prosymnus, confirming the promise with an oath. 
Having learnt the way he set out, and came back 

again. He does not find Prosymnus, for he was 

dead. In fulfilment of the vow to his lover Dionysus 
hastens to the tomb and indulges his unnatural lust. 
Cutting off a branch from a fig-tree which was at 

hand, he shaped it into the likeness of a phallos, and 

then made a show of fulfilling his promise to the dead 

man. As a mystic memorial of this passion phalloi 

are set up to Dionysus in cities. “ For if it were not. Heracleitus 
to Dionysus that they held solemn procession and Pers wit. 
sang the phallic hymn, they would be acting most shame of 
shamefully,” says Heracleitus; “and Hades is the venkip: 
same as Dionysus, in whose honour they go mad and 

keep the Lenaean feast,” * not so much, I think, for 

the sake of bodily intoxication as for the shameful 
display of licentiousness. 

It would seem natural, therefore, for gods like The gods 
these of yours to be slaves, since they have become [aye °ve" 
slaves of their passions. What is more, even before Examples 

is originally a vegetation god, and is thus but another form 
of Hades or Pluto, the ** wealth-giver.” 


OA. Kadoupevwy TOV Tropa. Aaxedatpovious dovAevov 


' brrevon bev Cuyov ’Amod\Awv *Aduyntw ev Depais, 
“HpakdAijs ev Lapdeow "Opdaan, Aaopedovre ¢ oe €0- 
TEVE Iloceddv Kai "Amdd\Awv, Kabdzrep dxpetos 
olKeT nS, pase eAcvbepias Ojoubev duvets Tuxetv 
Tapa Tov mpotépov deamrdTov: Tote Kat Ta “IXiov 
Tetx7), dvwpxodopnadryy t® Dpvyi. “Opunpos de 
THY ’AOnvav ovK aloxvveTau Trapapatvew Aéyoov 
TO ’Odvacet ‘ _Xpdacov Adxvor € éxovoay '’ ev xepot" 
anv b€¢ “Adpoditny avéyvapev, ofov axdAacrov TU 
Ocparrauviouoy, mapafetvat pepovoay TH “EAevn TOV 
difpov Tod pouxod KATA TpOoWwTOV, orrws avrov ets 
ovvovatay trayayyntar. Ilavvacois yap mpos Tov- 
tous Kat adAAovs mapmrdAAovs avOpudzrois Aatpetoat 
Beods toTopet BE Ts ypadwr- 

TAH pev Anunrnp, TA Se KAvTOs “Apduyviecs, 
TAH SE Ilocevddwy, tr SO dpyupoTofos ‘AmoMawv 
ardpl Tape Oynt@ Onrevewev 1 els eveauTov' 

TAH dé Kal * 6Bpyrdbupos *Apys b7r0 TaTpos avayKys, 

Kal Ta em TOUTOLS. 
Tovrous ovv elkoT Ws ETETAL TOUS EpwTLKOUS pay 
Kat mabyrucovs ToUTOUS Beovs avOpu|romabets eK 
TAVTOS elodyew TpoTrov. “Kat yap Ov Kelvows 
Ovyros Xpus. Tekpnpiot dé “Opnpos, para aKpt- 
Bas "Adpodiryy emt TO Tpavpate Tapecoaywv o€d 
Kal peya. idyovoay avTov TE TOV ToAepuKuyTaToV 
“Ap bio Tob Avopyndous Kata Tob KevEe@Vvos ovTa- 
opévov Sinyovpevos. Lodduwv d€ Kat tHv “APnvav 
1 @nrevéuev Sylburg. O@nrevoéuev Mss. 

2 «al inserted by Sylburg. 

@ Homer, Odyssey xix, 34. 


the time of the Helots, as they were called, among cHap. 
the Lacedaemonians, Apollo bowed beneath the Apollo 
yoke of slavery to Admetus in Pherae, and Heracles Heracles 
to Omphale in Sardis. Poseidon and Apollo were Poseidon 
serfs to Laomedon, Apollo, like a worthless servant, 

not having been able, I suppose, to obtain the gift of 
freedom from his former master. It was then that 

these two gods built the walls of [ium for their 
Phrygian lord. Homer is not ashamed to speak of Athena 
Athena lighting the way for Odysseus, “holding a a icodite 
golden lamp” “in her hands. We read of Aphrodite, act as 
how, like a wanton hussy, she brought the stool for *“"” 
Helen, and placed it in front of her paramour, in 

order that Helen might entice him to her arms.? 
Panyasis, too, relates in addition very many other Panyasis 
instances of gods becoming servants to men. He Jeeta 

writes in this way :— cee 

Demeter bore the yoke ; Hephaestus too ; 

Poseidon ; and Apollo, silver-bowed, 

One year endured to serve with mortal man ; 

Likewise strong Ares, by his sire constrained,° 
—and so on. 

As a natural consequence, these amorous and The goas 
passionate gods of yours are brought before us as pa°° 
subject to every sort of human emotion. “ For truly feelings 
mortal flesh is theirs.”? Homer gives evidence of Exampies 
this, when in precise terms he introduces Aphrodite aphrodite 
uttering a loud and shrill cry over her wound ;¢ and 
when he tells how the arch-warrior himself, Ares, was Ares 
pierced in the flank by Diomedes.’ Polemon says 

» See Iliad iii. 424 and following lines. The paramour was 
Paris, whose abduction of Helen from Sparta brought about 
the Trojan war. ¢ Panyasis, Heracleia, Frag. 16 Kinkel. 

2 Iliad xxi. 568. € Iliad v, 343. 

J Iliad v. 855 and following lines. 
D 75 


DAP, 70 ‘Opvirou tpwhhvar A€yers val pny Kal Tov 
“Avwwvea bo ‘“Hpakdéovs to€ev8qvar “Opnpos 
déyet Kat TOV ”HAvov | Adyeay ] 1 |lavvacous toropet. 
7100 d€ Kal THY “Hpav THY Cuyiay toropet bo TOO 
attob “HpakAdovs 6 attos obTos [avvacous “ ey 
IlvAw jyabdevtr.”” UwaiBros dé Kai tov “Hparréa 
mpos Tv ‘InmoKowvTid@v KaTa THS xetpos ovTa- 
ofjvat Aéyer. €f d€* Tpavpara, Kal aiwata* ot yap 
ix@pes ob TounTuKol etdexHeorepor Kal Tov atudray, 
onus yap alwatos ixwp voetrat. avdyKn TOLvUy 
epamelas Kal Tpodas Tapevadyew avrois, av elow 
evoeeis. 81d Tpdmelar Kat pear Kat yéAwtes Kai 
cuvovalat, ovK dv adpodiciots ypwrévwv avOpw- 

mivous ® obdé TrauBoToLvoupLeveny ovde pea dates eS: 
Twv, el abavatou Kal avevoeets Kal ayipw * darpxov. 
peteAaBev dé Kat tTpamelns avOpwmivns Tapa tots 
Ablow, amavOpdmov dé Kal aBbéopov atros o 
Zevs trapa Avedow 7H “Apkdads éoridpevos: 
dvOpwretov yoov evehopetto oapk@v ovx EKwv. 
nyvoe yap 6 Beds ws dpa Avkawy 6 "Apxas 6 
EOTLATWP avroo Tov maida Kataopdgas TOV avTod 
(NvKriywos dvopa atTa) mapabetn oxfov c@ Au. 

¢ ¢ 


KaAds YE O Zevs Oo [LAVTLKOS, O f€vi0s, 0 Oo tKEOLOS, O 

1 tov" Hor [Adyéay] Schwartz. dv 7relov a’yéay Mss. 
2 6¢ Mayor. 6% Mss. 
3 dvOpwrivos Reinkens. dv@pwrots Mss. 
4 dynpw Potter. dyjpws mss. 

@ Polemon, Frag. 24 Frag. hist. Graec. iii. p. 122. 
> Iliad v. 395-397. 
¢ Panyasis, Heracleia, Frag. 6. 20 Kinkel. 
4 Sosibius, Frag. 15 Frag. hist. Graec. ii. p. 628, 



that Athena too was wounded by Ornytus%; yes, and cHap. 
even Hades was struck with an arrow by Heracles, ,,U 
according to Homer;® and Panyasis relates the Hades 

same of Helius. ‘This same Panyasis further relates 
that Hera, the goddess of marriage, was wounded by 
the same Heracles, “in sandy Pylos.”* Sosibius 
says that Heracles himself was struck in the hand 
by the sons of Hippocoon.¢ If there are wounds 
there is also blood; for the “ichor” of the poets 
is a more disgusting thing even than blood, the 
word ichor meaning putrefaction of the blood.? It 
is necessary, therefore, to supply the gods with 
attendance and nourishment, of which they are in 


The gods 
are also 
subject to 

need; so they have feasts, carousings, bursts of bodily 

laughter and acts of sexual intercourse, whereas 
they were immortal, and in need of nothing, and 
untouched by age, they would not partake of the 
pleasures of human love, nor beget children, nor 
even go to sleep. Zeus himself shared a human 
table among the Ethiopians,’ and an inhuman and 
unlawful table when feasting with Lycaon the 
Arcadian ; at least, he glutted himself with human 
flesh. Not wilfully, however, for the god was 
unaware that, as it appears, his host Lycaon the 
Arcadian set before him, as a dainty dish, his 
own child, Nyctimus by name, whom he _ had 
slaughtered. What a fine Zeus he is, the diviner, 
the protector of guests, the hearer of suppliants, the 

¢ *Tchor” is the blood that flows in the veins of the 
gods ; cp. Jliad v. 340. But the word is also used of matter, 
or corrupt discharges from the body. See references in 
Liddell and Scott, s.v. 

t Iliad i. 423-424, 

9 See Pausanias viii. 2. 3. The story of Lycaon is dis- 
cussed in A. B. Cook, Zeus, vol. i. pp. 63-81. 


. p needs 

Zeus for 


32 P. 


jLetAlyuos, 6 Tavoppatos, 0 mpootpomratos: paov 
de <o>? dducos, 0 0 dGecpos, 0 6 avopos, 6 dvdavos, 6 

aes } Biavos, 0 _pUopeds, 6 HLOUXOs, | 6 
€pwtikos. GAAa TOTE eV TV, OTE TowobTos 1, OTE 
avOpuros 7 nv, vov dé 7O7n [LoL SoKxobar Kal ol poor 
bpiv VEyNpaxeva. Opa 6 ZLevs ovKert, od 
KUKVOS €oTiv, ovK deros, ovK avOpuros epwTuKds: 
ovy imratar Beds, od matdepaoret, od didre?, od 
Bualerat, Kaitot moAAat Kat Kadat Kat viv ere 
yuvatkes kal Ardas edapeméotepar Kat LepedAns 
dicpwarorepa, preipakia O€ copaLorepa Kal mohure- 
KaTEpA TOO Dpuyiov Bourodov. mod viv exeivos 6 
deTOs ; 700 be 0 KUKVOS 5 706 be adros | 6 Zevs; 
yeynpaxe pera Tob T7TEpod: ov yap Sy7rov peTavoet 
Tols epwrikots ovdé TrawWeveTal Gwdpoveiy. yupL- 
votrat dé but 6 pb80s: amébavev 7) Arjda, amébavev 
Oo IUKVOS, ameBavev O dros. Cyrer cov tov Aia: 
p47) TOV ovpavev, adda THY yiv Tohumpaypovet. 6 
Kpzjs cou OunynoeTar, map @ Kat TélarTar, KadXi- 

juaxos ev Upvots 

\ iN / = ” A 
Kal yap Tadov, W ava, ceto 
Kpfres érextivarto. 

Tene yap 6 Levs (9) dvadopet) ws Axa, os 
KUKVOS, ws aeTos, ws avbpwmos epwtiKds, ws 
1 <6> inserted by Sylburg. 
@ i.e. Ganymedes ; see pp. 69 and 111. 
> Callimachus, Hymn to Zeus 8-9. This claim of the 
Cretans to possess the tomb of Zeus is said to have earned 

for them their traditional reputation as liars. The two lines 
of Callimachus, when read in full, distinctly assert this. 



gracious, the author of all oracles, the avenger of cHapP. 
crime! Rather he ought to be called the unjust, © 
the unrestrained, the lawless, the unholy, the 
inhuman, the violent, the seducer, the adulterer, the 
wanton lover. Still, there was life about him in These 
those days, when he was all this, when he was a man ; esac tn 
but by this time even your legends appear to me to Zeus was 
have grown old. Zeus is no longer a snake, nor a ie 
swan, nor an eagle, nor an amorous man. He is not 

a god who flies, or corrupts boys, or kisses, or 
ravishes; and yet there are still many beautiful 
women left, fairer even than Leda and nearer their 

prime than Semele, and lads more blooming and 

more refined than the Phrygian herdsman.* Where 

is now that famous eagle? Where is the swan? 
Where is Zeus himself? He has grown old, wings 

and all. For you may be sure he is not repentant 
because of his love affairs, nor is he training himself 

to live a sober life. See, the legend is laid bare. 

Leda is dead; the swan is dead; the eagle is dead. 
Search for your Zeus* Scour not heaven, but earth. 
Callimachus the Cretan, in whose land he lies buried, 

will tell you in his hymns: 

for a tomb, O Prince, did the Cretans 
Fashion for thee.? 

Yes, Zeus is dead (take it not to heart), like Leda, But now 
like the swan, like the eagle, like the amorous man, 2°"5* 4e4 
like the snake. 

They run as follows : 

Cretans ever do lie; for a tomb, O Prince, did they fashion 
Even for thee ; but thou art not dead, for thy life is unending. 

Cp. Titus i. 12, and, for a discussion on the burial-place of 
Zeus, A. B, Cook, Zeus, i. 157-163, 



33 P. 


"Hdn dé Kai adroit daivovra of Seodatpoves 
aKkovTes ev, Guws 8 obv ovvevtes THY TAdYHY THY 
mept Tovs Beovs: 

> \ > \ / > / 2 W343 \ / 
ov yap azo Spuds eiot radauparov 08d’ amo 7éTpys, 

_ > =) nn 4 2) ve \ Ay eh: \ / 
adr’ avdpav yévos eta, juuxpov d€ VaTEpov Kal Spves 
ovtes edpeOjoovTaL Kal métpat. “Ayapéuvova yoov 
/ ~) 4 an ze ¢e an 
twa Ata ev Lmdprn Tysadobar Ltddvdros toropet: 
MavordAjs de ev "Epwow 71 Kadots >Ayapéuvova 
tov ‘EAAjvwv Baoiréa ’Apyvvvov vey "Adpodirns 
tatacGat em "Apytvva TO epwuervw. “Apreuw 
dé “Apkddes ’"Amayxomevny KaAoupLevny TpoaTpemrov- 
a | i / >’ > / \ 
Tat, ws pnor KaddAiayos ev Airiow. Kat Kov- 
duAizis ev Mnfipurn érépa tetiuntar "Apres. 
” A A 4 y+ 5 4 , ~ 
€oTt O€ Kal Iloddypas aAAns *Apréutdos ev TH 
Aaxevurh tepov, ws dyau XwoiBvos. TloA€ponv d€ 
Keynvoros *AmdAAwvos otdev ayaAwa, Kat “Oxso- 
dayov | mdAw *AmdAdAwvos dAdo év "HAW. Tysd- 
>] ~ b /, sf 4 > ~ 
pevov. evTavla “Amouviw Au @vovocw ”HAetor: 
‘Pwpator d€ “Amouviw ‘HpakdAet cai Iluper@ Se 

1 4 Leopardus. rots Sylburg. rie mss. 

* Homer, Odyssey'xix. 163. The gods were not, according 
to Clement, primeval beings, but simply men with a human 

’ Clement seems to allude to his passage about the statues 
p. 101 and onwards. 

‘ A local cult of Agamemnon (such as the one which 
existed at Clazomenae—Pausanias vii. 5. 11) had evidently 
been combined with the worship of Zeus. See Athenagoras, 
Apology i. 

“ Staphylus, Frag. 10 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 506. 

¢ Phanocles, Frag. 5 Bach. Cp. Athenaeus, p. 603. 



But it is clear that even the daemon-worshippers 
themselves are coming to understand, though against 
their will, the error about the gods; for 

Not from the ancient oak nor rock do they take their 

No; they are of the race of men, though very shortly 
they will be found to be nothing but oaks and rocks.® 
There is a Zeus Agamemnon’ honoured at Sparta, 
according to Staphylus?; and Phanocles, in his book 
entitled Loves, or Fair Youths, says that Agamemnon 
the king of the Greeks set up a temple to Aphrodite 
Argynnus, in honour of Argynnus whom he loved.® 
Arcadians worship an Artemis called “the goddess 
who is hanged,’ as Callimachus says in his Causes/; 
and at Methymna another, an Artemis Condylitis, 
is honoured. There is also another, a “gouty” 
Artemis, with a shrine in Laconia, as Sosibius says.” 
Polemon knows a statue of “yawning” Apollo; and 
another, too, of Apollo “the epicure,’ honoured in 
Elis These Eleans sacrifice to Zeus “averter of 
flies,’ * and the Romans to Heracles of the same title, 

/ Artemis seems to have been ‘‘hanged” annually at 
Condylea in Arcadia. See Pausanias viii. 23. 6, where the 
children are probably imitating some ancient ritual. Full 
discussion in Frazer, Adonis, Attis, Osiris, i. pp. 288-297. 
See also Callimachus, Frag. 3 Schneider. 

9 Condylitis may mean “striking,” from kovdurigev. But 
possibly this is another form of ‘*‘ Artemis of Condylea,” 
called Artemis Condyleatis in Pausanias viii. 23. 6. 

r Sosibius, Frag. 14 Frag. hist. Graec. ii. p. 628. 

¢ Polemon, Frag. 71 Frag. hist. Graec. iii. p. 135. See 
Athenaeus, p. 346. 

k See Frazer, Golden Bough, part 5, vol. ii. p. 282 
(3rd ed.). 



The witness 
of Greek 
their own 


CAP. Kal DoBw Ovovow, ods Kal avrovs peta TOV apudt 
zov “Hpakréa eyypadovow. &€& dé "Apyetous- 
’"Adpoditny TupBwpvyov OpynoKkevovow ’Apyetor kat 
/ af \ le a af ~ 
Adkwves,) kat XeAvtiba 5é “Aptreuw Lrapriarar 
o¢Povow: émet TO Pyttew xeAUTTeEw Kadodow. 
Ote. mofév rapéyypanta? ratra cor KopilecBar 
Ta 0p Hu@v mapaTiléueva; ovdE TOs Gods yvwpl- 
Cew €ouxas ovyypadets, ovs eya) paptupas emi THV 
a1v amotiav KaA@, abéov xAevyns, @ SetAatou, Tov 
mavTa vua@v aBiwrov ovtws Biov éumemAnkotas.® 
= ee / \ \ > ” A \ 
ovyxt pevtor Leds dadaxpos ev "Apyer, Tywwpds dé 
aAdos ev eae retipnoboy *; ody de “Adpodiry 
mepipacot® ev “Apyetou, éraipa de AGyvator Kat 
kadhurrbyep © Ovovow Lvpaxovaotor, nv Nikavdpos 
6 mowntns “‘KadXlyAoutév”” mov KéKAnKkev; Avo- 
\ ” ~ \ / / 
vuoov b€ 70n oww7@ Tov yoipoysdAav: LiKvasveoe 
TovTOV mpooKuvotow emi THY yuvatkelwy Ta€avTEs 
tov Aidvucov popiwyv, éfopov aicyous Tov UBpews 
aePalovres apynyov. Tovide ev adtots ot Oot, 
/ A >? / / > A la \ 
Towoide Kal avToi, matilovtes ev Beots, wadAdov dé 
eutrailovtes Kal evuBpilovres odiow atrois. Kal 
/ / > / \ \ \ / 
moow PeAtious Aiy¥mtior Kwundov Kal KaTa TOAeELs 
\ a” ~ , / ” iA 
Ta ddoya TV Cawy exteTyLnKoTes Hep “EAAnves 
Totovtous mpookuvobtvtes Oeovs; Ta pev yap «el 
\ / > > > / > > > / \ 
Kat Onpia, add’ od poryixad, add’ od paxdAa, mapa 
/ \ / ¢ \ OA 7 ¢ \ ¢ a 
weet de Onpever ndoviv ode Ev. of Se OzrotoL, 
kai Adxwves placed by Stahlin after ’Apyeéous (1. 2). 
ens mapéyypanrra Stihlin. wddev rapayéyparrac MSs. 
3 éumemAnxoras Stahlin. éumremdnKdres Mss. 
4 reriunobov Sylburg. reriurjoOwy Mss. 

5 repiBacot Dindorf. epi8acin mss. 
6 ckaddurvyw Sylburg. Kkaddcripyw Mss. 

4 Nicander, Frag. 23 Schneider. 



as wel] as to “ Fever” and “ Fear” which they even 
enroll among the companions of Heracles. I pass 
by the Argives; Aphrodite the “ grave-robber” is 
worshipped by them, as well as by the Laconians. 
Furthermore, Spartans venerate Artemis Chelytis or 
the “coughing”’ Artemis, since the verb corresponding 
to Chelytis is their word for “to cough.” 

Do you think that the examples which I am 
adducing are brought to you from some improper 
source? Why, it seems as if you do not recognize 
your own authors, whom I call as witnesses against 
your unbelief. Alas for you! They have filled your 
whole life with godless foolery, until life has become 
truly intolerable. Tell me, is there not a “bald” 
Zeus honoured in Argos, and another, an “ avenger,” 
in Cyprus? Do not Argives sacrifice to Aphrodite 
divaricatria, Athenians to her as “courtesan,” and 
Syracusans to her “ of the beautiful buttocks,” whom 
the poet Nicander® has somewhere called “of the 
beautiful rump”? I will be silent about Dionysus 
chowropsalas. The Sicyonians worship this Dionysus 
as the god who presides over the woman’s secret 
parts; thus they reverence the originator of licen- 
tiousness, as overseer of what is shameful. Such, 
then, is the character of the Greek gods; such, 
too, are the worshippers, who make a mockery of 
the divine, or rather, who mock and insult them- 
selves. How much better are Egyptians, when in 
cities and villages they hold in great honour the 
irrational animals, than Greeks who worship such 
gods as these? For though the Egyptian gods are 
beasts, still they are not adulterous, they are not 
lewd, and not one of them seeks for pleasure contrary 
to its own nature. But as for the character of the 

D2 83 


from Greek 

animal gods 
are better 
than these 


CAP. Ti Kal p71) déyew ETL, ATOYPWVTWS avTav dieAn- 
" Neypevov; 
“AM otv ye Atyorrvo, dv vov 81 env ody, 
34P. KATO Tas rents | Tas cpa éoxédavTar' aéBovat 
d€ adtav Luynvirart daypov tov ixOvv, warty de 
(@Mos* obtos (xOvs) of tH "EXehaytivyny oikodvtes, 
‘Okupuyxirae Tov depwvupov THs xwpas avTav 
dpolws tyOuv, ere ye prv “HpakdAeoroXtrar iyved- 
pova, Latrar dé kai WnBator mpoPatov, AvxKo- 
qoXtrat d€ AVKov, KuvoroAirar b€ KUva, Tov *ATw 
Mepdirar, Mevdjowor tov tpayov. tyets de ot 
mavT apetvous Atyurtiwv (xv dé eizety yxetpous), 
ot Tovs Alyumrious oonépar yeA@vtes od Travecbe, 
motol* twes Kat mept Ta ddoya CHa; Meooadoi pev 
UL@V TOVS mehapyovs TETULNKATL dua THY ovvn eva, 
OnBator d€ tas yards d1a Ty ‘HpaxAcous yeveow. 
Ti O€ maw Oerrahot; pvppnkas toTopobvTau 
o¢dBew, éemet tov Ala pepabyxacw opowlevta 
pvppnke TH KAjtopos Ouyatpit Etpupedovon pryjvac 
Kat Mupyiddva yevvicar: Tlodguwv b€ rods apdi 
77v Tpwdda Katouxobvtas totopet Tovs emtywpious 
pos <aeBew >,° ods opivOous Kadodow, ott Tas veupas 

1 Yunvira: Ortelius and Canter (in Sylburg). evnvirac Mss. 
2 &\rXos Potter. ds GAXos Mss. 
3 ravecbe Heinsius. mavceoGe Mss. 
4 rotol Wilamowitz. dézrofol Mss. 
° <¢éBew> inserted by Dindorf. 

@ The Apis bull was regarded as an incarnation of the god 
Ptah, or Osiris. Certain peculiar bodily marks distinguished 
him from other bulls, and when found he was tended with 
deep veneration in a shrine at Memphis. At his death 
there was great mourning, and a stately funeral. See 
Herodotus iii. 27-28. ’ See Herodotus ii. 46. 

¢ The story is given in Antoninus Liberalis, ch. 29. The 



Greek gods, what need is there to say more? They cuap. 

have been sufficiently exposed. I 
Egyptians, however, whom I mentioned just now, Examples of 

are divided in the matter of their religious cults, B&yPtsn 

The people of Syene worship the fish phagrus; the worship 

inhabitants of Elephantine another fish, the maeotes ; 

the people of Oxyrhynchus also worship a fish, that 

which bears the name of their land. Further, the 

people of Heracleopolis worship the ichneumon; of 

Sais and Thebes, the sheep; of Lycopolis, the wolf; 

of Cynopolis, the dog; of Memphis, the bull Apis %; 

of Mendes, the goat.2 But as for you, who are in 

every way better than Egyptians,—I shrink from 

calling you worse—you who never let a day pass 

without laughing at the Egyptians, what is your 

attitude with regard to the irrational animals? The 

Thessalians among you give honour to storks by But Greeks 

reason of old custom; Thebans to weasels on account also, worship 

of the birth of Heracles.¢ What else of Thessalians ? examples 

They are reported to worship ants, because they have °""" 

been taught that Zeus, in the likeness of an ant, had 

intercourse with Eurymedusa the daughter of Cletor 

and begat Myrmidon.4 Polemon relates that the 

dwellers in the Troad worship the local mice (which 

they call sminthoi), because these used to gnaw 

birth of Heracles was retarded by the Fates to please Hera. 
But Alemene’s companion Galinthias (cp. galé, a weasel) 
told them that the birth was by the will of Zeus, whereupon 
they ceased opposing it. They punished Galinthias, how- 
ever, by turning her into a weasel. When Heracles grew 
up he remembered her good deed and built her a shrine. 
The Thebans thereafter used to offer her the first sacrifice at 
the feast of Heracles. 

4 The legendary ancestor of the Myrmidons, a Thessalian 
tribe. The name may be connected with myrmex an ant. 



85 P. 


TOV TroAepuicov Overpwyov TOV Togwv" Kat LytvOvov 
’"AroAMAwva amo TaV pvdv exeivwv éemedrioay. 
‘H r O PS) \ b] K / ¢€ ~ \ \ > A. 
pakAetons dé ev Kriceow tep@v rept THY “Akap- 
vaviav dyno, évOa ro "Axtidy éoTw akpwrTrjpLov 
\ vn elie / Le / \ ¢ / A 
kat tod “Amdd\Awvos tot ’Axtiov TO tepov, tats 
/ / mn > \ \ / > 
pviats mpobvecbar Bodv. ovee puny Lapiwy ek- 
Ajcopa (™poBarov, WS gyow Evdopiwv, o€Bovat 
Ldyu.01) ovde Ys, TOV THY Dowikyny Lvpwv | Kar 
OLKOUVTEY, @v ot pev tas TEpLoTepas, ot be TOUS 
ixOis ottTw céBovor TEPLTTAS ws "HAciou tov Ata. 
Kiev dx: ézretd7) od Deol, ods OpyoKevere, atvOus 
emoxepacbat jou doKel ef OvTws elev Saipoves, 
devtépa TavTyn, ws vets hate, eyKatadeyopevot 
Taéer. el yap ovv daimoves, Alyvou TE Kal pLapot. 
” \ b] a \ > \ 4 \ / 
€oTt ev eheupety Kal avadhavdov ovtTw Kata 7dAeELS 
Saipovas emiywplovs TYyLnY émdpeTopevous, Tapa 
Kv6viows Mevédnpov, rapa Tyviots KaAAorayopay, 
\ / ” \ / > / 
mapa AnXious "Avov, mapa Aakwow ’AorpaPaxov. 
Tyatar d€ tis Kal Dadnpot Kata mpvuvav rpws: 
Kal 7) IIv@la ovverage Qew TAataebow ’Avdpo- 
/ \ f \ / \ / 
Kpatet Kat Anpoxpater kat KuxdAaiw Kat AevKwre 
tov Mydikav axpalovtwy aywvwv. €oTe Kal 

« Compare the story in Herodotus ii. 141, where Sen- 
nacherib’s army, invading Eeypt, was rendered useless by 
the ravages of mice. 

> Polemon, Frag. 31 Frag. hist. Graec. iii. p. 124. 

¢ Heracleides Ponticus, Fray. hist. Graec. ii. p. 197, 
note 2. See also Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, i. p. 45. 

4 Kuphorion, Frag. 6 Frag. hist. Graec. iii. p. 73. 

e The Syrian goddess Derceto was represented with the 
body of a fish, and her daughter Semiramis took the form 
ot a dove. See Diodorus ii. 4. 

‘ See Herodotus vi. 69. 



through their enemies’ bowstrings%; and they named cHapP. 
Apollo ‘Smintheus’ after these mice.? Heracleides, 
in his work on The Founding of Temples in Acarnania, 

says that on the promontory of Actium, where stands 

the temple of Apollo of Actium, a preliminary sacrifice 

of an ox is made to the flies.¢ Nor shall I forget the 
Samians, who, as Euphorion says, worship the sheep ;4 

no, nor yet the Syrian inhabitants of Phoenicia, some 

of whom worship doves, and others fishes,’ as ex- 
travagantly as the Eleans worship Zeus. 

Very well! since they whom you serve are not Perhaps 
gods, | am resolved to make a fresh examination to eee 
see whether it is true that they are daemons, and secondary 
should be enrolled, as you say, in this second rank of oe 
divinities. For if they really are daemons, they are 
greedy and foul ones. We can discover perfectly 
clear examples of daemons of local origin who glean Examples of 
honour in cities, as Menedemus among the Cythnians, 970". o. 
Callistagoras among the Tenians, Anius among heroes 
the Delians and Astrabacus among the Laconians./ 
Honour is paid also at Phalerum to a certain hero “ at 
the stern,’ and the Pythian prophetess prescribed 
that the Plataeans should sacrifice to Androcrates, 
Democrates, Cyclaeus and Leucon when the struggles 
with the Medes were at their height.” And the man 

g This hero is Androgeos, on account of whose death at 
Athens the annual tribute of seven youths and seven maidens 
was imposed by his father Minos upon the Athenians ; from 
which they were delivered by Theseus. A scholiast, com- 
menting on this passage, says that figures of Androgeos 
were set ‘‘at the stern of ships.” Phalerum was the ancient 
port of Attica, whence according to tradition Theseus em- 
barked on his journey to Crete. See Pausanias i. 1. 2-4. 

% See Plutarch, Aristeides xi. 




36 P. 


dAdous traproAAovs avvidety Saiwovas TH ye Kal 
opuKpov Siabpetv duvapeven* 

\ \ 4 / > Se % \ Ul 
Tpis yap pUpLot elow emt yGovi trovAuBoTeipyn 
daipoves abdvaro., PvAakes pepoTrwv avOputwr. 

TIVES etal ot purares, @ Bowcitue, Ly) Ploveons 
Aye. H OAAov ws obToL Kal of TOUTWY  ETUTYLOTE- 
por, ot peydror SaljLoves, O ‘AmoMuy, 7 “Apres, 
7) Antw, 7 Aneirnp, 7 Kopyn, 6 IlAovtwv, 6 
‘“HpakAjs, atros 6 Lets. adrW’ ouK dmoBpavat 
nds dvddrrovow, *Aoxpate, pu) dapaptdavew dé 
tows, ol auapTi@v OnTa ov TeTELpapevor. evtadla 
67) TO mapoyuddes emupbéyEacbar apworrer 


ce \ > / A as) 
matnp avovlérnta* 7atda vovbertet. 

El oF dpa Kal €lol dvdakes obToL, ovK Edvola TH 
Tmpos Has trepitabets, Tis dé Sucdamijs dnwAelas 
exopevor, KoAdKwY Sikny, eyypiuTTovTaL TH Biv, 
deAcalopmevor KaTV@. avToi mov eEouodoyobvra ot 
dalpoves THV yaoTpyLapylav THY avTOV, 

AoBijs Te KVions TE’ TO yap Adxopev yéepas HLETs, | 
déyovtes. tiva 8° av povny aAdAny, et pwvyy 
AdBovev Atyurrioy feot, ota aiAoupor Kal yarat, 
TporjoovT at 7) Thy ‘Opnpixny Te Kal mounTuKny, Tis 

Kvions Te Kal opapTuTiKTs idny ; TOLOLOE [LEVTOL 
¢ » 
map vutv ot Te Saipoves Kal of Deol Kal El TwWes 

1 agvovdérnra Wilamowitz. dvovOérnros Mss. 

@ Hesiod, Works and Days 252-253. Hesiod was a native 
of Ascra in Boeotia, which explains the two appellations 
that follow this quotation. 

> Kock, Comic. Attic. Frag. pp. 616-7, 



who is able to make even a slight investigation can CHAP. 
get a view of very many other daemons ; ; 

For thrice ten thousand dwell on mother earth, Witness of 
Immortal daemons, guards of mortal men.“ Hesiod 

Who are these guardians, thou Boeotian bard? Do 

not refuse to tell us. Or is it clear that they are 

these whom I have just mentioned, and others more 
honoured than they, namely the great daemons, 
Apollo, Artemis, Leto, Demeter, the Maiden, Pluto, Daemons, 
Heracles, and Zeus himself? But it is not to prevent ori ire 
us from running away that they guard us, poet of all one 
Ascra ! Perhaps it is to prevent us from sinning, 

seeing that they, to be sure, have had no experience 

of sins. Here indeed we may fitly utter the pro- 

verbial line, 

The father warns his child but not himself.? 

Yet if, after all, they really are guardians, they 

are not moved by feelings of good will towards us ; 

but, being intent upon your destruction, they beset 

human life after the manner of flatterers, allured They 

by the sacrificial smoke. In one place the daemons sppecaeh 
themselves admit this gluttony of theirs, when they ee 
Say, sacrifices 

Wine and odorous steam; for that we receive as our portion.°¢ 

If Egyptian gods, such as cats and weasels, were to Are they 
be endowed with speech, what other cry are they {)¥ Petter 
likely to give forth than this from Homer’s poems, Fsyptian 
proclaiming a love for savoury odours and cookery ? gods? 

Be that as it may, such is the character of the 

¢ Homer, Iliad iv. 49. 



¢€ / e (4 / / 9Q\ \ 3 
Auibeor womep Hpiovor KEeKAnvTat’ ovdE yap ovdE 

~ ~ > 
dvondtwv tuiv mevia mpos Tas THs daoePelas 


> ~ ~ € 5 
Dépe 5) ody Kal tobto mpocfdpev, ws ar- 
dvOpwrot Kat puodvOpwrot daipoves elev vpdv 
< \ \ ~ va | / > / ~ / 
of Geol Kat odyt Lovov emxyaipovtes TH PpevoBAaPera 
~ \ 
tav avOpmmwv, mpos S€ Kat avOpwroKtovias amo- 
\ / > 
Aavovtes* vuvi pev Tas ev oaTadio.s evdmAovs 
/ \ \ \ > / > / 
piroveuctas, vuvi dé Tas ev moA€uois avapilmous 
/ > \ / ¢e ~ / 
drotysias adopnas odiow ndovis mopiCopevot, 
émws étt pddvora éxorev avOpwreiwy avednv Eey- 
a / ” \ \ / \ ” 
dopetabar dovwv: dn dé Kata dAes Kat €bvn, 
otovel Aoyot emioxyibavtes, omovdas anyrnoav 
dvnepovs. “Apiotrouerns yodv 6 Meaojwos 7a 
l@wpryjrn Att tpraxooiovs anécdakev, tooavtas 
Sod Kal ToLavras KaAALEpety oldprevos ExaTouPas* €v 
. \ / 2 € lA 5 / r , 
ots Kat MedropTros Hv <o> + Aaxedaroviwv Baowrevs, 
~ ~ \ 
tepetov ebyevés. Tadpor 5é 7d eOvos, ot mept THY 
~ a a 
Tavpuxivy xeppovnoov Katoucobyres, ovs av TaV 

1 <g> inserted from Eusebius, Praep. Kv. iv. 16. 

« To understand the point of Clement’s onslaught against 
the ‘* daemons ” it must be remembered that the best Greek 
teachers of his age, such as Plutarch and Maximus of Tyre, 
used the doctrine of ‘‘ secondary divinities” as a means of 
preserving their own monotheism without altogether break- 
ing away from the popular mythology. According to them, 
the one Supreme God worked through many ministers, to 
whom worship could rightly be offered. Clement attacks 



daemons and gods you worship, and of the demigods 
too, if you have any called by this name, on the 
analogy of mules, or demi-asses; for you have no 
poverty—not even of words to form into the com- 
pounds needed for your impiety.” 


Come then, let us add this, that your gods are in- 
human and man-hating daemons, who not only exult 
over the insanity of men, but go so far as to enjoy 
human slaughter. They provide for themselves 
sources of pleasure, at one time in the armed contests 
of the stadium, at another in the innumerable 
rivalries of war, in order to secure every possible 
opportunity of glutting themselves to the full with 
human blood. Before now, too, they have fallen 
like plagues on whole cities and nations, and have 
demanded drink-offerings of a savage character. For 
instance, Aristomenes the Messenian slaughtered 
three hundred men to Zeus of Ithome, in the belief 
that favourable omens are secured by sacrifices of 
such magnitude and quality. Among the victims 
was even Theopompus, the Lacedaemonian king, a 
noble offering. The Taurian race, who dwell 
along the Taurian peninsula, whenever they capture 

this position from the moral standpoint ; the legends and 
the animal sacrifices prove that all these divinities, whether 
called gods, demigods, or anything else, were evil in char- 
acter; there was no distinction between Zeus and the 
humblest daemon. A clear and valuable account of the 
matter will be found in Dill, Roman Society from Nero, ete. 
pp. 422-4134, 



The gods 
delight in 


In the 
contests of 
the stadium 
In wars 


Examples : 

among the 


37 P. 


Eéve Trop” avrois eAwor, Tovtwy 61) TOV Kata 
OddatTav emTaiuKoTwr, avriKa pdra 7H Tavpicf 
katabvovow “Aprepsde: TavTas Gov TAS Quotas 
Evpurioys € eml oKnvias Tpaywoet. Movipos 0° toTo- 
pet ev TH TOV Oavpacioy ouvaywyh ev ITeady 
ths @errarias *Ayatov Bye ptarmoy IInAet Kat 
Xetpwve katabvecbar: Avxriovs + yap (Kpy7av d€ 
” SIN a T 
€Ovos elatv otto”) ’AvrixAeidns év Noorous dro - 
daivetat avOpwrovs anmoodartew TH Ati, Kal 
AeoBiovs Atov¥ow tiv opoiav mpocayew Ovatav 
Awaidas Aéyer: Dwxaets 5é (08d€ yap adrovs 
/ / ~ ) / \ 
mapaméepypsojar)—rovrovus IluoxAjs ev tpitw Iepi 
¢ , a / > , x | ¢ 
opovotas TH Tavpomodw “Aptéuide avpwrov odo- 
A 3 € A a, Q \ de ¢ af \ \ 
kauteiv® ioropet. “Epexlevs de 0 “Artuxos Kab 
Mdpuos o 0 ‘Pajratos Tas avr av eOuodtnv Ouyarépas: 
@v oO pev TH Depeparry, ws Ajpdparos ev TpPory 
Tpaypdovpevany, 6 6d€ Tots ‘Arrotporratots, 0 
Madpwos, ws Awpdfeos ev TH TeTAptn “ITadiKdv 

DiravOpwroi ye €k TovTwY KaTadaivovTaL ot 
daipoves* TOs be ody dotor avaddyws ot Sdevot- 
Oaiproves ; of peev OWTHPES eVpnLovjevol, ol Oe 
owrnpiay ALTOVJLEVOL rapa. TOV em Bova owT)- 
plas. Kaddepety yoty tomalovtes attots odds 

1 Avuxriovs from Eusebius. Xuxiouvs mss. 
2 otro: from Eusebius.  oiirws Mss. 
3 6\oxautecvy from Eusebius. odoxae?v Mss. 

«That is, in his play Iphigeneia among the Tawrians. 
See also Herodotus iv. 103. The Taurian peninsula is the 
modern Crimea. 

> Monimus, Frag. 1 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 454. 

¢ Anticleides, Frag. 9 Miiller, Seript. rerum Alex. Mag, 
p. 149. 



strangers in their territory, that is to say, men who cHap. 
have been shipwrecked, sacrifice them on the spot 1‘ 
to Tauric Artemis. These are your sacrifices which 
Euripides represents in tragedy upon the stage.% 
Monimus, in his collection of Wonderful Events, relates 
that in Pella of Thessaly human sacrifice is offered to ane 
Peleus and Cheiron, the victim being an Achaean.? ns 
Thus too, Anticleides in his Homecomings, declares 
that the Lyctians, a race of Cretans, slaughter men Human 
to Zeus; and Dosidas says that Lesbians offer a ane 
similar sacrifice to Dionysus.2 As for Phocaeans,— Lyctians, 
y : Lesbians, 

for I shall not pass them over either—these people are phocaeans 
reported by Pythocles in his third book On Concord to 
offer a burnt sacrifice of a man to Taurian Artemis.’ 
Erechtheus the Athenian and Marius the Roman b 
sacrificed their own daughters, the former to Perse- FSqugns 
phone, as Demaratus relates in the first book of his 
Subjects of Tragedy;/ the latter, Marius, to the 
« Averters of evil,’ as Dorotheus relates in the fourth 
book of his [takan History.9 

Kindly beings to be sure the daemons are, as So daemon- 
these instances plainly show! And how can the Wormppers 
daemon-worshippers help being holy in a correspond- camel ie 
ing way? The former are hailed as saviours; the aria 
latter beg for safety from those who plot to destroy 
safety. Certainly while they suppose that they are 

2 Dosidas (or Dosiades), Frag. 5 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. 
p. 400. 

e Pythocles, Frag. 4 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 489. 

* Demaratus, Frag. 4 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 379. 

9 Marius is said to have been warned in a dream to 
sacrifice his daughter Calpurnia, in order to obtain a victory 
over the Cimbri by whom he was hard pressed. Plutarch, 
Collect. parall. 20; Dorotheus, Frag. 3 Miiller, Script. rerum 
Alex. Mag. p. 156. 



88 P. 


avrovs AcdnjBacw dmoapdrrovres avOpcsrrous. od 
yap ov Tapa TOV TOTrov tepetov yiverau 6 povos, 
ovo Et “Aprepeot TUS kat Au ev tep@ dnbev Xwpien 
padrXrov 7 Opyn Kal pirapyvpia, aAdAous opotors 
Saijoow, él Peaptots 7) ev o0ots amoodatto TOV 
avOpwrov, |tcepov]+ lepetov éemudypicas, adda dovos 
EOTl Kal avoOpoKTacia 7 TovavTn Avaia. Ti 51) odv, 
® acopwtato TOV ddAcwv lao avOpurror, TO [ev 
Onpia Tepupevyopev Ta GViwEpa, KAY TOU TeEpL- 
TVXWpEV ApKw 7 AdovTt, ExTpeTrOUEOa, 

ws 5 ore Tis TE Spdxovra. ioc maXivopoos améorn 
odjpeos ev Byoogs, & b16 Te Tpopos eAAaBe yvia, 
as T° avexwpnoev: 

daijovas dé dAcfpiovs Kat aditypiovs éemuBovAous TE 
Kal pucavOpamovs Kat Avpe@vas ovtas mpoarobo- 
flevoe Kal GuVvievTes OvK ek\Tpémreabe OVSE ATTOOTPE- 
/ meh \ > / ¢ / an / 
deole; tid av Kat adnfevoatey of Kakol, 7 Tia 
nv > / Seer, ~ yA / 
av wdeAjoaev; avtixa yodv é€xyw aor feAtiova 
Tov tucdaTa@v tovtwy Oedv, TOV Sayrdvev, emt- 
detEar Tov avOpwmov, Tob ’AmdAAWVOS TOD pavTiKO 
\ ~ \ \ / / ¢ ~ 
tov Képov Kat tov LodAwva. dirdddwpos byuadv 
6 DoiBos, add’ od pirdvOpwrros. TpovdswKE TOV 
Kpotoov tov dirov Kat TOU probob exAabojevos 
(ovTw piAcdofos 7) avijyoye TOV, Kpotcov dua TOO 
“AdXvos ézt THY mupav. oUTw prdobvres ot Saipoves 
odnyotow «is TO Tip. GAN, @ dirAavOpwrorepe 
\ > / ro Wee / A A | 
Kat adAnbéctepe Tob “AméAAwvos dvOpwie, Tov emt 
THs TUpds otKTepov Sedeuevov, Kal od pEV, W 

1 [iepdv] Wilamowitz.  [lepetov] Potter. 

@ Fiomer, /liad iii. 33-35, 



offering acceptable sacrifices to the daemons, they cHap. 

quite forget that they are slaughtering human beings. 1!!! 

For murder does not become a sacred offering because 

of the place in which it is committed, not even if 

you solemnly dedicate the man and then slaughter 

him in a so-called sacred spot for Artemis or Zeus, 

rather than for anger or covetousness, other daemons 

of the same sort, or upon altars rather than in roads. 

On the contrary, such sacrifice is murder and human 

butchery. Why then is it, O men, wisest of al] Why not 

living creatures, that we fly from savage wild beasts ily vom 
i 3 S aemons 

and turn aside if perchance we meet a bear or a 28 from 

: savage 
lion, and beasts? 

As in a mountain glade when the wayfarer spieth a serpent, 
Swiftly turning his steps, his weak limbs trembling beneath 

Backward he maketh his way ;% 

yet when faced by deadly and accursed daemons, 

you do not turn aside nor avoid them, although you 

have already perceived and know quite well that 

they are plotters and man-haters and destroyers? 

What possible truth could evil beings utter, or 
whom could they benefit? At any rate, I can at 

once prove to you that man is better than these gods Men are 
of yours, the daemons; that Cyrus and Solon are ptt"t,., 
better than Apollo the prophet. Your Phoebus is eons 
a lover of gifts but not of men. He betrayed his of Croesus” 
friend Croesus, and, forgetful of the reward he had shows 
received (such was his love of honour), led the king 

across the river Halys to his funeral pyre. This is 

how the daemons love; they guide men to the fire! 

But do thou, O man of kinder heart and truer speech 

than Apollo, pity him who lies bound upon the pyre. 


39 P. 


LorAwv, poavrevoar Tv dAnBevar, ov dé, © Kiope, 
Kéevoov amoopeobijvas TV Trupay. owdpovncov 
vorarov _yoor, a) Kpoive, TO Traber perapabosy- 
aydpioTtés €oTw ov tmpookuvets, AauBaver Tov 
pucdov Kal jreTa TO ypvolov evdeTar madAW. Tédos 
apa ovy 6 daipwy, adAd 6 avOpwrds cot Aeyet- ob 
Aoga pavreverau Lohwv: ToOTOv evpycets © adn OA 
jovov, ® BapBape, Tov ypnopov: totrov én THs 
Tmupas Soxysdoets. 

“Obev Ezevoi prot Oavpdlew tio. moTté davraciats 
amaxGévtes of mp@tor wetAavypévor Sevovdayoviav 
avOpwtros KaTHyyetAav, Saijovas adwtypiovs vojo- 
Gerotvres oéBew, cite Dopwreds éexeivos Hv elite 
Mépors cite ddAos Tus, ot vews Kal Bayrods avéotyoav 
avTots, mpos de Kat Ovoias mapaorioar mp@Tor 
penvlevvTar. Kat yap 61) Kal Kata ypdvous 
votepov avérAattov Oeovs, ois mpookuvotev. apéAer 
tov "Epwra totrov <tov> ® év rots mpeaButarots TOV 
Oecy elval Aeyopevov eTILO. TpOoTepov obdé els mpiv 
7) Xdppov PLELPAKLOV TL ps, Kat Baov idptcacbar 
ev *Akadnuia XaproTnptov ° emiteAobs yevopLevngs 
emiJupiass Kal THs vocov THY acéAyerav “Epwra 
KeKAjKace, Deomrovobvres aKkoAacTov emBujutav. 
“AOnvator de ovoe TOV llava noecav OaTis HV, | mpiv 
9 Diria7idnv eireiv adrots. 

1 ebpjoes Canter. e& O7joes Mss. 
2 <rév> inserted by Markland. 
8 xapiorjpiov Valckenaer; see Protrepticus 27 P. (p. 64 
above) and 42 P. (p. 106). xapiéorepoy mss. 

« See the whole s story in Herodotus i. 30-33 and 85-88. 

>’ Cp. Pausanias i. 30. 1, Athenaeus xiii. p. 609 p; and, 
for the antiquity of Eros, Plato, Symposium 178 a-c, and 
Hesiod, Theogonia 120, with Paley’s note adloc, The ancient 



Do thou, Solon, utter an oracle of truth. Do thou, cHap, 

Cyrus, bid the flaming pyre be quenched. Come to 
thy senses at the eleventh hour, Croesus, when 
suffering has taught thee better. Ungrateful is he 
whom thou dost worship. He takes the reward of 
gold, and then deceives thee once again. Mark! it 
is not the daemon, but the man who tells thee the issue 
of life. Unlike Apollo, Solon utters no double-mean- 
ing prophecies. This oracle alone shalt thou find true, 
O barbarian. This shalt thou prove upon the pyre.@ 

I cannot help wondering, therefore, what delusive 
fancies could have led astray those who were the 
first to be themselves deceived, and the first also, by 
the laws they established for the worship of accursed 
daemons, to proclaim their superstition to mankind. 
I mean such men as the well-known Phoroneus, or 
Merops, or others like them, who set up temples 
and altars to the daemons, and are also said in legend 
to have been the first to offer sacrifices. There can 
be no doubt that in succeeding ages men used to 
invent gods whom they might worship. This Eros, 
for instance, who is said to be amongst the oldest 
of the gods,—why, not a single person honoured him 
before Charmus carried off a young lad and erected 
an altar in Academia, as a thank-offering for the 
satisfaction of his lust ; and this disease of debauchery 
is what men call Eros, making unbridled lust into 
a god!® Nor did Athenians know who even Pan 
was, before Philippides told them.¢ 

Kros was probably an earth-deity, or god of fertility, and in 
reality quite different from the winged child who accompanies 
Aphrodite and is the personification of human love. See 
Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, ii. pp. 625-6. 

¢ Herodotus vi. 105. 



How were 
the first 
led astray ? 

In later 
ages men 
freely in- 
vented gods 


40 P. 


> / + > / e / ~ 
Evkorws apa apynv Tobev 7) Sevotdatjrovia AaBodca 
Kaklas avojtov yéyove my: elra b€ pu) ava- 
a > > > > / > ~ \ \ \ 
kotretaa, add’ eis eridoow €Aotca Kat todd) 81) 
pvetoa, Ontovpyos 7oAAdv Kablioratar Satdvwr, 
exatoppas Ovovoa Kat mavyyvpets émiteAoboa Kal 
aydAwata avioTadoa Kal veds avoiKodopotea, Tovs + 
d7—ovd€ yap obd€ ToUTOUS OLWmHGOMaL, TpOS bE Kal 
> \ ’ / \ \ b) / > / 
avtovs e€eAéyEw—vews prev eddhiypws dvoyalope- 
vous, Tadous b€ yevoyevous [TouTéaoT. Tovs TAapous 
\ >’ Xr / 2 ¢€ lal be LAAa “ ~ 
vews emuKekAnpevous |.2 tyets be adda Kav viv 
devovdayovias éKAdbecbe, Todvs Tadovs Tiyav 
aloxuvopevor. ev TH vew THs “AOnvas ev Aapion 
3 land > / / > \ > / > / 
ev TH akpo7oAe tados éotiv ’Axpioiov, “Abjvnow 
si > > / / 7 > / 
d€ ev axpomdAe Kékpotros, ws dyow *Avtioxos 
ev T@ evatw Tov ‘loropidv. ti dé *EpryGouos; 
een > ~ A ~ / / ? / 
ovxyt ev TH) vew THS LLoAuddos Kexydevta; “tupa- 
3 \ ¢ > / \ / r | >? ~ 
padsos® d€ 6 EdudAmov kai Aaeipas obyi ev TO 
/ Cs acd / A e \ a > / : 
mepiporAw tod *EXevowiov tod bo TH aKkpo7ddAe; 
¢e \ A / > nese) > nn / 
at d€ Kedeot Ouyarépes obyi ev ’EAevotu tetadatar; 
Ti go. Katadéyw Tas <e&>* “YrepBopéwv yuvaikas ; 
¢ / A iA he > re / 
Yrepoyn kat Aaodixn KéxAnabor, ev TO ’Aptepioiw 
ev ArjAw Kexrdevobov, To 5é &v TH *ArroAAwWVOS 
Tob AnXiov €otiv tep@. Aedvdpros 5é KA€oyov ® év 
MiAjtw rebadba ev 7H Atdvpaiw dynoiv. evradba 
ths Aevkodpivns TO pvnpetov ode a€iov TrapeAPetv 
ezopevous Liyvwve TH Mouvdiw, } ev T@ lep@ tis 
A / 8 > M / c 7d 5 fs) \ \ 
ptéudsos ev | Mayvynoia Kexrndevtar, odde pu7v 
rovs Schwartz. ods Mss. 
[rouréore . . émexexAnuévouvs] Markland. 
*Iyucpados from Pausanias i. 5. 2, etc. tupapos Mss. 
<é& from Eusebius, Praep. Ev. ii. 6. 

KXéoxov Miiller from Arnobius vi. 6 and Apollodorus 
iii. 1. 2. «Aéapxov Mss. 


ao 8 & te 


We must not then be surprised that, once daemon- 

worship had somewhere taken a beginning, it became gy; 

a fountain of insensate wickedness. Then, not being 
checked, but ever increasing and flowing in full 
stream, it establishes itself as creator of a multitude 
of daemons. It offers great public sacrifices ; it” 
holds solemn festivals ; it sets up statues and builds 
temples. These temples—for I will not keep silence 
even about them, but will expose them also—are 
called by a fair-sounding name, but in reality they are 
tombs. But I appeal to you, even at this late hour 
forget daemon-worship, feeling ashamed to honour 



grew to its 


But the 
eu are 

tombs. In the temple of Athena in the Acropolis tombs, as 

at Larissa there is the tomb of Acrisius; and in the 
Acropolis at Athens the tomb of Cecrops, as Antiochus 
says in his ninth book of Histories And what of 
Erichthonius? Does not he lie in the temple of 
Athena Polias? And does not Immaradus, the son 
of Eumolpus and Daeira, lie in the enclosure of the 
Eleusinium which is under the Acropolis? Are not 
the daughters of Celeus buried in Eleusis? Why 
recount to you the Hyperborean women? They 
are called Hyperoche and Laodice, and they lie in 
the Artemisium at Delos; this is in the temple 
precincts of Delian Apollo. Leandrius says that 
Cleochus is buried in the Didymaeum at Miletus.? 
Here, following Zeno of Myndus, we must not omit 
the sepulchre of Leucophryne, who lies in the temple 
of Artemis in Magnesia ; nor yet the altar of Apollo 

¢ Antiochus, Frag. 15 Frag. hist. Graec. i. p. 184, 
> Leandrius (or Meandrius), Frag. 5 Mrag. hist. Graee. 
i. p. 336. The Didymaeum is the temple of Zeus and Apollo 
a Didyma near Miletus, 



CAP. TOV év Tedunoo® 1 Bupov Tob ‘AmoMavos: pvija 
M elvar Kal TobTov Tedunoood 2 rod pavrews ‘aropod- 
ow. IT roAcuaios d€ 6 TOO Aynodpxov ev TO a” 
TOV TEept TOV Dirordropa ev Hage Aye ev TO 
THs "Adpodirys t tep@ Kuvtpav TE Kal Tovs Kw¥pou 
amoyovous Keknoedobar. adda yap emdvTt jrot TOvS 

a / 
TpooKuvoupevous viv Tapovs 
>) \ \ o> ¢e ~ a“ > , 3 , 
Efol fev OVO 0 TGS av apKecat”® xpdvos: 

~ > \ / ~ 
buds de ef py vrevcépyeTat tis alcytvn Tov 
\ A 
ToAuwpevwv, verxpot apa TéeAcov ovTEes veKpots 
” / 
[ovrws | * wemorevKdtes meptépyecbe: 

> / / \ / / \ \ 

ad detdol, Ti Kakov TOdE TAOXETE; VUKTL pLeV 

eiAvarau Kedadal. 


> > ” \ / fd ¢€ aA \ > 4 
Ei 8 étue mpos tovtos fdépwv tuiv ta ayddr- 
pata avrTa emoKorety tapabeinv, emidvtes Ws aAn- 
nn ~ \ ~ 
OBs Afpov edpyjoete THY ovv7jfevay, “ epya yeipav 
avOpatrwr’’ avatobnra mpootpeTmopevor.” mdAat prev 
> € / ee ts , eo” \ ! 
otv ot LKvVOae Tov axwakyy, ot "ApaBes tov Aor, 
ot IIdpoa: tov motapov mpocexvvovrv, Kal TOv 

1 TeX\unoogs Staéhlin from Arnobius, and one ms. of 
Eusebius. vredApioo@ Mss. 

2 TeXunoood Stihlin. tedApiocod mss. 
dpxéoat from Eusebius. dpxéon mss. 
[dv7ws] Heyse. 

mpootpembuevor Potter. mpotperduevor MSS. 

ao & Ce 

« Ptolemaeus of Megalopolis, Frag. 1 Frag. hist. Graec. 
iii. p. 66. 


at Telmessus, which is reported to be a monument CHAP, 
to the prophet Telmessus. Ptolemaeus the son of 
Agesarchus in the first volume of his work About 
Philopator says that in the temple of Aphrodite at 
Paphos both Cinyras and his descendants lie buried.” 

But really, if I were to go through all the tombs 

held sacred in your eyes, 

The whole of time would not suffice my need.? 

As for you, unless a touch of shame steals over you 
for these audacities, then you are going about utterly 
dead, like the dead in whom you have put your 

Oh! most wretched of men, what evil is this that ye suffer? 
Darkness hath shrouded your heads.°¢ 


If, in addition to this, I bring the statues them- The images 
selves and place them by your side for inspection, ° ®5°4s 
you will find on going through them that custom @ is 
truly nonsense, when it leads you to adore senseless 

things, “the works of men’s hands.”’ In ancient 
. : : The first 
times, then, the Scythians used to worship the dagger, images were 

the Arabians their sacred stone, the Persians their “yous? 

river. Other peoples still more ancient erected stone 

> This verse is not found in Nauck’s collection of Tragic 
Fragments. The sense may be compared with that of St. 
John xxi. 25. 

¢ Homer, Odyssey xx. 351-352. 

4 Custom, 7.¢. inherited traditions about the gods and 
their worship, was pleaded by adherents of the old religions 
as a defence against Christian attack ; see p. 197. 

e Psalm cxv. 4. 

J 4.6, the Kaaba at Mecca. 





GAAwv avOpuiTwv ot ett madAadrepor EvAa tdpvov- 
To Tepipavy Kal Kiovas toTwy ek Aidwy: a dy 
Kal €oava mpoonyopeveTo dua TO dmefeabau THS 
vAns. dpener € ev ‘Ted pw THS "Aprépt6os TO ayaAwa 
gvAov ay ovK elpyaopévov, Kal THs Kufarpwvias 
“Hpas ev Meomeia Tpepvov EK KEKOLL|LEVOV® Kal TO 
Tis Lapias "Hpas, WS pyow "A€OXuos, TpoTepov 
bev hv oavis, DoTepov de ent II poxAéous dpxovTos 

: avdpiavToeLoes EYEVETO. €7TEL de dvOparrous | am- 

exovileoa Ta. foava TpEaro, Bpérn THY ex 
Bpotav éemwvuptav exapTUoaro. ev ‘Posun d€ TO 
maAatov dSdpu gyot yeyovevat TOU “Apews TO 
Soavov Oddppawv o 6 ovyypagers, ovdémw TOV TEXVE- 
Tov én THY Edmpdcwrrov TavTY KQKOTEXViaV 
ppnKoTav. erred) S€ HVvOnoev 4 TExXvN, NVENTEV 
” wAdvn. 

‘Os pev obv Tous AiBous Kat Ta EVAa Kal ouvedovre 
pavan Thy vAyv aydAuata avdpetkeAa emounoavTo, 
ots emywoppacere evoePevav ouKopavTodvres TV 
aAnBevar, on pev advtobev dHArov- od pay ada. 
Kal dmodeifews Toons emdeopevov TOU TOTFOU ov 
TapartnrEeov. TOV [Lev ov "Odvprriaae Aia Kat 
TI “AOnynoe TloAvada &x xpvoob Kat edepavTos 
KatacKkevaca. Dediav mavti mov cadés: To de ev 
Lauw THs “Hpas Edavov Lpirrde TG? EvicAcidou 
memrounota ‘Odvpmixos ev Lapwarois é CoTopet. 22) 
ovv audiBaArreTe, ef THY Veuvav “AOjvnot as bi 

1 Sulttde 7G Cobet. ome 77 MSS. 

@ Aéthlius of Samos, Fr. 1 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 287. 

> Varro, Ant. rer. div. xvi. Fr. 34 Agahd (Jahrb. class. 
Phil., nee Suppl. Bd. p. 210), and cp. S. Augustine, Civ. 
Dei iv. 

¢ Gras Fr. 1 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 466, 



conspicuous wooden poles and set up pillars of CHAP. 

stones, to which they gave the name xoana, meaning 
scraped objects, because the rough surface of the 
material had been scraped off. Certainly the statue 
of Artemis in Icarus was a piece of unwrought timber, 
and that of Cithaeronian Hera in Thespiae was a 
felled tree-trunk. The statue of Samian Hera, as 
Aéthlius says, was at first a wooden beam, but after- 
wards, when Procles was ruler, it was made into 
human form. When these rude images began to be 
shaped to the likeness of men, they acquired the 
additional name breté, from brotot meaning mortals. 
In Rome, of old time, according to Varro the prose- 
writer, the object that represented Ares was a spear,? 
since craftsmen had not yet entered upon the fair- 
seeming but mischievous art of sculpture. But the 
moment art flourished, error increased. 

made into 
human form 

It is now, therefore, self-evident that out of stones Proof by 

and blocks of wood, And. in one word, out of matter, 
men fashioned statues resembling the human form, 
to which you offer a semblance of | piety, calumniating & 
the truth. Still, since the point calls for a certain 
amount of argument, we must not decline to furnish 
it. Now everyone, I suppose, will admit that the 
statues of Zeus at Olympia and Athena Polias at 
Athens were wrought of gold and ivory by Pheidias ; 
and Olympichus in his Samian History relates that 
the image of Hera in Samos was made by Smilis the 
son of Eucleides.© Do not doubt, then, that of the 
goddesses at Athens called “venerable” 4 two were 

@ These are the same as the Erinyes, goddesses of 
vengeance, mentioned on p. 53. They were called 
Eumenides, the kindly ones, and at Athens Semnai, the 
venerable ones, these titles being euphemistic substitutes 
for their real and dreaded name. 103 


that all 
images of 
gods are the 
work of men 


42 P. 


vov bedv Tas ev dV0 UkoTas emolnoev ex Tob Kadov- 
jevov Avxvews AiGou, KddAws 5€ tiv peony avraiv: 
toropobyra EX” cout [loAduwva Devey oven ev Th 
TeTapTy Tov pos Tipasov: pnd” el? ra ev [lardpots 
THs Avxias nonnars Awos kat ’AmdéAAwvos Pew0ias 

maAw éxetvos® [ra dyahwara |* Kabdcrep TOUS Aéov- 
Tas Tovs ovv avTots Buaieciecuons elpyaoras el O€, 
as pact TWES, Bpudgvos vite TEXVT] ov Svadepopiat: 
€xets Kal ToOTOV aya jearoupyov" O70 Epov avTotv 
Bovde emlypade. Kal pay TeAcotov TOU "AGnvatov, 
ws dyno DiAcxopos, epyov elo dydAwaro evvea- 
mxn Llocedadvos Kat “Apdutpirns ev Tire mT™poo- 
KUVOU[LEVG.. Anpajrptos yap ev devTEpw TOV “Ap- 
yoducav Too ev Tipuv6e THS “Hpas Eodvov Kal THV 
vAnv oyxvyy Kal TOV ToOLnTHV “Apyov dvaypaper. 
moAXot § av Taxa. mov Gavudaceav, €t _abovev TO 
TaAAddvov TO Ouomreres ahovpevor, | 6 Avop7dns 
kat *Odvoceds totopodvrar pev dpedcoHar G70 
*TXiov, mapaxatabécba dé AnuoddvT, éKk TaV 
IiéAom0s doTa@v Kateckevdobar, Kaldmep Tov 
"Odvpmov €€ dAAwv dotadv *IvduKod Onpiov. Kat 


67) Tov totopotvTa Aroviciov ev TO TéuTTTw pLEpeEt 
Tob Kukdov mapiornu. *“AmeAXGs 5é€ ev Tots 

1 riv peony . . co Jahn. fy péony adraiv ioropotvrat 
éxovoal MSS. 

2 und’ ef Miinzel. pundé mss. 

3 éxetvos Wilamowitz. éxeiva Mss. 

= 5 bra aydé\para] Stéhlin. [add .. dydduara] Heyse. 
5 » Wilamowitz. vy mss. 

« Lychneus is mentioned by Athenaeus (205 F) as a 
stone from which images were made. It is probably the 
same as lychnites, which according to Pliny (Nat. Hist. 
xxxvi. 14) was a name given to Parian marble, because it 

104 ¢ 


made by Scopas out ef the stone called /ychneus,” oHap. 
and the middle one by Calos; I can point out to wee a 
the account given by Polemon in the fourth volume 
of his work Against Timaeus.o Neither doubt that 
the statues of Zeus and Apollo in Lycian Patara 
were also wrought by the great Pheidias, just as 
were the lions that are dedicated along with them. 
But if, as some say, the art is that of Bryaxis, I do 
not contradict. He also is one of your sculptors; 
put down which of the two you like. Further, 
the nine-cubit statues of Poseidon and Amphitrite 
worshipped in Tenos are the work of the Athenian 
Telesius, as Philochorus tells us.© Demetrius in his 
second book of Argolic History, speaking of the image 
of Hera in Tiryns, records its material, pear-tree 
wood, as well as its maker, Argus.¢ Many would 
perhaps be astonished to learn that the image of Pallas 
called “ heaven-sent’”’ (because it fell from heaven),’ 
which Diomedes and Odysseus are related to have 
stolen away from Troy, and to have entrusted to the 
keeping of Demophon, is made out of the bones of 
Pelops, just as the Olympian Zeus is also made out of 
bones,—those of an Indian beast. I give you, too, 
my authority for this, namely Dionysius, who relates 
the story in the fifth section of his Cycle Apellas 
eas quarried in underground pits by lamplight (lychnos= 

semen, Fr, 41 Frag. hist. Graec. iii. p. 197. 

¢ Philochorus, Fr. 185 Frag. hist. Graec. i. pp. 414-15. 

¢ Demetrius of Troezen, Fr. 5 Diels (Frag. hist. Graee. 
iv. p. 383). 

* Compare this with the image of Artemis at Ephesus, 
mentioned in Acts xix. 35, which is also called diopetes, or 
‘‘ fallen from heaven” (R.V. margin). 

/ ae. the tusks of an elephant. 

¢ Dionysius, Fr. 5 Frag. hist. Graec. ii. pp. 9-10. 



CaP. AcAgucots dvo dyat yeyoveva Ta IladAdéxa, dyupoo 
Y 8 on avOputrav Sednpvoupyjabae. aAd’ OTs 
pndels vrroAaBy Kal Tatra pe ayvoia TOpELKevat, : 
mapabjconat tod Moptyou Atovtcov to dyadpya 
3 / / \ > A , / 
Adnvnot yeyovevat pev ex Tod dedAAdTa KaAovpEvov 
Aifov, épyov S€ etvar Likwvos tot Etmaddpov, ws 

/ ” > ~ > / 2 \ \ 
dyna Todguwy ev tur emiatoAR. eyevécOnv? d€ Kai 
+ A / "6 \ +. > \ 
aAAw twe dvw Kpyrika oiwar avdpravrotow 
(XKvAdis 2 Kai Atzowos wropalécbnv): tovTw de 
7a ev “Apyer totv Atookotvpow aydAuata Kart- 

/ \ A > / ¢e / > 
eoxevacdTny Kat Tov ev TipuvO. ‘HpakdAgous av- 
dpiavta Kat To THs Movvuxias ’Apréuidos Edavov 
ev Lukvave. 
Kai ri mept ratra diarpifw, e€ov adrov Tov 

, Qe ) z ¢ s a \ 
peyaAodatova opiv emdetfar Ootis Hv, ov 81 
Kat e€oynv mpos mavtwy oeBaopod KaTng vw Levov 
aKOVOLLEY, TobTov <év> * axerpomrointov etrrety TE- 
ToAunKaow, tov Aty’mTuov Ldpamw ; ot pev yap 
avTov toropodow XaproTnprov b70 Luwwréwv Iro- 
Acuaiw 7TH DiraddAdw TH Atyurric meupOivar 
Baore?, ds Awd TpUXopLevous avTovs am Atytarou 
petarrepisapevous ® airov [6 IroAenatos | ® avexrn- 

s: \ \ / A ” 7 
oaTo, evar dé TO Edavov TobTo adyadua [Aovtwvos: 
¢ x a / \ 3 5 / 68 a ~ 
6 6€7 deEduevos TOV avdpiavTa Kabidpvoev em! Tis 

mapeckévat Sylburg. mapyxévac MSs. 
éyevéoOnv Sylburg. ‘yevéoOny Mss. : 
8 Y«vAXs Sylburg (from Pausanias ii. 15.1, etc.). é«drys 


4 <éy> inserted by Markland. 

> werameupauerous Sylburg. meTaTrenWauevos MSS, 
6 [6 IroNeuatos] Arcerius. 

7 6 6¢ Heyse. ds mss. 


in his Delphic History says that there are two such 
images of Pallas, and that both are of human work- 
manship.# I will also mention the statue of Mory- 
chian Dionysus at Athens,—in order that no one 
may suppose me to have omitted these facts through 
ignorance,—that it is made out of the stone called 
phellatas,> and is the work of Sicon the son of 
Eupalamus, as Polemon says in a certain letter.¢ 
There were also two other sculptors, Cretans I believe, 
whose names were Scyllis and Dipoenus. This pair 
made the statues of the Twin Brothers at Argos, 
the figure of Heracles at Tiryns and the image of 
Munychian Artemis at Sicyon.4 

But why do I linger over these, when I can show 
you the origin of the arch-daemon himself, the one 
who, we are told, is pre-eminently worthy of venera- 
tion by all men, whom they have dared to say is 
made without hands, the Egyptian Sarapis?®” Some 
relate that he was sent by the people of Sinope as 
a thank-offering to Ptolemy Philadelphus king of 
Egypt,’ who had earned their gratitude at a time 
when they were worn out with hunger and had sent 
for corn from Egypt; and that this image was a 
statue of Pluto. On receiving the figure, the king 

« Apellas, Fr. 1 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 307. 

» I'he scholiast describes this as a rough stone quarried 
from Phelleus, a rocky district of Attica; cp. Aristoph. 
Clouds 71. 

¢ Polemon, Fr. 73 Frag. hist. Graec. iii. p. 136. 

4 For Scyllis and Dipoenus see Pausanias ii. 22. 5, ete. 

¢ An account of Sarapis-worship, showing its wide dif- 
fusion at this time, will be found in Dill, Roman Society 
from Nero, ete. pp. 560-584. 

’ A different version of this story is to be found in 
Plutarch, [sis and Osiris ch. xxviii. 

E 107 


Even the 
is man’s 

versions of 
its origin 



dcpas, iy vov ‘Pax@tw Kadrotow, évba Kat 7d 
tepov TeryiyTae Tob Lapamisos, yeuTed d€ Tots 
tomrots + TO Xewpiov. BAtotiyny * dé THY maAAaKida 
TedevTH}oACGr € ev KavaiBw wetayaywv o IroAenatos 
eGayev bro Tov mpodednAwpevov onkov. dAdo dé 
dact Hovruxoy elvar Bpéras Tov Udpanw, per Pac 
dé els “AdcSdv8perav pera. TYLAS Tavyyupurts. 
"LoiSwpos pLovos mapa LeAevKewy THv Tos ’ Avtto- 
xetg © TO ayaAya peraxOjvae Aéyer, ev aitodeia 

Kal avT@v yevopLeveny Kal U7r0 IlroAepaiou Svatpa- 

. PEVTOW. aN’ 6 ye “A€nvddwpos | 6 Tob ci die 

apxailew TOV Udpamu Bovdnfeis ovK otd° Omens * 

TEPLETIEGEV, edeyas avTov ayaAua e€tvac _yernrov: 
Leoworpiv yo TOV Aiybrtvov Baowréa, Ta mActoTa 
TOV Trap: "EAAnot trapaornodsrevov evar, emrave)- 
Oovra, els Alyurtov emayayeoba Texviras txavovs* 
tov ovv “Ootpw TOV mporeirope: Tov avtod da- 
SaAPivae exéAevoev adres ° roduTehas, Kkatackevdler 
d€ adrov Bpvagis 6 Onpuoupyos, ovx 6 *A@nvatos, 
aAdos dé Tus OM@vupos eKelvVa TO Bpudgiar: és 
vAn KATAKEXpyTaL els Snwoupyiav PUTA Kal 
TOLKIAy. pina yap xpvood Hv avrT@ Kal dpytpov 
xadKod Te Kal avdipov Kal poAlBSov, mpds Sé Kal 
KaOGLTEpou, AiGov be Alyurtiwv évéder ovd€ efs, 
campetpov Kal aljatitov Opavopara opapaySov TE, 
ad\Aa Kal ToTragiou. Aeavas obv Ta pity . Gee 
wanes Expwoe Kudvw, od 517) yapw jeAavTepov 

‘ rapos Mayor. (The map of ancient Alexandria shows 
the Serapeum to be adjacent to Necropolis.) But rémos= 
Tages in Euripides, Heracleidae 1041. 

| Bhiorlxny Dindorf. BXlorixiy Mss, 

2 ’Avrioyela Cobet. dvridxevay Mss. 

4 67m Schwartz: Stahlin. 



set it up upon the promontory which they now call cHap, 
Rhacotis, where stands the honoured temple of 
Sarapis; and the spot is close to the burial-places. 
And they say that Ptolemy had his mistress Blistiche, 
who had died in Canobus, brought here and buried 
under the before mentioned shrine. Others say that 
Sarapis was an image from Pontus, and that it was 
conveyed to Alexandria with the honour of a solemn 
festival. Isidorus alone states that the statue was 
brought from the people of Seleucia near to Antioch, 
when they too had been suffering from dearth of 
corn and had been sustained by Ptolemy. But 
Athenodorus® the son of Sandon, while intending 
to establish the antiquity of Sarapis, stumbled in 
some unaccountable way, for he has proved him to 
be a statue made by man. He says that Sesostris 
the Egyptian king, having subdued most of the 
nations of Greece, brought back on his return to 
Egypt a number of skilful craftsmen. He gave 
personal orders, therefore, that a statue of Osiris his 
own ancestor should be elaborately wrought at great 
expense; and the statue was made by the artist 
Bryaxis,—not the famous Athenian, but another of 
the same name,—who has used a mixture of various 
materials in its construction. He had filings of gold, 
silver, bronze, iron, lead,and even tin; and not a single 
Egyptian stone was lacking, there being pieces of 
sapphire, hematite, emerald, and topaz also. Having 
reduced them all to powder and mixed them, he 
stained the mixture dark blue (on account of which 
the colour of the statue is nearly black), and, mingling 

« Athenodorus, Fr. 4 Frag. hist. Graec. iii. pp. 487-88. 

5 a’rots Wilamowitz: Stahlin. 



44 P, 


TO Xp@pa Tod aydAwatos, Kal TH ex THs ’Oaipidos 
Y Kal Tob “Amos Kyd€las SrroAeAeyppevep Papparw 
pupdoas Ta, madre dvemAacev TOV Ldparw: ob Kal 
Tovvopa alviTTeTaL THY KoWWViaY THS Kndelas Kal 
TV €k THS Taphs Onpvoupytav, avvieTov amo TE 
*Ocipidos Kati “Amos YEVO[LEVOV "Ocipamts. 

Kawov d€ aAdov év Aiytnta, oAiyou dety Kal 
Top: "EdAnot, ocBaopiws TeBetaKev Geov o 6 Baotreds 
6 ‘Papatcy tov EpUWLEVOV & epauorarov’ * opddpa yevo- 
pevov: *Avtivooy [dv]? avdépwoev ovtws ws Tavu- 

pnonv oO Levs" od yap KwAveTou padios éemOupia 
doBov ovK €xovoa: Kal voKTas iepas Tas “Avrwoov 
mpockuvotow dvOpwrot viv, as aioxpas 7mloTaToO 
6 ouvaypuTVnoas epaotis. Ti pou Beov Katadréyets 
TOV Tmopveia TeTysnuevov; Ti dé Kal ws vLOV 
Opynvetcbar mpooéragas; ti d€ Kai to KaAdos 
avToo Suny aicxpov €or To KaAXos UPpet 
jeapappevov. pe) TUpAVVnONs, dvbpwre, Tob KGA- 
Aous pnde evu ploys avOotvr. TH véw: THpHgov 
avTo Kalapov, iva H Kaddv. BacwWeds Tod KaéAAOUS 
yevod, un TUpavvos: éAcVOepov® pewaTw* TOTE Gov 
yrwpiow To KaAdos, ore" kabapav TernpyKas THY 
elkova Tote TpooKuvyjaw TO KaAXos, OTE > dA Gov 
GpYeTvTov €or T&v KaAaY. 757 be tados €oTt TOD 
Epwevov, vews eat "Avtwoov kat més: Kabarep 
1 wpaéraroy from Eusebius, Praep. Lv. ii. 6. wpatov rev 
MSs. ° 

2 [dv] Eusebius. 

3 éhevGepov Wilamowitz. ¢de’@epos Mss. 

4 ére Wilamowitz. 67: oss. 

5 ére Stuhlin. 7d mss. 6 before dpxérurov in M; above 
the line in P, 



the whole with the pigment left over from the funeral CHAP. 
rites of Osiris and Apis,* he moulded Sarapis ; whose 
very name implies this connexion with the funeral 
rites, and the construction out of material for burial, 
Osirapis being a compound formed from Osiris and 

Another fresh divinity was created in Egypt,— another 
and very nearly among Greeks too,—when the &#@ple of 

Roman king? solemnly elevated to the rank of god Hadrian 

his favourite whose beauty was unequalled. He ne 
consecrated Antinous in the same way that Zeus 
consecrated Ganymedes. For lust is not easily re- 
strained, when it has no fear; and to-day men 
observe the sacred nights of Antinous, which were 

really shameful, as the lover who kept them with 

him well knew. Why, I ask, do you reckon as a 

god one who is honoured by fornication? Why did 

you order that he should be mourned for as a son? 

Why, too, do you tell the story of his beauty? 
Beauty is a shameful thing when it has been blighted 

by outrage. Be not a tyrant, O man, over beauty, 
neither outrage him who is in the flower of his youth, 

Guard it in purity, that it may remain beautiful. Be- 

come a king over beauty, not atyrant. Let it remain 

free. When you have kept its image pure, then I 

will acknowledge your beauty. Then I will worship 
beauty, when it is the true archetype of things The tomb of 
beautiful. But now we have a tomb of the boy who Antinous 

; ; has become 
was loved, a temple and a city of Antinous: and it a temple 

# For the burial of the Apis bull see p. 84, n. a, and 
A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. pp. 434-5. 

® 7.e. Hadrian. When Antinous was drowned in the 
Nile, Hadrian gave way to extraordinary grief. He ordered 
him to be enrolled among the gods, and built Antinoopolis 
in his memory. See Pausanias viii. 9. 7-8. 



oaP. dé, oluat, of vaoi, obrw dé Kai of rddor Oavudlovrat, 

LV / \ , \ / ” 
Tupapides Kat pavowArea Kal AaBYpwOor, dAXou 
vaol TOV vexpOv, ws exeivor tddor TOV Oedv. 
dvddoxadrov de dtyuiv mapabrjcoma tiv mpodprw 


b] ~ / / Ld i! 
ov pevdods DoiBov ypnopnydpov, 6v Te judravor 
a+ \ uy > S. \ / 
avopwrot Geov cirov, emepetoavro S€ wdvrw, 
> \ ~ / \ > / ” > ~ 
aAha Feot eydAo.o, Tov od yxépes ExAacay avdpav 
> / > / / av 
eldw@dAois aAdAovor \BoEeorovaw Gpovov. 

\ ~ > / > / ce / \ 
bev tHS “Edecias ’Apréudos “‘ ydopact Kat ceu- 
aA +”? 7 
Gpois § Katamobjccoba tpounvvovaa oUTws, 

Le / > 

um7ia 8° oipméer "Edeocos kAalovoa Tap oxOais 
\ ~ 

Kat vnov Cytodca Tov obKEeTL VaLeTaOVTA’ 

tov de “IowWos Kat Lapdmidos év Alyiarw Kart- 
evexOyjccec8at dyno Kat eumpnobynoecbar: 

"Tou, Gea tpitdAawa, pévers emi yevpracr! Neidov 
povvn, wawas avavdos emt apdabos "Ayépovtos, 

> ¢e ~ 
eliza vroBdoa: 

\ 4 / / > A > / , 
Kal ov, Lapame Aifous apyods emiKelueve TroAXovs, 

A ~ / 
Keloat TT@pa péeytotov ev Aiy’aTw TpiTadaivy. 

ad de GAN’ et un) mpodytidos emakovers, TOD ye Got 
akovaov dtAoccdfov, Tob *Edeciov ‘Hpakdeirou, 
THhv avatabynatay ovedilovtos Tots aydAwacu “ Kai 
Tots aydAwao. TovTéoow evyovTal, OKOloV Et TIS 

1 xevpaor Sibylline Oracles. yevuara Stihlin: mss. 


seems to me that tombs are objects of reverence in CHAP, 
just the same way as temples are; in fact, pyramids, 'Y 
mausoleums and labyrinths are as it were temples 

of dead men, just as temples are tombs of the gods. 

As your instructor I will quote the prophetic Sibyl, 

Whose words divine come not from Phoebus’ lips, 

That prophet false, by foolish men called god, 

But from great God, whom no man’s hands have made, 
Like speechless idols framed from polished stone. 

She, however, calls the temples ruins. That of The Sibyl 
Ephesian Artemis she predicts will be swallowed up Bi{'cs ths 
by “yawning gulfs and earthquakes,” thus: temples 

Prostrate shall Ephesus groan, when, deep in tears, 
She seeks along her banks a vanished shrine.? 

That of Isis and Sarapis in Egypt she says will be 
overthrown and burnt up: 

Thrice wretched Isis, by Nile’s streams thou stayst 
Lone, dumb with frenzy on dark Acheron’s sands.¢ 

Then lower down: 

And thou, Sarapis, piled with useless stones, 
In wretched Egypt liest, a ruin great.¢ 

If, however, you refuse to listen to the prophetess, Heracleitus 
hear at least your own philosopher, Heracleitus of (Unis 7° 
Ephesus, when he taunts the statues for their want praying to 

of feeling: “and they pray to these statues just as Pete 

@ Sibylline Oracles iv. 4-1. 
> Sib. Or. v. 295-296. 
° Sib. Or. v. 483-484, 
q Sib. Or. v. 486-487, 



= \ 

car. <tots >} Sduois AcoxnvevowTo.” 7) yap ovdxt TepaTw- 

45 P. 


Sets of AiMous mpoorpeTopevot,” eira wevTOL Kat 7T7pO 
Tov muAdV totdvtes adtovs ws evepyets, “Epyrv 
mpookuvoovres® is Oedv Kal tov ’Ayuréa bvpwpov 
fordvres; € yap ws avatcOynrovs tBpilovow, Tt 
mpookvvotaw wes Oeovs; El de alc@jcews avTovs 
weTéxew olovTat, Ti TovTovs tatdou Oupwpovs; 
‘Pwyato. 5é ta péyota Katopfdpata tH Tdxn 
dvarilévtes Kat tavTyv peyloTnyv oldpevor Geov, 
dépovres eis Tov Kolmpava aveOnkav adtnv, agvov 
vewv Tov adedpOva veiwavtes TH Ged. 

"Aa yap avacbjtw Ow Kai EVAw Kai xpvoiw 
mAovoiw 08d dTioby peéreL, ov Kvlons, OVX Auaros, 
od Kamvod, © 81) TYucpevor Kal TUPdpevor EKME- 
Naivovrar: add’ oddé TYyuhs, ody UBpews: TA dE Kat 
mavtés eoTw atysotepa Cwov, Ta aydAwata. Kat 
dws ye Tebeiaotar Ta avaicbnta, arropety Eretat 
pot Kal Katedccitv Tovs mAavwpevous THs avotas 
is Sealovs: «t yap Kat twa T&v Cawv odxi 
mdoas éxer Tas alcbjoes, WoTep edAaL Kal KapTraL 
Kal dca Sua THs mpwHTns yevecews edOds avannpa 
daivera, kabdmep of omdAakes Kal 4 puyadq, jv 
dnow 6 Nixavipos “‘tuddjy te opepdviy te’: 
GAAd ye dpetvous lot THY Eodvwv TovTwWY Kal TOV 

1 <rois> inserted from Origen, Con. Celswm i. 5, vii. 62. 

2 mpoorperouevorc Heyse. mporpemomevor MSS. 
8 rpockuvovvres Stahlin. mpocxvyovow Mss. 

a Heracleitus, Fr. 126 Bywater, 5 Diels. 

® Fortuna was originally an earth deity, a goddess of 
fertility, and only later became a personification of chance 
or luck. Mr. A. B. Cook (Zeus, i. 271-2) cites this passage 
as tending to establish her connexion with the earth. 



if one were to chatter to his house.”% Are they cHap. 
not amazing, these men who make supplication to !Y 
stones, and yet set them up before their gates as if 
alive and active, worshipping the image of Hermes 

as a god, and setting up the “ god of the Ways”’ as 
door-keeper? For if they treat them with contumely 

as being without feeling, why do they worship them as 
gods? But if they believe them to partake of feeling, 
why do they set them up as door-keepers? The 
Romans, although they ascribe their greatest successes 

to Fortuna, and believe her to be the greatest 
deity, carry her statue to the privy and erect it 
there, thus assigning to her a fit temple.? 

But indeed the senseless wood and stone and The statues 
precious gold pay not the smallest regard to the “sauie 
steam, the blood, and the smoke. ‘They are blackened sense or 
by the cloud of smoke which is meant to honour ~ "= 
them, but they heed neither the honour nor the 
insult. There is not a single living creature that is 
not more worthy of honour than these statues ; and 
how it comes to pass that senseless things have been 
deified I am at a loss to know, and I deeply pity for 
their lack of understanding the men who are thus 
miserably wandering in error. For even though 
there are some living creatures which do not possess 
all the senses, as worms and caterpillars, and all those 
that appear to be imperfect from the first through 
the conditions of their birth, such as moles and Even worms 
the field-mouse, which Nicander calls “blind and #24 mies 
terrible’’*; yet these are better than those images and sense 

e Nicander calls the field-mouse ‘terrible’ in reference 
to its plague-bearing powers. The complete line (Theriaca 
815) is Ttupdjv Te cpuepdvyv te Bporots éml ovydv dyovcay 

E2 115 


~ \ 
CAP ayaAudtwy téeov ovtwy Kwdav: exovow yap 

46 P. 

aicbyow piav yé twa, dépe eimetv akovoTiKiy 7 
anrikyy 1 TV avadoyotoay 7H dadpicer } TH 
yevoet’ Ta Sé€ odd€ pias alcbijcews peréyer, TA 
aydAwata. moda bé éote tv Lawv, doa ode! 
Opacw exe ove akonv ovde? pny havi, ofov Kal 
TO THY GaTpéwy yevos, GAAa CH ye Kal ad€erar, 
mpos S€ Kat TH cedjvyn ovprdoxer’ Ta S€ dydéApara 
apyd, Gmpaxta, avaicbnta, mpocdeira: Kat mpoc- 
Kabyrobrar Kal mpoomnyvuTar, xwveverar, pwarar, 
mpleTar, mepiééerar, yAvdberar. Kwdiv pev 97 
yatav aecKilovow ot ayadparozovol, Ths oikelas 
e€toravtes Gtoews, bd THs Téxvns mpooKvveiv 
avareiOovres* mpookuvotaw Sé of Oeorool od 
Geovs Kat Saiuovas Kata ye alabnow tiv euav, yav 
de Kal TExVNY, TA aydAuaTa Srep éoTiv. eoTW yap 
ws adnbds 7d dyadua vAn vexpa Texvirov yeupt 
LepoppwpEevn: iv d€ ody UAns aicOnris aicbyrdv, 
vontov d€ To dyadud éorw. voyrdv, ovK aliabyrdv 
eott [To dyadua]? 6 beds, 6 pdvos dvTws beds. 

Kat 67 €umadw ev abtais mov tats mepustéceow 
ot devadaimoves, of TOv Ow mpocKvyTal, épyw 
pabovres avatcOyrov | BAnv pi) o€Bew, adbris yrTW- 
fevot THs ypeltas amdAdvytar bro Sevodatpovias’ 
Katadppovotytes 8° Gums TOV ayaAuatwv, daivecbat 
de pn Bovrdsuevor abtdv bdrAws* rrepippovobyres, 
edéyyovrar tm adta@v tav Gedy, ols 57. TA 
aydAuara émumedrorar. Arovdcvos pev yap 6 

1 ore Mayor. ovdé Mss. 2 ovdé Mayor. ode Mss. 

® [7d dyahua] Wilamowitz. 4 8\ws Sylburg. éd\wy mss. 

“ Cicero (De divinatione ii. 33) says of oysters and shell- 
fish that they *‘ grow bigger and smaller with the moon.” 



statues which are entirely dumb. For they have at cHap. 
any rate some one sense, that of hearing, let us say, -. 

or of touch, or something corresponding to smell or 

taste; but these statues do not even partake of one 

sense. ‘There are also many kinds of living creatures, 

such as the oyster family, which possess neither sight 

nor hearing nor yet speech; nevertheless they live 

and grow and are even affected by the moon.“ But 

the statues are motionless things incapable of action gut statues 
or sensation ; they are bound and nailed and fastened, bavenone 
melted, filed, sawn, polished, carved. The dumb 
earth is dishonoured® when sculptors pervert its 
peculiar nature and by their art entice men to wor- 

ship it; while the god-makers, if there is any sense 

in me, worship not gods and daemons, but earth and 

art, which is all the statues are. For a statue is The true 
really lifeless matter shaped by a craftsman’s hand ; {738° 
but in our view the image of God is not an object mental 
of sense made from matter perceived by the senses, '"°° 
but a mental object. God, that is, the only true 

God, is perceived not by the senses but by the mind. 

On the other hand, whenever a crisis arises, the The gods 
daemon-worshippers, the adorers of stones, learn by sy penn’" 
experience not to revere senseless matter; for they nor protect 
succumb to the needs of the moment, anes tane etie 
of daemons is their ruin. And if while at heart 
despising the statues they are unwilling to show 
themselves utterly contemptuous of them, their... 

folly is exposed by the impotence of the very gods the younger 
to whom the statues are dedicated. For instance, Sel 

the tyrant Dionysius the younger stripped the statue Zeus 

’ A verbal reminiscence of Homer, Jliad xxiv. 54. 
¢ 7,g. the gods cannot help them out of their difficulties. 



CAP. TUpavvos oO VECTEpOS foyratiov TO xpvacov TEpt- 

- eAdpuevos tod Auos ev LuceAig Tpooeragev avT@ 

epeobdy mepiteOvat, xaprevTws dijcas TOTO djewvov 

eiva Tob ypvoéov, Kai Oépovs Kouddtepov Kal 
/ > / > / \ ¢ \ 

Kpvous aAcewdtepov. *Av7ioxyos de 6 Kulixnvos 

lon \ \ 
amopovpevos xpnudtwy tod Atos ro ayadua TO 
~ ~ \ 
xpuvooby, mevreKaidexa mnxY@v TO peyebos ov, 
~ \ ~ ~ 
mpocerake ywvetoa Kat THs adAns THs aTysoTépas 
vAns dyadwa mapamAjoov exewm metddo.s KeE- 
A ¢ 

xpvowpevov avabeivar madAw. at dé yeAddves Kai 

TOV opvéwy Ta TAEloTAa KaTeEepHow? atbtav Ta 

dyaAudtwy elomeTopeva, ovdev dpovTicavta ovUTeE 

’Odvptriov Atos otre ’Emidavpiov ’AaokAnmob otdé 

~ / 
pryv “A@nvas IoAuddos 7 Lapamidos Alyurriov: 
a ~ > ~ 
wap @v ovoe al’T@v TiHV avatobynoiay THY ayad- 
/ ~ 

patwy éxpavOdvere. add’ eiot ev KaKodpyol tives 
a / > be a > > / > / 

N Todor emrifepwevor, ot dt ataypoKéepderay ed7jw- 
Gav Ta tepa Kal Ta avabypata eavAncav 7 Kal 
> A > 7 \ > ts \ > , 
avTa €xwvevoay Ta aydAuata. Kat ef KauBvons 
TUS 7) Aapetos 7) aAos [LaLvopLevos Tovabra aTTa 
EmTEX ELpn eV Kal et TOV Atyinrov TUS dmeKTewev 
“Amw, yA pev OTL TOV Jeov OTEKTELWEV avray, 
ayavakT@® dé el Képdous xdpw éemAnupéeAe. éexwv 
otv exAjcopat Thode THS KaKoupylas, TAcovesias 

” > \ \ > / ~ >? 4 ” 
Epya, ovxt dé adpavelas Tov cldwdAwY €deyyov 
vopitwy. arr ovrt ye TO Top Kat Ob gevopol 
Kepdadeor, ovde py hoBotvrar 7 dvowmobyrar od 
TOUS Saipovas, od Ta aydAwara., od paddov 7 Tas 
yndidas tas mapa Tots atytadois ceowpevpévas 
Ta KUpLATA. oda éyw Top eAeyKTiKoV Kal devot- 
1 ypucéou Cobet. xpualov mss. 
2 katetepOow Sylburg. karetaipovow mss, 



of Zeus in Sicily of its golden cloak and ordered it cHap. 
to be clothed with a woollen one, with the witty my 
remark that this was better than the golden one, 

being both lighter in summer and warmer in winter. 
Antiochus of Cyzicus, when he was in want of money, Antiochus 
ordered the golden statue of Zeus, fifteen cubits high, ° Cy#eus 
to be melted down, and a similar statue of cheaper down 
material covered with gold leaf to be set up in its 

place. Swallows also and most other birds settle on Birds heed 
these very statues and defile them, paying no heed to "™ 2°" 
Olympian Zeus or Epidaurian Asclepius, no, nor yet 

to Athena Polias or Egyptian Sarapis ; and even their 
example does not bring home to you how destitute 

of feeling the statues are. But there are certain Thieves and 
evil-doers or enemies at war who from base love of \2¢i5., 
gain ravaged the temples, plundering the votive 
offerings and even melting down the statues. Now 

if Cambyses or Darius or some other put his hands 

to such deeds in a fit of madness; and if one of 

them? slew the Egyptian god Apis, while I laugh at 

the thought of his slaying their god, I am indignant 

when gain is the motive of the offence. I will 
therefore willingly forget these evil deeds, holding 

them to be works of covetousness and not an exposure 

of the helplessness of the idols. But fire and earth- Fire ana 
quakes are in no way intent on gain; yet they are pee es 
not frightened or awed either by the daemons or by them 
their statues, any more than are the waves by the 
pebbles strewn in heaps along the seashore. I know 

that fire can expose and cure your fear of daemons ; 

« The story is also told by Cicero (De natura deorum iii. 83) 
who places it in the Peloponnesus instead of in Sicily. 
’ Cambyses. See Herodotus iii. 29. 



CAP. dapovias taTiKoV" el i Bovher mavoacbat THs. dvoias, 
" pwrayoyrjoer ge TO Top. ToOTO TO Tp Kal TOV ev 
47 P. “Apyet veo adv Kal TH lepeta | katédAckev Xpvot6., 
Kal TOV eV "Egéow Tijs "Apréudos SevTepov pera 
"Apalovas Kal TO eV ‘Poopy KamitwAvov ém- 
vevewnTa moAAdKts* ovK dm€aXeTo d€ ovd€ TOT 
ev “Arefavdpewy moAeu Lapdaudos ¢ Lepoo. AOnvy ot 
yap TOO Avovicou TOU "Edevbepews KaTnpeupe TOV 
vey, Kal TOV EV Acddots tod ’AmdAAwvos mpdtepov 
ipTracev AvedAa, Ererta Hpavice 7p owppovodr. 
TO Top. 
Oi de Tov ayahwdrov Snptovpyot od dvowmobow 
dpa TOUS Euppovas: Tijs vans Katappovety ; 6 pev 
"AOnvaios DewWias emt T@ dakTUAw Tod Atos Tob 
"Odupurrion emuypaipas “Tavrdpxns Kadds’’* od 
yap KaXds are o Lets, add’ 0 €pcopLevos nv: Oo 
I[pagéiréAns 6€, ws Iloceiéummos ev TA mepl Kvidov 3 
dtacadpet, TO THS “Adpoditys dyaNa Tijs Kyidias 
Kkatackeudlwy T& Kparivys TAS epopeevns €LOEL 
TapamtAnovov memolnKer abr, Ww’ éxovev ot detAatot 

1 Kvléov Sylburg. xvdiou Mss. 

a See Thucydides iv. 133, where the fire is attributed to 
the carelessness of Chrysis, who placed a lighted lamp near 
the garlands and then fell asleep. According to Thucydides, 
however, Chrysis was not burnt with the temple. Fearing 
Argive vengeance she fled the same night to Phlius. 

> 4.6. Diony sus of Eleutherae, a town in Attica from 
which the worship of Dionysus was introduced into Athens. 
See Pausanias i. 2. 5. 

¢ According to Stoic teaching, fire was the creative and 
sustaining principle diffused throughout the universe. But 
this was an ethereal fire, different from common fire (Cicero, 



if you wish to cease from folly, the fire shall be your cHap. 
guiding light. This fire it was that burnt up the ty 
temple in Argos together with its priestess Chrysis,“ 
and also that of Artemis in Ephesus (the second 
after the time of the Amazons); and it has often 
devoured the Capitol at Rome, nor did it spare even 

the temple of Sarapis in the city of Alexandria. 
The temple of Dionysus Eleuthereus? at Athens was 
brought to ruin in the same way, and that of Apollo 

at Delphi was first caught by a storm and then 
utterly destroyed by the “discerning fire.”° Here 
you see a kind of prelude to what the fire promises 

to do hereafter. 

Take next the makers of the statues; do not they geuiptors 
shame the sensible among you into a contempt for Make gods 
mere matter? The Athenian Pheidias inscribed on their _ 
the finger of Olympian Zeus, “ Pantarces is beautiful,” pou 
though it was not Zeus Pantarces whom he thought 
beautiful, but his own favourite of that name.¢ 
Praxiteles, as Poseidippus shows clearly in his book 
on Cnidus,’ when fashioning the statue of Cnidian 
Aphrodite,‘ made the goddess resemble the form of 
his mistress Cratina, that the miserable people might 

De nat. deor. ii. 41), and the Stoics applied to it various 
epithets, such as rexvixdv, skilful,” and ppdviuos, ‘*prudent.” 
In this passage Clement plays with the two meanings. 
Other references to the ‘‘ prudent fire” in Clement are 
iii. Paed. 44. 2, vii. Strom. 34. 4, Eclog. Prophet. 25. 4. 

4 Pantarces means ‘‘all-powerful,” and so could be under- 
stood as a title of Zeus. 

e Poseidippus, Frag. 2 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 482. 

4 Marble copies of this celebrated statue are to be seen 
at Munich and inthe Vatican. For a photographic illustra- 
tion of the latter see Cambridge Companion to Greek Studies 
(1906), p. 258, 



48 P. 


/ \ 

TV ITpageredous epooprevny mpookuvetv. Dpvvy dé 
omnviKa 7pOec UT] éraipa 7 Qcomaky, of Cwrypagor 
mavres <tas > rijs’Agpoditns eikovas Tmpos To KdAAos 
darepynodvro Opvyvys, wamep av Kat ot AGo€dor 
tovs ‘Eppdas AG oe mpos “AdeBuddqy dmetkalov. 
brroheimeT at Tis ons Kploews TO epyov emagat, «€c 
BovAeu Kal Tas ETalpas mpocKuveiv. 

>] ~ Ss / e€ A > 

Evredfev, olfua, Ku7févtes ot Baorrets ot 
maAatol, KatadpovobvTes TOV ULVIwY ToUTwWY, avednv 
dua TO €€ avOpuimwv axivduvov adds adrovs Oeods 
avynyopevov, TavTn KaKetlvous bia THY dd€av amyfa- 
vatioGar* didacKovtes: Kv€ péev 6 Aiddrov Leds 
€ \ lon > 4 ~ / > / \ 
bo THs “AAKudvyns ths yvvaikds, “AAKvdvyn 4é 
at&is to tod avdpos “Hpa mpocayopevopyery. 
IItoAepatos 5€ 6 Téraptos Atdvucos éxadeiro: 

\ / ¢ \ / \ > / 
Kat | Mi@pidarns o Ilovtixos Avovucos Kat adrés: 
éBovAeto dé Kat “AdeEavdpos "Appwvos vids etvau 
doxetvy Kal Kepacddpos avamAarrecBar mpos TaV 
ayadwatoTo.@v, To KaAov avOpwov mpdcwmov B- 
Bpica omrevowy Képate. Kat ovT. ye Bacrets dvov, 
aAAd Kal tdtTat Oeiats mpoonyopiats ofas advtovs 
éoéuvuvov, ws Mevexpatys 0 tatpds, Zeds obtos 
> / / aA / > / 
EmuKeKAnevos. TL pE dec wataAéyew Arc£apxov 
(ypaypariKos obTos THY eTLOTH LTV yeyovws, os 
toropet “Apuoros fo) UaAapivvos, avTov KATECX HLA 
tulev ets “HXwov); te det kat Nexaydpov peuvi- 
ofa (ZeAeitys TO yeévos Hv Kata Tovs “AXeEdvdpou 

1 <ras> inserted by Schifer. 
2 drnbavaricbac Sylburg. amrndavarjoPac Mss. 

« Ammon was the Egyptian ram-headed god whom the 



have the sculptor’s mistress to worship. When Phryne 
the Thespian courtesan was in her flower, the painters 
used all to imitate her beauty in their pictures of 
Aphrodite, just as the marble-masons copied Alci- 
biades in the busts of Hermes at Athens. It remains 
to bring your own judgment into play, and decide 
whether you wish to extend your worship to 

Such were the facts, I think, that moved the 
kings of old, in their contempt for these legends, to 
proclaim themselves gods; which they did without 
hesitation, since there was no danger from men. In 
this way they teach us that the other gods were also 
men, made immortal for their renown. Ceyx the son 
of Aeolus was addressed as Zeus by his wife Alcyone, 
while she in turn was addressed as Hera by her 
husband. Ptolemy the fourth was called Dionysus, 
as was also Mithridates of Pontus. Alexander wished 
to be thought the son of Ammon, and to be depicted 
with horns by the sculptors, so eager was he to 
outrage the beautiful face of man by a horn. Aye, 
and not kings only, but private persons too used to 
exalt themselves with divine titles, as Menecrates 
the doctor, who was styled Zeus.2 Why need I 
reckon Alexarchus? As Aristus of Salamis relates, 
he was a scholar in virtue of his knowledge, but he 
transformed himself into the Sun-god.° And why 
mention Nicagoras, a man of Zeleia by race, living in 
Greeks identified with Zeus. In Greek art the horns are set 
on ahuman head. See illustrations of coins in A. B. Cook, 
Zeus, i. pp. 370-2. 

>’ Because (Athenaeus 289), through his healing art, he 
was the sole cause of life to men! He wrote to Philip: 

‘© You are king in Macedon, I in medicine.” 
¢ Aristus, Frag. 2 Miiller, Script. rerum Alex. Mag. p. 154. 



Kings of old 

And private 
persons also 


i yeyovas xpovous: “Epps TpoonjyopeveTo 6 Nuc- 
ayopas KaL TH oToAy Tod ‘Eppot. exéypyto, os 
avTos papTupet); o7ov ye Kat Oda eOvyn Kal 
moXets a’ravdpot, KoAakelay trodudpevar, e&evTe- 
Ailovaw Tovs pvGovs Tods wept THV Oedv, icof€ous 
avOpwro. Katacynpatilovtes eavtovs, bo dSd&ns 
medvonuevor, emrufpyndilouevor TyLas EavTois sb7eEp- 
dyKous’ viv pev Tov Maxeddva tov ex I1éAAns Tov 
’Apdtytov+? Didirmov ev Kuvoodpyer vopobetobvtes 
mpookuveiy, Tov “THv KAeivy KaTEayoTa Kal TO 
oxéAos TET NPWLLEVOV, | os eCeom7) TOV opbahwov: 

avlis de TOV Anpajtprov feov Kat avrov dvaryopevov- 
tes' Kal evla pev ameBn tod inmov *Adnvale 
elowwv, KaraiBatou tepov é€ote Annrtpiov, Baot 
d€ mavraxod: Kat yduos bro “Abnvaiwy atta 6 
THs “AOnvas nbtpemileto: 6 be Tv prev Oeov b7Ep- 
noaver, TO dyaAyva yhpae [7 Ouvdevos Aduuay 
de TH eraipav Exwv els akpomroAw avzet Kav 
tT THs “AOnvas ovvedtpeto Tac7T@,? tH marae 
maplevw TA THs véas EmTOELKVUS ETAlpas oXTaTA. 
od véueots Toivuv ode “Immwv amabavatilovte Tov 
Oavatov Tov eavtod: 6 “Immwv otros éemypadfvar 
exeAevoev TO pLvHLATL TH EavTov Tdde TO eAeyetov: 

LA / a \ > / A 
Immwvos T6d€ ofa, TOV aBbavdro.ot Peotow 
isov emoinoev Moipa Katadbipevov. 
1’Autvrov Cobet. dutvropos Mss. 

2 kav T@ THS "AOnvas cuvepipero wmactG Mayor. xair@ rijs 
aOnvas éeveduparo TacT@ MSS. 

# See Athenaeus 289 c, where Baton is given as the 
authority for this story. Cp. Baton, Frag. 1 Frag. hist. 
Graec. iv. p. 348. 

> Demosthenes, On the Crown 67. 



the time of Alexander, who was addressed as Hermes cuap. 
and wore the garb of Hermes, according to his own giv, ana 
evidence?* For indeed whole nations and cities with nations 
all their inhabitants, putting on the mask of flattery, ene ts s 
belittle the legends about the gods, mere men, puffed ™ke gods 
up with vain-glory, transforming men like them- 

selves into the equals of the gods and voting them 
extravagant honours. At one time they establish by 

law at Cynosarges the worship of Philip the son of 
Amyntas, the Macedonian from Pella, him of the 
“broken collar-bone and lame leg,’ with one eye 
knocked out. At another, they proclaim Demetrius 

to be god in his turn; and the spot where he dis- 
mounted on entering Athens is now a temple of 
Demetrius the Alighter,’ while his altars are every- 

where. Arrangements were being made by the 
Athenians for his marriage with Athena, but he 
disdained the goddess, not being able to marry her 

statue. He went up to the Acropolis, however, in 
company with the courtesan Lamia, and lay with her 

in Athena’s bridal chamber, exhibiting to the old 

virgin the postures of the young courtesan.4 We 

must not be angry, therefore, even with Hippo,’ 

who represented his death as a deification of himself. 

This Hippo ordered the following couplet to be in- The epitaph 
scribed on his monument : on tape? 

Behold the tomb of Hippo, whom in death 
Fate made an equal of the immortal gods. 

¢ A title of Zeus, as descending or alighting in thunder 
and lightning; applied in flattery to Demetrius by the 
Athenians. See Plutarch, Demetrius 10. 

@ Cp. Plutarch, Demetrius 26. 

¢ Hippo has been mentioned before, among those dubbed 
atheists by the Greeks; see p. 49. For the couplet see 
Bergk, Poet. lyr. Graee. ii. p. 259 (ed. 1915). 



49 P, 


ev Ye, “Inmev, emdeuevvets nev THY avOpwrrivyny 
mAdvqy. et yap Kat AadobyTi cou 17) TETLOTEVKAOL, 
vexpod yevécbwoav pabytal. ypynopos obtds éoTrw 
“Inmevos: VOHOWLEV avrov. ot TpOoKYVOU}LEVOL 
Tap vty, | avipurrou yevopevol TOTE, eira pevToe 
teOvadow: Tetiunkev 5€ atrovs 6 pd0os Kal 6 
xpovos. iret yap mws Ta pev TapovTa ovvybeia 
Katadpovetabar, Ta d€ TApPHXHKOTA Tov TrapavTika 
edéyxou KeXwplopeva Xpovenv adnAia reTnobat 
T@ TAdopatt, Kat TO pev amaretobau, TO be Kal 
bavpdlecBar. adTika yobv ot maavol veKpol TO 
vouilovrar Oot. mlatts buy THVvdE avTa Budv Ta 
pvoTyplia, at mavnytpers, Secua Kal Tpavuata Kal 
daxpvovtes Meot: 

@ }10U ey, OTe Lot Lapmndova diAtatov avop@v 
protp b70 ILatpdxAoto Mevorticdao Sapjvar. 

Kexpatntat TO BéAnua Tob Atos Kat 6 Leds duty 
dua Lapmndova ole VEVLICT [LEVOS. 
Kiéiwia yotv etkdtws abtovs Kal datpwovas tyets 
avTo. KeKAjKaTeE, eTeL Kal THY "AOnvady adbti Kat 
\ av \ / / 7 / 
tous aAdous Geovs Kakia Tyunoas “Opnpos Saijovas 

7 Oo OvAvurrovde PeBrjKee 
dupat és alytoxoLo ee peTa daiuovas aAAous. 

@ Homer, Jliad xvi. 433-434. 

> The word is generally translated ‘Sadols’?? or ** images,” 
but it also means ‘shades ” or ‘* phantoms,” which is the 
sense wanted here. 

¢ Or perhaps, ‘‘ honouring them for their wickedness.” 
Compare a similar construction, ‘‘ honoured by reason of 



Well done, Hippo, you point out for us the error of CHAP. 
men! For though they have not believed you when 

you could speak, let them become disciples now you 

are a corpse. This is the oracle of Hippo; let us 
understand its meaning. Those whom you worship This epitaph 
were once men, who afterwards died. Legend and Psi 
the lapse of time have given them their honours, that all gods 
For somehow the present is wont to be despised es 
through our familiarity with it, whereas the past, 

being cut off from immediate exposure by the 
obscurity which time brings, is invested with a 
fictitious honour ; and while events of the present are 
distrusted, those of the past are regarded with 
reverent wonder. As an example, the dead men 

of old, being exalted by the long period of error, 

are believed to be gods by those who come after. 

You have proof of all this in your mysteries them- 

selves, in the solemn festivals, in fetters, wounds and 
weeping gods: 

Woe, yea, woe be to me! that Sarpedon, dearest of mortals, 
Doomed is to fall by the spear of Patroclus son of Menoetius.* 

The will of Zeus has been overcome, and your 
supreme god, defeated, is lamenting for Sarpedon’s 

You are right then in having yourselves called The gods, 
the gods “ shadows” ® and “daemons.” For Homer oe 
spoke of Athena herself and her fellow-deities as rightly 

“daemons,” paying them a malicious compliment. “shadows” 
But she was gone to Olympus, “daemons” 

Home of shield-bearing Zeus, to join the rest of the 

fornication,” or ** whose honour comes from fornication,” on 
pp. 110-11. 
4 Homer, Iliad i. 221-222. 



50 P. 


~ A A 
ms ovv ett Beot Ta EldwAa Kal of Saipoves, BSedupa 
OVTWS Kal mvevpata akdbapra, TpOSs TAVTWY OMLO- 
Aoyovmeva yywa Kai deccadrda, Kdétrw BpiOovra, 
“arept Tovs Tadovs Kal TA puvnpreta KaAwwdovpeva,” 

“a ~ wn 

TEept a 67) Kal vTopaivovTat OpLvopas ““ OKLOELOH 

/ ”» af? ¢ ~ ¢ \ \ ” ¢ 

davrdopata”’; tad? tudv of Oeot ra eidwdAa, at 

CKLaL Kal Tmpos TOUTOLS <at>} “ywdat”’ éxetvar Kat 

~~ € 

“pucat, trapaBAdmes oddbaduw,2”’ ai Artal af 

®epaitov paddAov 7 Atos Ouyatépes, wore jLoe 
aA ~ 2) 

doKetv xaptevTws dava tov Biwva, mas av evdikws 

| ~ 
ot av Opwrrou mapa tod Atos aityoovTar 3 THV €v- 
A A ” 

TEKVIGY, nv ovo avT@ Tapacyetv UGXUGEV; OlfLOL 

nn 5 
Ths afedtnTos: tiv aKnpatov ovciav, TO daoVv 
, >] A aA 
ep viv, KAaTOpUTTETE KAL TO axpavTov éKeivo Kal 
TO aywov tots Tdfois emiKeywdkate, THs dAnOds 

aA Ss \ 

OVvTws ovGias ovAjcavtes TO Oeiov. ti 67) obv Ta 
~ ~ ~ A \ 
tov Jeo’ trois od Oeois TPOCEVELLATE yepa; Ti dé 
Kkatadimovtes TOV ovpavov THY yh TETULNKATE; TL 

>] oA \ “ >» a“ > / a“ PA )Y 

5° dAdo ypuads  Gpyupos 7 addayas 7 aidnpos 7) 

\ an“ ’ / n / / > eee. | nan \ 
xadkos 7 eA€das 7 Aifor Tipwor; ody yHR TE Kal 
> ~ >] \ \ ~ \ ” ~ ~ 
Ex ys; ovxt de pds pnTpos Exyova, THS ys, 
Ta TavTa Tav’Ta boa opas; Tt 67) ovv, @ pudTavou 

\ / 7 eK \ >) ra \ 
Kat Kevodpoves (radw yap 81) émavadrbopat), Tov 
b7repoupaviov BrAacdnpnoavtes tdzmov eis Tovoados 
KaTeaupate Tv evoeBevav, xGoviovs tuty avandAdr- 

~ Fae 
tovres Geods Kal TA yevynTa Tatra Tpo TOU ayevytou 
~ / 
wetiovtes Beob Baburépw mepimenta@xate Cédw; 
' <ai> inserted by Kroll. 
2 opfahuw Homer. 6@6adyudv mss. 
3 airjoovra Cobet. airijowvTat Mss. 

a See Plato, Phaedo 81 c D. > Iliad ix. 502-503. _ 
* Thersites is Homer’s ridiculous character, hump-backed, 


How then can the shadows and daemons any longer CHAP. 
be gods, when they are in reality unclean and loath- ,,7 

some spirits, admitted by all to be earthy and foul, “shadows’ 
weighed down to the ground, and “ prowling round ee 
graves and tombs,’ ® where also they dimly appear spirits, 

as “ghostly apparitions*” ? These are your gods, pues 
these shadows and ghosts; and along with them go ms 
those “lame and wrinkled cross-eyed deities,’ the 
Prayers, daughters of Zeus, though they are more 

like daughters of Thersites®; so that I think Bion 

made a witty remark when he asked how men could 

rightly ask Zeus for goodly children, when he had 

not even been able to provide them for himself.¢ 

Alas for such atheism! You sink in the earth, so 

far as you are able, the incorruptible existence, and 

that which is stainless and holy you have buried in 

the tombs. Thus you have robbed the divine of its 

real and true being. Why, I ask, did you assign to 

those who are no gods the honours due to God 

alone? Why have you forsaken heaven to pay 
honour to earth? For what else is gold, or silver, 

or steel, or iron, or bronze, or ivory, or precious 
stones? Are they not earth, and made from earth? The statues 
Are not all these things that you see the offspring ee 
of one mother, the eaten Why then, vain and are nothing 
foolish men,—once again I will ask the question,—did Ll ies 
you blaspheme highest heaven“ and drag down piety 

to the ground by fashioning for yourselves gods of 

earth? Why have you fallen into deeper darkness 

by going after these created things instead of the 

lame and bandy-legged, with an impudent tongue into the 
bargain. liad ii. 211-277. 

“ Bion of Borysthenes, Frag. 44 Mullach, Frag. phil. 
Graec, ii, p. 427. ¢ See Plato, Phaedrus 247 c. 



51 P. 


KkaAos 6 IIdpios XiBos, ad otdSérw TlocedSdv: 
Kahos 0 €dépas, GAN obdémw *OAvumuos: éevders 
det mote 1 UAn Tis Téxvns, 6 Beds Sé dvevders. 
~ ¢ / / \ ~ ¢ LA 
mporAdev 1) TEXYN; mrepiBePAnrat TO oxXHpa 7 van, 
Kal TO mAovovov Tis obcias mpds pev TO KépSos 
aywoyy.ov, pov b€ TH oxnpare yiverar ceBdopov. 
xpvads eat. TO adyadud cov, EvAov eoriv, riBos 
~ \ 
coTl, yi €oTw, édv dvwhev vorjons, popdyy mapa 
~ / ~ ~ \ > A 
Tov Texvitov mpoodAafotca. yy dé eyw maretv, 
> A , f ? , , 
ov mpooKuvety prewehernna’ ov yap pou béuts 
cumioTedoat more Tois ayvxous tas THs buys 
"Iréov ody ws ev padiora éyyutdtw Tov ayaAud- 
e > / 4s / Y > ae r 
TWV, WS oiKEla 1 TAdYN KAaK THS Tpoadibews 
> / ok: > A \ / \ ~ A 
eéyxnta | SvarropepaKrar yap mave 57) capirs TO 
elon TOV ayadudtwy iv Sidbeow trav Sayudver. 
El yoiv Tis Tas ypadas Kal TA aydAwata TeEpwooTdy 
Ge@ro, yrwpre? buGv mapavtixa tods beods ex TOV 
eToveLoloTwWY aynudTwy, tov Atdvucov ame TiS 
\ ov le 3 A / \ oe 
aToAjs, tov “Hdaorov amd ris téxvns, tiv Ana 
amo Tihs ovupdopas, ad tod Kpyndeuvov tiv "Ivd, 
amo Ths Tpraivyns Tov LlocedS, ad TOO KUKVOU TOV 
Ata: tov dé ‘Hpakdda Setxvucw % mupd, Kav 
yupvny tidy Tis avayparrov yuvaika, Tv “xpvonv”’ 
"Adpoditny voet. odtws 6 Kupuios 6 Ivypadiov 
> A > / b] / > / Wie". 
exeivos eAepav|rivov npdabn aydAuatos: 70 dyadua 
“Adpodizns tv Kal yupvi) Hv: vucdrae 6 Kvzpuos TO 
OXNPLATL Kal ovvépyeTal TH aydAuatt, Kal TodTO 
XM , ¢ p 2A Y / Hy c ” > 
Diroarépavos loropet: Adpodirn 8€ adAn ev 
Kvidw Aibos jv Kat Kady Hv, érepos Hpdabn radvrns 
, | 7] 

1 éhéyxnta Potter. édéyxerat Mss. 


uncreated God? The Parian marble is beautiful, 
but it is not yet a Poseidon. The ivory is beautiful, 
but it is not yet an Olympian Zeus. Matter will 
ever be in need of art, but God has no such need. 
Art develops, matter is invested with shape; and 
the costliness of the substance makes it worth carry- 
ing off for gain, but it is the shape alone which me 
it an object of veneration. Your statue is gold; 

is wood ; it is stone; or if in thought you trace it B 
its origin, it is earth, which has received form at 
the artist's hands. But my practice is to walk upon 
earth, not to worship it. For I hold it sin ever to 
entrust the hopes of the soul to soulless things. 

We must, then, approach the statues as closely as 
we possibly can in order to prove from their very 
appearance that they are inseparably associated with 
error. For their forms are unmistakably stamped 
with the characteristic marks of the daemons. At 
least, if one were to go round inspecting the paintings 
and statues, he would immediately recognize your 
gods from their undignified figures; Dionysus from 
his dress, Hephaestus from his handicraft, Demeter 
from her woe, Ino from her veil, Poseidon from his 
trident, Zeus from his swan, The pyre indicates 
Heracles, and if one sees a woman represented naked, 
he understands it is “ golden” * Aphrodite. So the 
well-known Pygmalion of Cyprus fell in love with an 
ivory statue; it was of Aphrodite and was naked. 
The man of Cyprus is captivated by its shapeliness 
and embraces the statue. This is related by Philo- 
stephanus.? There was also an Aphrodite in Cnidus, 
made of marble and beautiful. Another man fell in 

« Homer, Odyssey iv. 14. 

> Philostephanus, Frag. 13 Frag. hist. Graec. iii. p. 31. 



The forms 
of the 
show whom 

Men have 
fallen in 
love with 


CAP. Kat plyvura TH Abe Hlocetdurmos i toropel, 6 pe 
" mpdrepos ev T@ mrepl Kuzpou, fe} de € ETEpOS ev TO 
Tept Kyidov. TOGOUTOV toxucev amarhoa TEXVT) 
mpoayaryos avOpeirrots € epwtucots eis Bapabpov yevo- 
per. OpacTnplos pev 7 Onpoupyucn, aan’ ovx 
ola Te atratHaa AoyiKov ovde pay TOUS Kara Aoyov 
BeBiwkdras: Cwypadias pev yap du OpoLoTnTa 
ok.aypadiytars Tepotepais > TpooeT Tn aay TreAcuddes 
Kal Ummow Kadrds VEY PapLpLevaats TIpoceypee- 
TuoaV immot. epacOhvar Kopynv elkdovos Aéyovow 
Kal véov KaNov Kydtov daydAuaros, aan’ Hoav TOv 
Dear@y at ders Nratnuevar U7r0 THs TEXVIS. ovoe 
yap av JeG Tes auveTAdKy, od dy VEeKpG@ TLS OUV- 
eTagn, odd? ay Tpaodn datpovos Kal AiBov | avOpwrros 
owppovav. buds de adAy yonreta a amTaré. uy TEXVN), 
el Kal per) emt TO epav Tpoodyouca., aw em TO 
TYyLav Kal mpookuvety Ta Te aydAuata Kal Tas 
ypads. Opota. ye a ypapn” emrawvetobw peev 7 
TEXYN, pa) amarare dé TOV avOpwrov ws arn Bera. 
eoTn KEV 3 imr7ros NOUX i» n TreAevas arpepijs, apyov 
TO TTEPOV, 7 de€ Bots 7 AaddAov y) eK Tob EvAov 
TETIOUN LEV rabpov etXev dyptov Kal karyvayKacev 
TO Onpiov 1) TEXV TAavycaca epwons éemusjvar 
yuvaiKos. Toaodtov olotpov at téxvat KakoTEey- 

1 oxiaypagyras mepiorepats Stahlin. cxiaypadias repicrepat 
MSS. éoK.aypapnudvars mepiorepats Mayor. 

* Poseidippus, Fr. 1 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 482. 
> Literally, ‘* procuress.” Compare Tennyson’s ‘In 
Memoriam,” 53. 
Hold thou the good : define it well: 
For fear divine Philosophy 

Should push beyond her mark, and be 
Procuress to the Lords of Hell. 



love with this and has intercourse with the marble, cHap. 
as Poseidippus relates.“ The account of the first 1Y 
author is in his book on Cyprus; that of the second 
in his book on Cnidus. Such strength had art to 
beguile that it became for amorous men a guide? 
to the pit of destruction. Now craftsmanship is The fascina- 
powerful, but it cannot beguile a rational being, nor [.° 
yet those who have lived according to reason. It is foolish men 
true that, through lifelike portraiture, pigeons have 
been known to fly towards painted doves, and horses 
to neigh at well-drawn mares. They say that a 
maiden once fell in love with an image, and a 
beautiful youth with a Cnidian statue°®; but it was 
their sight that was beguiled by the art. For 
no man in his senses would have embraced the 
statue of a goddess, or have been buried with a 
lifeless paramour, or have fallen in love with a daemon 
and astone. But in your case art has another illusion Worship of 
with which to beguile; for it leads you on, though S2%°s’s 
not to be in love with the statues and paintings, yet form of arvs 
: >! nie ascination 
to honour and worship them. The painting, you 
say, is lifelike. Let the art be praised, but let it 
not beguile man by pretending to be truth. The 
horse stands motionless; the dove flutters not; its 
wings are at rest. Yet the cow of Daedalus, made 
of wood, infatuated a wild bull; and the beast, led 
astray by the art, was constrained to approach a love- 
sick woman.? Such insane passion did the arts, by 
oe had no fear of ‘‘divine Philosophy,” but only 
of art. 
* Compare Philostratus, Apollonius of Tyana vi. 40 
(Loeb Classical Library ed. ii. pp. 134-9). 
¢ «i.e. Pasiphaé. Daedalus had put her inside his wooden 
cow, that she might satisfy her passion for the bull. Apol- 
lodorus iii. 1. 3; Philo Judaeus, De spec. leg. 8. 



52 P. 


vodoar Tots dvonrous eveTrolnoay. aAAa tods fev 
muOijKous ob TOUTWV Tpopets Kal jededwrvol TeGav- 
paxaow, Ort Tov Knpivev 7 mnAWwwy 6 Oporenpud rev 
Kal KopoKoopiteny dmard TovTous ovdev: wets be 
dpa Kal mebijceov Xelpous yevnoeobe ABivors Kal 
Evdivors Kal Xpuceous Kat eAepartivors dyaAparious 
Kal ypapais TpooavexovTes. Tovovrwy opty [of] a 
npwoupyot abuppatwv odAcOpiwv of ABoEdor Kai ot 
avdopiavToTrotoL ypadeis TE ad Kal TéKTOves Kal 
mounTal, moAvvy twa Kal Tolodrov dyAov map- 
> ~ 
ELoayoVTES, KAT aypovs ev Latvpovs Kai Ildvas, 
> \ \ \ LA / \ > / \ \ ¢ 
ava de Tas vAas Nvudas Tas dperddas Kal Tas dpa- 
/ \ \ > \ \ \ \ id A 
Spuddas, vat pnv adda Kal mept Ta VdaTa Kal 

TEpl TOUS ToTAaLOUS Kal Tas mnyas Tas Natdas 

\ \ \ Oar \ N to / de 
kal mept tIv Oddarrav tas Nnypeidas. pdyou 8¢ 
770 doeBetas Tijs opav avTav vianpéetas Saipovas 
avxobou, otkeTas avrovs eauTots kataypaibarres, 
Tovs KaTnvayKaopevous SdovAovs tails émaodais 

th ss ” \ / J \ A 

Tdpou te otv Eze Kal madomoua Kat oyetar 

~ a > 
Gedv pvnpovevdprevat Kal provyetar Gddpevar Kal 

evwxiat KwuMdovpevar Kal yéAwTes Tapa mdTOV 
> ~ ) 
cloayomevo. mpoTpéemovot 677 pe avaKpayetv, Kav 
cwwnjcat GéAw, oso. THs abedtnTos: oKyViV 
TETOLNKATE TOV Ovpavoy Kal TO Deiov duiv Spaya 
yeyevyTal Kal TO GyLov mpoowr7relots Satpoviwy 
/ \ > ~ / 

KekwuwoyKate, THY GAnbA GeocdBevav Sevoidar- 
jrovia oatupicartes. 

avtap 6 doppilwr aveBdAAeTto Kadov aeidev, 

1 rouovrwv . « [ol] Wilamowitz. rtoco’rwy . . of Mss. 
2 67 Hoschel. 6é mss, 



their vicious artifices, implant in creatures without cHap. 
sense. Even monkeys know better than this. They , 1 
astonish their rearers and keepers, because no manner monkeys 
of waxen or clay figures or girls’ toys can deceive them. etc 
But you, strange to say, will prove yourselves inferior Py lifeless 
even to monkeys through the heed you pay to statues 

of stone and wood, gold and ivory, and to paintings. 

Such are the pernicious playthings made for you Statues are 
by marble-masons, sculptors, painters, carpenters and 'e,foys. 
poets, who introduce this great multitude of gods, men by 
Satyrs and Pans in the fields, mountain and tree Saipan 
Nymphs in the woods, as well as Naiads about the 

lakes, rivers and springs, and Nereids by the sea. 
Magicians go so far as to boast that daemons are 
assistants in their impious deeds; they have enrolled 

them as their own servants, having made them 

slaves perforce by means of their incantations. 

Further, the marriages of gods, their acts of The gode 
child-begetting and child-bearing which are on men’s pee a e 
lips, their adulteries which are sung by bards, their and 
feastings which are a theme of comedy, and the poe ial 
bursts of laughter which occur over their cups, these 
exhort me to cry aloud, even if I would fain keep 
silence,—Alas for such atheism! You have turned 
heaven into a stage. You look upon the divine 
nature as a subject for drama. Under the masks 
of daemons you have made comedy of that which 
is holy. For the true worship of God you have 
substituted a travesty, the fear of daemons. 

Then to the harp’s sweet strains a beautiful song he opened ; 4 

@ Homer, Odyssey viii. 266, 



53 P. 

daov iv, “Opnpe, tiv dwvnv tiv Kadjv, 
app “Apews pirornros evoreddvov 7” T ’Adpoditns* 

Ws TA TpPATa pulynoav ev ‘Hdatorovo Sdpouae 
Adbpy: moa 0° cdwxe, A€xos 8 Hoxvve Kal edvipy 

“Hdaiorowo a aVaKTOS. 

KaTdmavoov, “Opnpe, THY pony ovK ear xan), 
pLovyelav SiSdoxer: Tropvevew de Tpets Kal TO ara 
mapyTnpeba: Hwets yap, jpets EOpLEV ol TV etkova. 
Tob Beob TmEpupepovres ev T@ COvte Kal KWOUHEVeD 
TovTw aydAuatl, TO dvOpesrre, avVOLKOV €iKOVG, 
ovpBovdov, ouvdpudor, OUVEOTLOV, oupmabh, UTEP - 
maby: avdbnwa yeyovajtev TO G6 o7ep Xpuorob: 
“qyets TO yevos TO éxAekrov, 70 Bacirevov ¢ iepa- 
Teva, €Ovos dytov, Aads TEpLovotos, ol more ov 
Aads, vov de Aads Tob Deod ’ + ot Kata Tov “lwavynv 
odk ovtes ““€x TOV KaTW, "Tapa be Tob avebev 
eMovros TO may pepabydres, ob TV olKovopiiay 
tod Geob KATOVEVONKOTES, ot “ev Kawornte wis 
mepumarety % pepederyKOrEs. 

"AM’ od Tatra ppovodow ob moot azroppt- 
pavres d€ THY aid® Kal Tov doBov ouKoe Tovs TOV 
Sayoveny _eyypagovrat TacxnTLacpLovs. muvaxtous 
yoov | Trot Kataypadors JLeTEWporEpov dvaxeyrevous 
TpooEeaxnKores aceXyeia Tovs Oaddpous KEKOOLLN) - 
Kaol, THY aKoAaciav evoéBevav vopicovres* KaTr 
TOU akim0d0s KaTaKEiwevoL Tap abtas ETL Tas 
mepitAokas afpopdow eis tiv "Adpodityny éxeivnv 

2 Odyssey viii. 267-270. > 1 St. Peter ii. 9-10, 
¢ St. John viii. 23. @ See St. John iii. 31. 
¢ Romans vi. 4. 


Sing us that beautiful strain, Homer, CHAP. 

Telling the love of Ares and Aphrodite fair-girdled, Homer's 
How at the first they met in the halls of Hephaestus in witness 

secret ; £5 tie 
Many the gifts he gave, and the bed and couch of ee 

Sullied with shame.¢ 

Cease the song, Homer. There is no beauty in 
that; it teaches adultery. We have declined to christians 
lend even our ears to fornication. For we, yes must 10% 
we, are they who, in this living and moving statue, such stories 
man, bear about the image of God, an image which 
dwells with us, is our counsellor, companion, the 
sharer of our hearth, which feels with us, feels for 
us. We have been made a consecrated offering to 
God for Christ’s sake. “We are the elect race, 
the royal priesthood, a holy nation, a people belong- 
ing to God, who in time past were not a people, 
but now are the people of God.” We are they 
who, according to John, are not “from below,’ ® 
but have learnt the whole truth from Him who 
came from above,’ who have apprehended the dis- 
pensation of God, who have studied “to walk in 
newness of life.’”’ ¢ 

But most men are not of this mind. Casting off Indecent 
shame and fear, they have their homes decorated ea 
with pictures representing the unnatural lust of the in houses 
daemons. In the lewdness to which their thoughts 
are given, they adorn their chambers with painted 
tablets hung on high like votive offerings, regarding 
licentiousness as piety; and, when lying upon the 
bed, while still in the midst of their own embraces, 
they fix their gaze upon that naked Aphrodite, who 



CAP. THY YUELVIV, TV Em TH oupTrAokh} Sedenerny, al Th 
Tais oevddvats, oppayto l XpwpLevor KaTadAjrAw 
TH Avos akonacig. Tatra bya THS jouTrabetas 
Ta apyeTuTrAa, avTaL THs. UBpews at Beohoyiat, adTat 
Tov cupmropvevdvTav bpiv dedv at dwdacKkaAtar: 
6 yap BovAeran, Tob0’ ExaoTos Ka olerat ” KaTa 
TOV "AOnvatov pyropa. ofau be av Kat ara pay 
elicoves, TaVvioKol TWeS Kal yupvat Kopa Kal 
adtupo. peQvovtes Kat poplay evTdoets, Tats 
ypadais amoyupvovpevat, amo Ths akpacias édeyXo- 
peva. non dé avadavdov THs axoAaotas ods Ta, 
plgei avaypamra Travnet Bedpevor odK aioxe- 
veabe, pudarrere d€ ETL paAAov dvaxetpeva, @amep 
Bree: Trav Gedv tudv Tas eikovas, oTmAas av- 
auoxuyTias KkabrepodaavTes olKol, em tons eyypa- 
pojevor TA Dirawidos OXNpaTO. Ws TO ‘HpaicAgous 
abAjpara.. TOUTWY ov povov Tis XpITEwS, Tpos 
dé Kal THs opews kal THs duco7s auras Gpvnotiav 
katayyedopev. nTaipy Kev tiv TA WTO, TmeTOp- 
vevKaoW ol op a.AyLot Kal TO KaLvOTE pov 7po THS 
oupTAoxijs at oxers buiv peporxedKaow. @ Bvaca- 
evo TOV avOpwov Kat TO evOeov TOU mAdopatos 
eAdyyet dmapdgavres, wdyra amuotTeire, Wa exTa- 
Oaivnabe: Kat morevere* pev Tots etdw@Aots CnAobvTes 

1 mistevere Arcerius. mioTevnre MSS. 

@ 4.¢, bound with the invisible chains which Hephaestus 
had made to entrap her. Odyssey viii. 270-299. 

> Demosthenes, Olynthiacs iii. 19. 

¢ 7.e. in houses; see p. 137. 



lies bound in her adultery. Also, to show they cuap. 
approve the representation of effeminacy, they !V 
engrave in the hoops of their rings the amorous bird Indecent 
hovering over Leda, using a seal which reflects the S008 
licentiousness of Zeus. ‘These are the patterns for 

your voluptuousness ; these are the stories that give 

divine sanction for wanton living; these are the 
lessons taught by gods who are fornicators like 
yourselves. “For what a man desires, that he also 
imagines to be true,’ says the Athenian orator.? 

Look, too, at other of your images,—little figures shameful 
of Pan, naked girls, drunken satyrs; and obscene $8" , 
emblems, plainly exhibited in pictures, and self- penne 
condemned by their indecency. More than that, in Saplie 
you behold without a blush the postures of the 

whole art of licentiousness openly pictured in public. 

But when they are hung on high ¢ you treasure them And in 
still more, just as if they were actually the images "S® 
of your gods; for you dedicate these monuments 

of shamelessness in your homes, and are as eager to 
procure paintings of the postures of Philaenis as 

of the labours of Heracles. We declare that not 

only the use, but also the sight and the very 
hearing of these things should be forgotten. Your 

ears have committed fornication; your eyes have 
prostituted themselves ;¢ and, stranger still, before 

the embrace you have committed adultery by your 
looks.°. You who have done violence to man, and Unbelief 
erased by dishonour the divine image in which “7@jo love 
he was created, you are utter unbelievers in order base 
that you may give way to your passions. You believe 

in the idols because you crave after their incontinence; 

@ Cp. 2 St. Peter ii. 14, ¢ Cp. St. Matthew v. 28. 
F 139 


CAP. avr dav THY akpaciav, amoretre be T® 064 owdpo- 
ovvny pa pepovres: Kal Ta pLev KpettTw [epLLoriKare, 
Ta O€ 7 HTTW TETYLNKATE, dpetns pev Oeatal, Kakias 
de _aywvoral yeyevnevor. 

54 P. “OABrou”’ | wove Toy, ws Eros elmretv, Opo- 
Oupadov éxetvor tavres Kata THY LiPvdrdav 

a \ \ 1 if > / is / 

ot vaovs <pev>? mavtas atrapvycovTat LoovTEs 

\ / > a / ¢ / ~ 
Kal Bwpovs, etxaia AOwv (Sparta Kkwdav, 

: : 
Kal AiOwa Edava Kai aydAwara xetporrolnra,” 
aipate eupdyw pepaopeva Kal Pvaiavor 
TETpATIOOWY, SiTOdwWY, TTHVaV Onpav Te Povorow. 

Kal yap 67 Kal amnyopevTa npetv dvagavdov 
dmatnhov epyaleobar Téxvnv. “od yap Toujaels, 
now 6 po TNS: ““TaVvTOS opoiwpa, doa ev TO 
ovpave ava) Kal Goa ev TH YA Kato. H Tow yi; dy 
ETL THY ITpagureAous Anuntpa Kat Kopnv Kal TOV 
"Iaxyov Tov pvoTuKov Beovs broad oulev 7) Tas 
Avoinmov Téxvas 7) Tas Xeipas ras ’AmeAXuKds, at 
57) Tijs Beodogias TO OXIHA TH vAn mepiTeDetKaow ; 
GAA’ dpets prev Orrws qToTe 6 avopias OTL pddvora 
copardtratos UTeKTaunral, mpookaptepetre, Omws de 
avToL 11) Gpovot be’ dvarobnotay Tois avoowdow 
amoreeabijre, od dpovrilere> mavu yoov eupavas 
Kal ouvropos 6 mpopyTLKos edéyxet Thv ovv7Gevav 
Adyos Ort “mdvres ot Jeot Ta&v eOvav Saynoviy 
cialy eidwra: 6 8€ Beds Tods odpavods Emoinoer”’ 

1 <uév> inserted from Sibylline Oracles. 
2 kal NOwa . . . xetpowoinra not in Sibylline Oracles, 

a nae 

@ Sibylline Oracles iv. 24, 27-30. 


you disbelieve in God because you cannot bear self- 
control. You have hated the better, and honoured 
the worse. You have shown yourselves onlookers 
with regard to virtue, but active champions of vice. 
The only men, therefore, who can with one con- 

sent, so to speak, be called “blessed,” are all those * 

whom the Sibyl describes, 

Who, seeing the temples, will reject them all, 
And altars, useless shrines of senseless stones ; 
Stone idols too, and statues made by hand 
Defiled with blood yet warm, and sacrifice 

Of quadruped and biped, bird and beast. 

What is more, we are expressly forbidden to practise 
a deceitful art. For the prophet says, “Thou shalt 
not make a likeness of anything that is in heaven 
above or in the earth beneath.” ® Is it possible that 
we can still suppose the Demeter and Persephone 
and the mystic Iacchus of Praxiteles to be gods? 
Or are we to regard as gods the masterpieces of 
Lysippus or the works of Apelles, since it is these 
which have bestowed upon matter the fashion of 
the divine glory? But as for you, while you take 
great pains to discover how a statue may be shaped 
to the highest possible pitch of beauty, you never 
give a thought to prevent yourselves turning out like 
statues owing to want of sense. Any way, with the 
utmost plainness and brevity the prophetic word 
refutes the custom of idolatry, when it says, “ All the 
gods of the nations are images of daemons; but 
God made the heavens,’¢ and the things in heaven. 

> Exodus xx. 4; Deuteronomy v. 8. 
¢ Psalm xcvi. 5, 



alone are 

They are 
forbidden to 
make images 


55 P. 


Kal Td ev TO ovpave. mavespevou yobv Ties ev 
V rebbev odk 015° Srws Belay péev Téxynv, TAnY aA’ ov 
Oeov mpookvvodow 7Auv Te Kal ceAjvynv Kat Tov 
dAAov t&v dotépwv yopov, mapadrdyws TovTous 
Geovs drrodapBavoves, Ta Opyava Tov xpovou: 
“T@ yap doy avToo eorepewInoav Kal TO 
TEV LATE Too oToparos avToo méoa 1 Svvapiis 
avtav.” GAN 1 pev avOpwreia Téxvy OlKias TE Kat 
vais Kal modes Kal ypadds Sypuoupyet, Beds de 
7s av elroy doa mrovet; dAov ie TOV KOO}LOV, 
€xeivou Epyov €oTiv: Kal ovpavos Kal jALos Kal dy- 
yerou Kal avOpwtrou “ €pya TOV SaxrvAwy | avrob.’ 

oon ye 1 Ovvapus Tob Beod. jovov avrod TO Bov- 
Ana kooporrouia: _ bovos yap 0 Geos € emroinaey, e7rel 
Kal pL0vos ovTws €ott Geds: pred TO BovAcobau 
Sypvoupyet Kal T@ povov eVeAjaa adTov emeTau 
TO yeyevqaban. evraiba pirocopuv TApaTpeTreTaL 
xopos Tos. pev tHv ovpavod Oéay mayKddws 
yeyovevar TOV dvOpurov OpoAoyovvTwy, Ta de ev 
ovpav@ pawopeva Kat oer katahapBavopeva m™poo- 
KUvOUTM. el yap Kal ay avOpwmwa Ta Epya 
Ta ev ovpave, adda, yoobv dvOpurrrous Sedrptoup- 
yyTat. Kal py TOV Tuy Tis DL@V TpookuvelTw, 
adda, Tov Alov mownTHV emumobeiTw, pndé Tov 
KOo[OoV exDevaleru, adda, TOV KOGLLOU Snpvoupyov 
emlntnodtw. povn apa, ws eoiKev, KaTapuyy TO 
peArovTe. emt Tas owTnpious aducvetaba Ovpas 
bmoAcimetar copia Oeikr: evredOev wamep e€ icpod 
twos asvAov ovdevi odKEeTL aywyyLos THY Satpovev 
6 dvOpwros yiverat omrevdwv eis GwTNpiav. 

@ See Genesis i. 14, 


Some, it is true, starting from this point, go astray,— CHAP. 

I know not how,—and worship not God but His 5... men 
handiwork, the sun, moon, and the host of stars worship the 
besides, absurdly supposing these to be gods, though eto y 
they are but instruments for measuring time ;% for stead of 
“by His word were they firmly established ; and all 

their power by the breath of His mouth.” But 

while human handiwork fashions houses, ships, cities, 
paintings, how can I speak of all that God creates? 

See the whole universe; that is His work. Heaven, These are 
the sun, angels and men are “the works of His Pe fots. 
fingers.” © How great is the power of God! His 

mere will is creation; for God alone created, since 

He alone is truly God. By a bare wish His work is 

done, and the world’s existence follows upon a single 

act of His will. Here the host of philosophers turn 

aside, when they admit that man is beautifully made 

for the contemplation of heaven,@ and yet worship the 

things which appear in heaven and are apprehended 

by sight. For although the heavenly bodies are not 

the works of man, at least they have been created for 

man. Let none of you worship the sun; rather let seek after 
him yearn for the maker of the sun. Let no one deify God and 
the universe; rather let him seek after the creator works of 
of the universe. It seems, then, that but one refuge God 
remains for the man who is to reach the gates of salva- 

tion, and that is divine wisdom. From thence, as from 

a holy inviolate temple, no longer can any daemon 

carry him off, as he presses onward to salvation. 

> Psalm xxxiii. 6. ¢ Psalm viii. 3. 

@ Cp. Cicero, De natura deorum ii. 140 ‘* Providence . . . 
made men upright and erect, that by contemplating the 
heavens they might gain a knowledge of the gods.” See 
also Ovid, Metamorph. i. 85-6. 


56 P. 


"Enid papcopev bé, el Bove, Kal TOV prroadpu 

Tas d0€as, dcas avxoda TEpl Tov bedv, €l ws 
Kat diAdocodiav atti Kevodo€ias evexev avetdwAo- 
Tovobaav THY vAnv ededpwuev, 71 Kal Sayuona 
aTTa exBeralovoay KaTa Trapadpouny Tapaorhoae 
SuvnPAuev 0 OVELPWTTOVGAV Tuy aAnfeav. orowxeta 
prev ovv apxas | améAurrov * eSupwjoavres Oars 
O MuAjovos TO ddwp Kal “Avagyevns 6 Kal 
avTos MuAjowos tov a€pa, @ Avoyévys tvotepov 6 
3 NA / Xr 50 E / Ay 
AtodAwuiatys KatnKoAovOncev. Ilappevidns dé 6 
> ~ ~ 
*"EXedrns Oeovs eionyjcato mip Kai yiv, Oatepov Se 
avtotv povov,® To rip, Deov brrevAndatov “Inmacds 
e€ A \ €)5 2 / ¢ / 

TE O Merarrovrivos Kal 6 Edéovos ‘HpdkAectos: 
"EprredoKjs yap o "Axpayavtivos eis 7Anbos 
epTecov Tpos Tots TeTTapat oTouyElots TovTOLS 

veikos Kal diriav KatapiOetrac. 
“A@ \ \ \ e / \ > / \ 
cot prev 67) Kal odTOL, Godia Ti aoddw THY 
4 , \ / \ BD) / >) 
VAnv mpocKuvycartes Kat Aifovs pev 7 EVAa od 
Tyunoavres, yay Se THY TOUTWY pNnTEépa eKOerdaartes 
kat [loced@va pev ovK avamAdtrovres, Udwp dé 
avTo mpooTpeTropevor. Ti yap €oTi Tote 64 Ilocerdav 
womTrep aerer 6 toAeutos “Apys amo Ths apaews 

1 4 Diels. ef mss. 

2 amédurov Cobet. daéXeurov Mss. 

3 uévov Sylburg. dvow mss. 
4 wore 6 Wilamowitz. mpérepov mss. &repov Mayor. 

« i.e, gets a feeble grasp of it. Cp. Plutarch, De Is. et 
Osir. 382 F **The souls of men, while on earth and en- 




Let us now, if you like, run through the opinions The 
which the philosophers, on their part, assert con- Thitoso- ie 
fidently about the gods. Perchance we may find phers 
philosophy herself, through vanity, forming her con- 
ceptions of the godhead out of matter; or else we 
may be able to show in passing that, when deifying 
certain divine powers, she sees the truth in a dream. 

Some philosophers, then, left us the elements as Early 
first principles of all things. Water was selected oe 
for praise by Thales of Miletus; air by Anaximenes posed the 
of the same city, who was followed afterwards by {o be mst 
Diogenes of Apollonia. Fire and earth were intro- principles 
duced as gods by Parmenides of Elea; but only one 

of this pair, namely fire, is god according to the 
supposition of both Hippasus of Metapontum and 
Heracleitus of Ephesus. As to Empedocles of 
Acragas, he chooses plurality, and reckons “love” 

and “strife”’ in his list of gods, in addition to these 

four elements. 

These men also were really atheists, since with a They are 
foolish show of wisdom they worshipped matter. Mhexsts 
They did not, it is true, honour stocks or stones, weer 
but they made a god out of earth, which is the mother tirst cause 
of these. They do not fashion a Poseidon, but they 
adore water itself. For what in the world is 
Poseidon, except a kind of liquid substance named 

from posis, drink? Just as, without a doubt, warlike 

cumbered by bodies and passions, can have no companion- 
ship with God, except in so far as they get a dim dream of 
Him through the aid of philosophy.” 

> See p. 47 with note. 



57 P. 


Kal avaipécews KekAnLevos, % Kai SdoKobol pot 
moot pahora To Eidos povov mEavres emOvew 
ws “Apet: eo7t 6€ UKvd@v 7d Towdrov, Kabamep 
Evdofos € ev SeuTepa Tis TrepLodov Aéyet, LKvbav dé 
ot Lavpoudrat, Os dnow ‘Ikéous ev TH TreEpt 
pLvoTnpiwv, aucwadeny c¢Bovow. Tobrd TOU KaL ot 
appt tov ‘Hpakdrerrov 76 mip ws apxéyovov 
o¢Bovres TeTovOacw: TO yap mp todro €tTepor 
“Heaorov avowacay. Iepoay d€ OL pdyou TO 
Trohnoi, mpos d€ Kal Maxedoves, ws dyno. Avwoyévyns 
ev a” Ilepoucdv. ti por Lavpouaras Kkatadeyew, 
ous Nuppodwpos ev Nopipous BapBaprcois TO 7p 
o¢Bew t toropel, 7 TOUS Ilépoas Kal Tovs Mzd0us Kal 
Tovs pdyous; Qvew ev drraibpe ToUTOUS 6 Aivwv 
déyet, Decv aydAwata ova TO 7p Kal vdwp vopicov- 
Tas. ovK dmekpuypapnv ovde TV TOUTW dyvouay. 
el yap Kal Ta, pdAvora amopev'yew otovra THS 
mAdvns, add’ eis eTepay katoAvaatvovow | amarnv: 
dyd\wara prev Oedv od gvha Kal Aifous Uren pacw 
wamep “EAAnves ob5€ pv iBidas Kal ixvetwovas 
Kalarep Atyorror, aAXa. mp Te Kal vowp ws 
prrcoogor. peta TroAAds jLéevToL VoTEpov Tepiddous 
eTav avOpwroed7n aydAwata o€Bew adtovs Brpwo- 
1 Ts Diels. ris mss. (See p. 44, n. 3.) 

* Cp. Plutarch, Amatorius 757 B ‘*Chrysippus says 
that Ares is anairesis” (so Petersen: mss. have anairein=to 
destroy). The endeavour to find meanings in the names 
of the gods has its literary origin in Plato’s Cratylus (esp. 
pp. 395-412). The Stoics found in this method a support 
for their doctrine that the gods of mythology were merely 
personified natural forces or processes. See Cicero, De 
natura deorum ii. 63-72. 



Ares is so called from arsis and anairesis,* abolition cHapP. 
and destruction; which is the chief reason, I think, Y 
why many tribes simply fix their sword in the ground 

and then offer sacrifice to it as if to Ares. Such is 

the custom of Scythians, as Eudoxus says in his 

second book of Geography,® while the Sauromatians, 

a Scythian tribe, worship a dagger, according to 
Hicesius in his book on Mysteries. This too is the 

case with the followers of Heracleitus when they 
worship fire as the source of all; for this fire is what 

others named Hephaestus. The Persian Magi and Many _ 
many of the inhabitants of Asia have assigned ais 
honour to fire ; so have the Macedonians, as Diogenes 

says in the first volume of his Persian History.4 Why 

need I instance Sauromatians, whom Nymphodorus 

in Barbarian Customs’ reports as worshipping fire ; 

or the Persians, Medes and Magi? Dinon says that 

these Magi sacrifice under the open sky, believing 

that fire and water are the sole emblems of divinity. 

Even their ignorance I do not conceal ; for although 

they are quite convinced that they are escaping the 

error of idolatry, yet they slip into another delusion. 

They do not suppose, like Greeks, that stocks and 

stones are emblems of divinity, nor ibises and ich- 
neumons, after the manner of Egyptians; but they Worship of 
admit fire and water, as philosophers do. It was an ee 
not, however, till many ages had passed that they ed eh 
began to worship statues in human form, as Berosus worship 

> Kudoxus, Fr. 16 Brandes (Jahrb. class. Phil. 1847, Suppl. 
13, p. 223). 

¢ Hicesius, Fr. 1 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 429. 

4 Diogenes of Cyzicus, Fr. 4 Frag. hist. Graec. iv. p. 392. 

¢ Nymphodorus, Fr. 14 Frag. hist. Gracc. ii. p. 379. 

J Dinon, Fr. 9 Frag. hist. Graec. ii. p. 91. 

F2 147 



58 P. 


> , oe ~ / ~ > 
gos ev Tpitn Xaddaixkav mapiotya., Tobro “Apra- 
Eépéov tod Aapeiov tod "Qyou eionynoapévov, os 
~ ~ > dL ?A oh 5 1 \ ” 
mpa@tos ths “Adpodirns vaitioos? ro ayadya 
> V¢ 3 ~ A Ze \ > 
dvaotyoas ev BaBvAdw Kat Lovoors Kat *Ex- 
Baravors [lépoais Kat Baxtpous kai Aapack® Kat 

A ic. / 4 ¢ / 5 / 
Ldpdeow tbrédeake céBew. opodoyovvtwy toivuv 
ot diddaogor Tovs didacKdaAous Tovs opdv Ildpoas 7 
Lavpoudras } pdayous, tap av tHv abedtnta TOV 

nw 5 ~ 
ceBacpiwv avrots pewabyKacw apy@v, apxovTa TOV 
TAVTWY TOLNTHY Kal TOV apxav atta@v dy.ovp- 
yov ayvoodrtes, Tov avapyxov Jedov, Ta dé “mTwya’’ 
tatra Kat ‘‘aabeva,”’ 4 pyaw 6 andatodos, Ta Els 
thy avOpwTrwv brnpeciav memounpeva “‘ororyeta 

Tav S€ ddAdwy dirocddwv saor Ta aro.xeta 
trrepBavTes enoAutpaypovycay tue vynAdTeEpov Kal 
TMEPLTTOTEPOV, ot pev adTav TO ameipov Kabvpvynoar, 
ws ’Avakiwavdpos (MiAjoos Hv) Kat “Avagaydpas 
e / A e > ~ > / f 
6 KAalopevos Kat 6 "A@nvaios “ApyéAaos. TovTw 
pev ye dudw tov vodv emeotyodTny TH arepia, 
6 5¢ MiAjowos Aevxurmos Kat 0 Xtos Mntpddwpos 
Surrds, ws €ouxev, Kal adta apyas amedumétyv, TO 

~ A A / / A A 4 
mAnpes Kal TO Kevov: TrpoceyKe 5é€ AaBwy trovToOW 

wn an \ ” eC / id ¢ 
row Svetv Ta Elowra 6 *ABdnpitns Anpoxperos. o 

/ 4 > / \ ” A 
yap to. Kpotwridrns “AAkpaiwy | Geovs weto Tovs 
aorépas eivar euytyous ovTas. od ovwirjcopaL THY 
TOUTWY avaLoxvYTiay: Eevoxpatys (Kadyndovios 
ovTos) ém7a pev Yeovs Tos mAavyiTas, Gydoov de 

1 ’Avatridos Bochart. ravatdos mss. 

@ Berosus, Fr. 16 Frag. hist. Graec. ii. p. 508. 
> Galatians iv. 9. 



shows in his third book of Chaldaean History ;* for cup. 
this custom was introduced by Artaxerxes the son of Y 
Darius and father of Ochus, who was the first to set 
up the statue of Aphrodite Anaitis in Babylon, Susa 
and Ecbatana, and to enjoin this worship upon Persians 
and Bactrians, upon Damascus and Sardis. Let the Phitoso 
philosophers therefore confess that Persians, Sauro- el ai 
matians, and Magi are their teachers, from whom this | 
they have learnt the atheistic doctrine of their fom 
venerated “first principles.” The great original, barbarians 
the maker of all things, and creator of the “ first 
principles” themselves, God without beginning, 
they know not, but offer adoration to these “ weak 
and beggarly elements,’’? as the apostle calls them, 
made for the service of men. 

Other philosophers went beyond the elements and Other 
sought diligently for a more sublime and excellent PMs 

: : phers 
principle. Some of them celebrated the praises of sought for 

the Infinite, as Anaximander of Miletus, Anaxagoras please 
of Clazomenae, and Archelaus of Athens. The two The Infinite 
latter agreed in placing Mind above the Infinite ; mina 
while on the other hand Leucippus of Miletus and 
Metrodorus of Chios also left, as it seems, a pair of 

first principles, “fulness” and “ void.” Democritus Fuiness 
of Abdera took these two and added to them the 274 Yo4 
“images.” * Nor was this all; Alemaeon of Croton 
thought that the stars were endowed with life, and ‘The stars 
therefore gods. 1 will not refrain from mentioning ean 
the audacity of these others. Xenocrates of Chalcedon 
intimates that the planets are seven gods and that 

¢ The theory of Democritus was that all natural objects 
gave off small particles of themselves, which he called 
‘‘images.” These came into contact with the organs of 
sense and were the cause of perception. 



\ > / ~ > r i051) Yl: ~ , 

aivitTeTar. ovde pv Tos amo THs UTods Tap- 
ededoouar dua maons VAs, Kal dua THS aTYyYLoTATIS, 
TO Betov SujKew Aێyovtas, ot Karauaxdvovow 
aTEXVOS THV prrocogiay. ovdev de oiwas yademov 
evrat0a yevopevos Kal Tav ex TOD Llepurdrov 
pena Ojvac: Kal 6 ye Ths aipécews TaTnp, TOV 
CAwy od} vornoas Tov TaTEpa, Tov KaAovjevov 
“Unatov’’ dvynv elvar tod TavTos oleTat’ TouT- 
€oTt TOO KOOjLOU THY puxmy Oeov brrodauBaver 
avTos avTa _TepuTreipeTan. 6 yap TOL HEXpU Tis 
oehnvns abris Suopilwy Hv mpdvoray, emrerTa. TOV 
KoopLov Oedv ryovpevos TepiTpemrETaL, TOV aLoLpoV 
Tob Beot Oeov dSoypatifwr. 06 dé *"Epéowos exetvos 
@codpactos 6 *AptotrotéAovs yveipysos mH pev 
ovpavov, 7h dé mvebpa Tov Bedv brovoet. *EmKov- 
pov pev yap jovou Kal éxav exAjoopat, ds oddev? 
peAew oletar TH Oe@, Sia TavTwv aceBav. Ti yap 
“HpakdAeidns 6 Ilovtixds; of Onn ov emt Ta 
Anpoxpitov Kat abdtos KatacvpeTat eidwdAa; 


, ’ aA ~ 
Kai srodds por émippet tovodros oyAos, otovel 
LopLw Twa, Sawoviwy mapevcaywv Eévwv atomTov 

1 +éy dmdavdv Davies. airéy Mss. dorpwy Diels. 
2 ovdév Lowth. ovdé mss. 

@ 7,e, Aristotle. 

» Aristotle sharply divided the celestial spheres, which 
were the divine part of the universe, from the sublunary 
world, in which alone birth, death, and change take place. 
The laws governing the upper world are necessarily different 
from those of the lower. Zeller (Aristotle, i. 508, n. 3, Eng. 



the ordered arrangement of the fixed stars is an cHap. 

eighth. Nor will I omit the Stoics, who say that the ».,¥ 10, 
divine nature permeates all matter, even in its lowest doctrine: 
forms; these men simply cover philosophy with Gi", 
shame. At this point there is, I think, nothing to 2!! things 
hinder me from mentioning the Peripatetics also. The Peri- 
The father of this sect,” because he did not perceive Patete 

the Father of all things, thinks that he who is called God the 
the “ Highest” is the soul of the universe; that is Sor th 
to say, he supposes the soul of the world to be God, 

and so is pierced with his own sword. For he first 
declares that providence extends only as far as the 

moon; then by holding the opinion that the universe 

is God he contradicts himself, asserting that that 

which has no share in God is God.  Aristotle’s 
disciple, the celebrated Theophrastus of Eresus, 
suspects in one place that God is heaven, and else- 

where that God is spirit. Epicurus alone I will Bpicurus: 
banish from memory, and that willingly, for he, G03 (387° 
pre-eminent in impiety, thinks that God has no care world 
for the world. What of Heracleides of Pontus? 

Is there a single place where he too is not drawn 

away to the “images” of Democritus ? 


And a vast crowd of the same description swarms Many other 

ac ° ° c ° : : absurd 
upon me, bringing in their train, like a nightmare, an G)e¢hines, 

trans.) says: ‘* Both Christian and heathen opponents have Set ee 

distorted this to mean that the Divine Providence reaches 
only as far as the moon and does not extend to the earth. 
How far this representation agrees with the true Aristotelian 
doctrine may be gathered from what has been already said, 
at pp. 403, 410, and 421.” 



59 P 


oxiaypadiav, pvloroydv! tOrAw ypaika@: TroMob 
ye det avdpdow eTTUT PETE dxpodobat TOLOUTWY 
Adywv, ot pnd€é Tos Taidas To’s EavT@v, TovTo 
67) TO Aeyopevov, KAavOuvpilopevous €Oilopev Trap- 
nyopetoba pvbilovtes, oppwoodvtes ovvavaTpéepew 
avtots abedtnTa THY mpos TOV SoKnoioddwy* 
67) ToUTwY katayyehopevny, pejdev Te vyTiwy 
pLG.AAov Tadn Ges etd0Twv. Ti yap, @ m7pos THs 
dAnfetas, TOUS GOL Tet Lee OR aS devkvvets puoer 
Kat fopa® divas te atdaxro.s * doPeBAnevous; TI 
b€ poe etdoAwy dvamimAns tov Biov, avéuous TE 
7 dépa nH Tip H ynv 7 Aious 7H EvAa 7 aidnpov, 
Koopov Tovoe, Deods avamAarrovea, Geovs d€ Kal 
TOUS dorépas tovs mAavitas, Tots ovtTws memAa- 
vnevois TOV dvOparmroy dud THS modvbpvdrrou 
TAUTNS darpodroyias, ovK doTpovojias, jueTewpo- 
Aoyotca Kai adorecyotca; | Tov KUpiov TV TVvEV- 
patwy 700, Tov KUpiov Tob TUpds, TOV KdapLOU 
Onpvoupyov, Tov 7Atouv putaywyov: Beov emlnTa@, 
ov 7a epya Tob Ocod. Tiva 57) AdBur Tapa ooo 
ouvepyov Ths Cntjcews ; od yap TavTamacw 
ameyvwKapev oe. ef PovAn, tov TlAdtwra. 77 
51) obv e&tyvevtéov tov Oedov, ® IlAatwv; “tov 
yap matépa Kal TounTiv Tose TOD TavTOsS EevpeEtv 
1 uvOo\oyav Mayor. pvoddywr ss. 
2 Soxnoicdgwv Potter. doxnoeicddwy Mss. 

3 g@opa Miinzel. @opa mss. 
4 Sivas Te dtdxTows Heyse. dewats re kal drdxTos Mss. 

@ The doctrine of ‘‘ flux” was taught by Heracleitus in 
his well-known phrase, ‘* All things flow” (mdvra pet). 
‘** Motion” and ‘irregular vortices” refer to Anaxagoras, 
who supposed the primitive elements to have been set in 



absurd picture of strange daemons, and romancing cHap. 
with all an old wife’s extravagance. Far indeed V! 
are we from allowing grown men to listen to such 
tales. Even to our own children, when they are 
crying their heart out, as the saying goes, we are 

not in the habit of telling fabulous stories to soothe 
them; for we shrink from fostering in the children 

the atheism proclaimed by these men, who, though 
wise in their own conceit, have no more know- 
ledge of the truth than infants. Why, in the 
name of truth, do you show those who have put their 
trust in you that they are under the dominion of 
“flux”? and “motion” and “fortuitous vortices” ?* 
Why, pray, do you infect life with idols, imagining 
winds, air, fire, earth, stocks, stones, iron, this world it- 

self to be gods? Why babble in high-flown language 
about the divinity of the wandering stars to those 
men who have become real wanderers through this 
much-vaunted,—I will not call it astronomy, but 
—astrology? I long for the Lord of the winds, the 
Lord of fire, the Creator of the world, He who gives 
light to the sun. I seek for God Himself, not for 

the works of God. Whom am I to take from you 

as fellow worker in the search? For we do not 
altogether despair of you. “ Plato,’ if you like. Piatoisa 
How, then, Plato, must we trace out God? “It is better 

a hard task to find the Father and Maker of this oes 

rotatory motion by Mind (vois). This theory is ridiculed by 
Aristophanes, Clouds 828 ‘* Vortex has ousted Zeus, and 
reigns as king.” Vortex motion was also a part of the 
‘*atomic theory ” of Leucippus. Atoms of various size and 
shape constantly impinging upon one another in empty 
space would give rise to countless vortices, each of which 
might be the beginning of a world. 



” A e / > ¢ >) aA > / 9? 
CAP. Te €pyov Kai ebpovTa els dravras e€ertretv advvarTov. 
Sua ti Sta, @ mpos adrob; “‘pnrov} yap ovdauas 
>] / a2 > > / ~) ~ ~ b] , 
eotiv.” ed ye, @ IlAdtwv, émaddcat tis adAndeias* 
bd % A > / / ~ ~ / 
GAAG p47) atroxapns: Evv por AaBod ris CyTHGEwWSs 
> aA ~ A A 
rayalod mépi: maow yap antakatAds avOpuro.s, 
A \ / 
pdAvora dé Tots wept Adyous evdatpiBovow eveotaK- 
oe e A 
Tat Tis amdppota Oeiky. ob 57) yapw Kal aKovTes 
A ¢€ ~ Ld > / > / ‘ 
ev OpodAoyovow eva ye? elvar Gedy, avarAcfpov Kat 
~ a” A ~ ~ 
ayévntov todTov, avw mov mepi Ta vVaTAa TOD 
~ ~ 207 A > ~ 
ovpavod ev TH dia Kal olKEela TepwTh OVvTws 
A \ A > , , 
Oeov dé mrotov, El7é fLol, voNTEov ; 
~ A 
Tov 7av0? op@vrTa KavTov ody SpwLevov, 

Edpumidns Ayer. memAavicbar yotv 6 Mévavdpos 
prot Ooxet, evba dyaiv 

qAue, o€ yap Set mpooKvvetvy mpatov Fear, 
ie A ” A a” / 
du’ dv Oewpeiv Eatt Tovs dAAovs Beovs: 

° \ Ni ti b] / > an“ \ \ \ 
ovdé yap WAvos éemideifer mor’ av Tov Oeov tov 
> ~ ¢ \ , ¢ ¢e / LA > Ld ~ 
GAnbA, 0 Se Adyos 6 byujs, Os eaotw FAtos pvyjjs, 
Sv ob povev évdov avateiAavtos ev TH Baber rob 
vod? adris* Kkatavyalerat TO dupa" Oev ovK am- 
exotws 6 Anudkpitos “ T&v oyiwy avOpwTwy 

1 Snrov from Plato. pyréov mss. 
2 ye Schwartz. Te MSS. 

3 rod vod Cobet. rod vod cal Tod vods Mss. 
4 airfs Kroll. av’rod mss. 

@ Plato, Timaeus 28 c. 

> Plato, Epistles vii. p. 341 c. 

e Literally ‘‘the back” of the heavens. The phrase 
comes from Plato, Phaedrus 247 c. Both Plato and Clement 



universe, and when you have found Hin, it is im- crap. 
possible to declare Him to all.”* Why, pray, in 

God’s name, why? “ Because He can in no way be 
described.” > Well done, Plato, you have hit the 

truth. But do not give up. Join me in the search for 

the good. For there is a certain divine effluence 4 divine 
instilled into all men without exception, but filuence 
especially into those who spend their lives in thoughtful 
thought ; wherefore they admit, even though against eee ta 
their will, that God is One, that He is unbegotten th 
and indestructible, and that somewhere on high in 

the outermost spaces°® of the heavens, in His own 
private watch-tower, He truly exists for ever. 

What nature, say, must man ascribe to God ? Euripides 
He seeth all; yet ne’er Himself is seen, for instance 

says Euripides.4 Certainly Menander seems to me 
to be in error where he says, 

O Sun, thee must we worship, first of gods, 
Through whom our eyes can see the other gods.¢ 

For not even the sun could ever show us the true 
God. The healthful Word or Reason, who is the 

Sun of the soul, alone can do that; through Him Democritus 
says that 

alone, when He has risen within in the depth of the some look 

mind, the soul’s eye is illuminated. Whence }?,* | 

Democritus not unreasonably says that “a few men for God 

think of the heavens as a series of spheres revolving above 
the earth. The dwelling-place of God (or Plato’s ‘real 
existence ’’) is on the outer side of the topmost sphere. See 
the whole passage, Phaedrus 246 p—249., 

4 Kuripides, Frag. 1129 Nauck. 

¢ Menander, Frag. 609 Kock, Comic. Attic. Frag. iii. 
p. 184. 



Car. oXiyous * ’ dynow “ dvareivavras Tas xelpas evtatba 

ov vov Hepa Kahéopev ot "EMnves, [zavra | Aia jv- 
GetaGart: Kai <yap> mavra odtos oldev Kal d1d07 
<mdvTa>* Kai adaipetrar, Kai Baowreds odtos TaV 
mavtwv.' tavTn mn Kat IlAdTwv | dcavoovpevos 
tov Qeov aivitrerar “‘mrept tov mavtwy Bacréa 
mayer’ ort, KAKELVO alrvov amTavTwv <Tav >> Kahav.” 
Tis OUV O Baovreds TOV TAY TOV ; eos Tis TOV OVTwY 
dAnBetas TO [LETpoV. aomep obv TO peTpw KaTO- 
Annra TO peTpovjieva., ovTwat dé Kal T@ vorjoa 
TOV Oeov peTpetra Kat katahapBaverar a ddijfeta. 
O be lepos ovTws Mwvofs “otn éorat, dnowv, 
“ey TO apotmme cou ordBpuvov Kal ordOfusoy peya 
7 pucpov, ovde € eoTau Ev TH olKia Gov [eT pov peya 
7) pukpov, arr’ 7 oraBp.Lov didn Bovey Kal OlKaLOV 
Estat oor, oTdOutov Kal [ETpOV | Kal apubwov TOV 
ohwy SrodauBdveor | tov Bedv: Ta pev yap dduca 
Kal dvica elowha olkoe ev TO papotrrarey Kal eV TH 
ws eros elev puTwon poxs KATAKEKPUTTOL TO 
de pevov Sucauov [LeTpov, © jovos ovTws feos, tacos 
del KaTa Ta avTa Kal doavTws Exwv, weTpel Te 4 
mdr KaL orabudrar, olovel TpUTavn TH Suxaroovvy 
Thy TOV oAwy appeTis mephauBaverv Kal avexwv 
dvow. “ 6 prev 81) Geds, womep Kal ) maAavos 
Adyos, a apxnv «Te» Kal TeheuTay Kal jéoa. TOV OVTWY 
amdvTwy exw, evletav Tepaiver Kata pvaw TeEpt- 

} Ala pvdeicGar Heinsius. diapvOeio Par mss. 

2 kal<yap> wavra . . . Kal didot <rdvra> (with omission of 

mdvta in previous line) Wilamowitz. kal mdvta ... kal kal . . . MSS. 

: * <ray> from Plato (but cp. Plotinus i. 8. 2). 
* werpet re Wendland (cp. Plato, Laws 643c). merpetrac Mss, 
® <re> from Plato, and Clement, ii. Stxom. 132. 2. 



of reason” stretch out their hands towards that cHap. 
which we Greeks now call air and speak of it in °! 
legend as Zeus; for Zeus knows all, he gives and 

takes away all, and he is king of all things.’’? Plato Plato speaks 
also has a similar thought, when he says darkly oEaiitises 
about God: “ All things are around the king of all ie.God 
things, and that is the cause of everything good.” ¢ 

Who, then, is the king of all things? It is God, 

the measure of the truth of all existence. As God is the 
therefore things measured are comprehended by the Mmpasure of | 
measure, so also by the perception of God the truth 

is measured and comprehended. The truly sacred 

Moses says, “ There shall not be in thy bag divers Moses 
weights, a great and a small, neither shall there be Beis taiso 
in thy house a great measure and a small, but thou ni 
shalt have a weight true and just.Ӣ Here he is goas 
assuming God to be the weight and measure and 

number of the universe. For the unjust and unfair 

idols find a home hidden in the depths of the bag, 

or, as we may say, the polluted soul. But the one 

true God, who is the only just measure, because He Goa, the 

is always uniformly and unchangeably impartial,’ pees 

measures and weighs all things, encircling and sus- is ever 
Saeed ° *y: ° . accom- 
taining in equilibrium the nature of the universe by panied by 

His justice as by a balance. “Now God, as the Bie 
ancient saying has it, holding the beginning and end 
and middle of all existence, keeps an unswerving 

2 Aédyos means learned, but here it seems to refer back to 

> Democritus, Frag. 30 Diels, Vorsokratiker ii. pp. 70-1 

¢ Plato, Hpistles ii. p. 312 £. 

¢ Deut. xxv. 13-15. 

¢ See Plato, Phaedo 78 pv. 



61 P. 


/ 4 ~ 1 S° a #4 / bu ~ > 
TOpEVO[LEVOS* TH aet Evvéeretar dikyn TOV amo- 
Aevropevwv Tod Oeiov vopov Tyswwpds.” mdbev, Bd 
TAarwv, adjfevav aivirrn; mdbev 4 tadv Aoywv 
» / \ / / , 
apbovos yopnyia Hv PeoceBevav pavrevetar; codiw- 
Tepa, pyciv, TovTwr BapBdpwv 7a yévn. ofdd cov 
Tous di0acKddAous, Kav amoxpmrew Oédns: yewpe- 
Ttpiav wap Alyurriwy pavOdaves, dotpovouiav mapa 
BaBvAwviwy, éemwmdas tas byteis mapa Opakdyv 
Ar / y oe 7 a 

apPavers, moAAd oe Kat ’Acovpror reradedKact, 

/ \ A 4 > A \ / \ ~ A 
vomous d€ Tovs dao aAnbeis Kat ddEav tiv Tob Beod 
map attdv whdAnoa tev ‘EBpaiwyr, 

e¢ > > / aA 29> » Qs +3) / 

OlTWeES OUK amraTnat Kevais, od’ epy’ avOpuimwv 
/ \ 4 \ > / 2N2 6 Dye Z-. 

Xpvoea Kat xdAKxera Kal apyvpov 75° eAéhavtos 
A / / ~ w / 

Kat EvAwwv Abivwy te Bpotav eidwra Bavdvtrwv 

TyUL@ow, Ooa Tép Te BpoTol Keveddpovr BovAj: 

> \ \ he A > \ >? / ¢ / 

adda yap aeipovat* pds odpavov wd€vas ayvas, | 

opOpior €€ edvis, del ypoa ayvilovtes 

vdact, Kal TYL@ot povov TOV det ped€ovTa 



, A , > , ¢ os 
Kat por py povov, & dirocodia, eva tobrov 
TAdrwva, moAdods S€ Kai dddovs mapacriaa 
omovdacov, Tov Eva ovTws povov Oedov avadbey- 
yopevous Oeov Kar’ enimvoiay adtod, et mov ris 
> / > / > £ \ \ > 
aAnfeias emdpd€awto. ’Avricbévys pev yap od 
Kovixov 67 todto éevevonoev, Lwepdrouvs 8€ dre 

/ ce \ > \ 2) / ” / ce , 
yvwpytos “‘Geov ovdevi eouxevar”’ dyoiv: “‘did7ep 

) \ > \ > aA ? > / 7 2) —_ 
avrov ovdeis expabeiy e& eikdvos S¥vata.”’ Zevo- 

1 +@ from Plato and Clement, ii. Strom. 132. 2. rhv Mss. 
2 delpovor Sibylline Oracles. aipovar mss. 



path, revolving according to nature; but ever there cuap, 
follows along with him Right, to take vengeance V! 
on those who forsake the divine law.”’* “Whence, 

Plato, do you hint at the truth? Whence comes it 

that this abundant supply of words proclaims as in 

an oracle the fear of God?”’ “The barbarian races,” 

he answers, “are wiser than the Greeks.” ® I know 

your teachers, even if you would fain conceal them. 

You learn geometry from the Egyptians, astronomy Sources. 
from the Babylonians, healing incantations you obtain 97, 1/ato's 
from the Thracians, and the Assyrians have taught 

you much’; but as to your laws (in so far as they 

are true) and your belief about God, you have been His good 
helped by the Hebrews themselves : Peet 

from the 

5, ; 5 Hebrews 
Who honour not with vain deceit man’s works 

Of gold and silver, bronze and ivory, 

And dead men’s statues carved from wood and stone, 
Which mortals in their foolish hearts revere ; 

But holy hands to heaven each morn they raise 
From sleep arising, and their flesh they cleanse 

With water pure; and honour Him alone 

Who guards them alway, the immortal God.° 

And now, O philosophy, hasten to set before me other 
not only this one man Plato, but many others also, ee 
who declare the one only true God to be God, by proclaim 
His own inspiration, if so be they have laid hold of va" 
the truth. Antisthenes, for instance, had perceived Antisthenes 
this, not as a Cynic doctrine, but as a result of his 
intimacy with Socrates; for he says, “God is like 
none else, wherefore none can know him thoroughly 
from a likeness.” And Xenophon the Athenian Xenophon 

@ Plato, Laws 715 £, 716 a. ’ Phaedo 78 a. 

¢ Sibylline Oracles iii. 586-588, 590-594. 

4 Antisthenes, Frag. 24 Mullach, Frag. phil. Graec. ii. 
p- 277. j 



CaP. pav Sé 6 "A@nvaios duappydynv av Kat adros zrept 
Tijs dAn betas evyeypaper Tl LAapTUPaV Ws UwKpaTys, 
el p27) TO wkKpatous €dcdlet Pappaxov ovdev de 
HTTOv aivirrerat. es yoov “ra mévTa, * bot, 
celwy Kal arpepiluv ws pev péyas Tis Kal 
Suvards, pavepos: otrotos de 77 2 woponv, agavns: 
ovde pay 6 Tapepa)s SoKay elvau TAvos ovd avTos 
Eoucev opav atrov emuTpeTmew, aan’ 7 TUS dvardas 
avrov Oedonrar, THY ow adaipetrar. mobev dpa 
6 tod I'ptAdov aodilerar 7 Snrabdy) Tapa Tis 
FeePum ee THs cia Beamlovons dé Tws; 

tis yap oap& Svvarat Tov emroupaviov Kal adn OA 
opbahuotow idetv deov dBporov, 6 6s m0Aov otkel; 
GAN’ 08d’ axtivwy KaTevavTiov HEAiovo 

avOpwrrot “a ek dvuvarol, ee yeyaarTes. 

KrcdvOns d¢ 6 Indacevs,? é amo THs UTods piA0d- 
gogos, ov Beoyoviay TOUNTLKHD, Deodoyiav de adn fe- 
viv evdeiKvuTat. ovK amexptibato Tob Oeot mépu O74 
mep elyev dpovav: 
> 0 \ 4 >] ~ > a; > > Y 8 , 
tayablov * épwrds pw’ oldv €or’; akove 07° 
TETAypLEVOV, Sikaov, OaLov, evaePeEs, 
Kpatobv éavtod, xypjoy.ov, Kaddv, deov, | 
62P avoTnpov, avléKacTov, adel auuepor, 
” y+ / > / 
adoBov, aAvtov, AvotteAێs, avwdvvor, 
>] / 5 4 > ey, / 
whéeAov, evdpeotov, acdarés, didov, 
EVTYLOV, OpLoADyoUjLevoy * * * * ¥ # * * 

1 éyeypadger Dindorf. davaypader Mss. 

2 5¢ rhyv Stobaeus (Lelog. ii. 1). dé ris mss. 8 éorlv 
Clement, v. Strom. 108. 5. 

3 IIndaceds Wilamowitz (see Strabo xiii. p. 611). muoadevs 

4 rayadov Clement, v. Strom. 110.3, el 7d dyaGov Mss. 



would himself have written explicitly concerning the cHap. 
truth, bearing his share of witness as Socrates did, VY! 
had he not feared the poison which Socrates re- 
ceived; none the less he hints at it. At least, he 
says: “He who moves all things and brings them 

to rest again is plainly some great and mighty One ; 

but what His form is we cannot see. Even the 

sun, which appears to shine upon all, even he seems 

not to allow himself to be seen; but if a man 
impudently gazes at him, he is deprived of sight.” 4 
From what source, pray, does the son of Gryllus 
draw his wisdom? Is it not clearly from the Xenophon’s 

Hebrew prophetess, who utters her oracle in the comes trot 
following words? the Sibyl 

What eyes of flesh can see eum God, 
Who dwells above the heavenly firmament ? 
Not e’en against the sun’s descending rays 
Can men of mortal birth endure to stand.? 

Cleanthes of Pedasis,° the Stoic philosopher, sets Cleanthes 

forth no genealogy of the gods, after the manner of @3i ‘hay 

poets, but a true theology. He did not conceal what 
thoughts he had about God. 

Thou ask’st me what the good is like? Then hear! 
The good is ordered, holy, pious, just, 

Self-ruling, useful, beautiful, and right, 

Severe, without pretence, expedient ever, 

Fearless and griefless, helpful, soothing pain, 
Well-pleasing, a de steadfast, loved, 
Esteemed, consistent . 

a ~ @ Xenophon, Memorabilia iv. 3. 18-14. 

> Sibylline Oracles, Preface 10-13. These pretended 
Hebrew prophecies were, of course, much later than the 
time of Xenophon, though plainly Clement believed in their 
antiquity. See p. 56, n. 

¢ See note on text. Cleanthes is generally said to be a 
native of Assos in the Troad. See Strabo xiii. pp. 610-11. 




evkAcés, atupov, emysed€s, 7mpGov, apodpov, 

ypovrloevov, aepmrov, act Siapevov. 

aveAevOepos mas GaTis els S0€av BAézen, 

ws 61) map exelvns Tev€dpuevos Kadob Twos. 
evratda 57) capds, otwar, didaoKer O7rotds eoTw 6 
feds, Kal ws 7) d0€a 7) KoW7) Kat 7 avvyOeLa Tods 
Emrojevous avtaiv, aAAa fur) Tov Oeov emlynrobytas, 
eardparrodiléobyv. ovK amoKpuTTéov ovde TOvS 
appt TOV IuGayopav, ol paow His pev Deos els, 
odtos! dé ody, as Twes drrovoobow, €KTOS TGS 
dtakoopyo.os, GAN’ ev adr, dAos ev tots T@® KUKAw, 
Kal épyatas TOV avTob Ouvdpiwy Kal Epywv amavTwy 
ev ovpav® dwornp Kal TdvTwY TaTip, vous Kal 
pixwous TO. ohw KiKrw,* mavT ov Kaos. bi amoxpy 
Kal Ta0e els éemiyvwow Oeot emumvolg Geob mpos 
avT@v pev dvaryey papijLeve., mpos O€ nudv e&e- 
Acypeva TO ye Kat opiKpov diabpety adnberav 


"Itw be 7 mtv (od yap avrapKet pévov 7 Prdooogia) 
add Kal adr? <1>* mowntiKy e) mept TO weBdos Ta 
mavTO. HaxoAnpevyn, moALs TroTE 707 aAnBevav pap 
Tupyaovaa, aAAov dé efopodoyoupery TO bed THv 
pvbebdsy mapéxBacw: mapirw $1) doris Kat Bovderat 

1 ofros Wilamowitz. otros mss. avrds Justin (Cohor. ad 
Graec. 19). 

2 aljywy Justin. dei dy Mss. 

3 76 Od\w kikdXw Stéhlin. 7g dd\w kiK\w MSS, 

4 <7> inserted by Markland. 



Renowned, not puffed up, careful, gentle, strong, CHAP, 
Enduring, blameless, lives from age to age. VI 

Slavish the man who vain opinion heeds, 

In hope to light on any good from that.? 
In these passages he teaches clearly, I think, what 
is the nature of God, and how common opinion and 
custom make slaves of those who follow them instead 
of searching after God. Nor must we conceal the 
doctrine of the Pythagoreans, who say that “ God is The Pytha- 
One; and He is not, as some suspect, outside the 8°°™"S 
universal order, but within it, being wholly present 
in the whole circle, the supervisor of all creation, 
the blending of all the ages, the wielder of His own 
powers, the light of all His works in heaven and the 
Father of all things, mind and living principle of the 
whole circle, movement of all things.” ‘These sayings 
have been recorded by their authors through God’s 
inspiration, and we have selected them. As a guide 
to the full knowledge of God they are sufficient for 
every man who is able, even in small measure, to 
investigate the truth. 


But we will not rest content with philosophy The witness 
alone. Let poetry also approach,—poetry, which is ot Poetry 
occupied entirely with what is false,—to bear witness 
now at last to truth, or rather to confess before 
God its deviation into legend. Let whichever poet 

@ Pearson, Fragments of Zeno and Cleanthes, p. 299 (Fr. 
75). Pearson remarks: ‘‘Clement’s mistake in referring 
these lines to Cleanthes’ conception of the Deity, when they 
really refer to the ethical swmmum bonum, is obvious.” 

> Pearson, p. 320 (Fr. 101). 



63 P. 


A ~ Mv \ s ‘ 4 \ 
montis mp@tos. “Apatos pev odv dia mdvTwy THY 
dvvayw Tod Oeod Sunkew voet, 

odp éumeda mavta Pvwvrat, 
T@ ww Gel MPATOv TE Kal VoTatov tAdoKovTat: 
xatpe, matep, péeya Satya, péy’ avOpudrrovow 

4 A C9 A + Binal = / A 
tavTn To. Kat 0 AoKpatos aivitreTau Haiodos Tov 
Geov: | 

A X / \ / > 
avTos yap mavrwr Bao.reds Kal Koipavos eoTW, 
:0 , , i ” cs OY , 3 
abavatwv Téo oUTis epypiotat Kpatos aAdos. 

on Oé Kal em Tis oKnvAS Tapayupvobat THY 
aAnBevav: 6 pev Kal els TOV ai8€pa Kal €is TOV 
ovpavov avaBrdpas “‘tdvde Hyotd Oeov,’’ dyaw, 

Edpimidns: 6 5€ tod LodiAAov YodokdAjs, 

e a > i e ? \ Z 

els Tats adnfeiarow, ets eotiv Beds, 
> A 

Os ovpavov 7 eTeve Kal yatay waKpryv 
mMOovToU TE xapoTroV oldua Kaveuwv Bias” 
Ovntol d€ moAAa? Kapdia trAave 

vytol dé ToAAa? Kapdia tAavwevot 

iSspvoducoba mHuaTwv Tapaivynv 

~ > / > > / a” /, 

beady aydAnat’ €x ABwv, 7 yaAKewv 
 XpvootevKTwv 7 eAedavtivwv TUTOVUS" 
Ouaias Te ToUTOLS Kal KEvas TravnyUpets 
véwovtes, oUTWs edocBetv vopiCoper. 

ovToal ev On Kal TapaKkeKivdvvevpevws emt TIS 
aKnvis THY aAnfevay Tots Gearais mapeojyayev. 
1 réo 6’ Stahlin. océo 6 Clement, v. Strom. 112. 3. ré 

ot Buttmann. Te 60’ Mss. 
2 mo\\a Heyse. rodXoi Mss. 



wishes come forward first. Aratus, then, perceives CHAP. 

that the power of God permeates the universe : eee 

Wherefore, that all things fresh and firm may grow, 
To Him our vows both first and last shall rise: 
Hail, Father, wonder great, great aid to men. 

In the same spirit Hesiod of Ascra also speaks Hesiod 
darkly about God: 

For He is king and master over all ; 
No other god hath vied with Thee in strength.® 

Further, even upon the stage they unveil the truth. 
One of them, Euripides, after gazing at the upper Euripides 
air and heaven, says, “Consider this to be God.” ° 
Another, Sophocles the son of Sophillus, says: Sophocles 

One only, one in very truth is God, 

Who made high heaven and the spreading earth, 
The ocean’s gleaming wave, the mighty winds. 
But we, vain mortals, erring much in heart, 
Seek solace for our woes by setting up 

The images of gods made out of stones, 

Or forms of bronze, or gold, or ivory. 

Then sacrifice and empty festival 

To these we pay, and think it piety.4 

This poet, in a most venturesome manner, introduced 
the truth on the stage for his audience to hear. 

2 Aratus, Phaenomena 13-15. 

» Hesiod, Frag. 195 Rzach. 

¢ Kuripides, Frag. 941 Nauck. 

@ [Sophocles] Frag. 1025 Nauck. These lines are also 
quoted by Justin Martyr, Athenagoras, Eusebius, and other 
Christian writers. They are of Jewish or Christian origin, 
as their teaching proves ; certainly not from Sophocles. 



cap. 6 bd€ Opakios tepodavrns Kal ToinTHs dua, 6 TOD 


64 P. 

5 > / A \ ~ > / ¢ / 
Oidypov “Opdevs, wera THY TOV dpyiwv tepodavriav 
\ ~ > / \ / / > / 
Kai TOV ElowWAwY THY Beodroyiav, TaAWwwodiav adjfetas 

elaayet, TOV lepov OvTws oye TroTE, Guws SH odV 
adwy Adyov" 

PbeyEowar ots Oeuis eati: Ovpas 8° ézifecbe 

/ £ ~ \ > + / ” 
TavTes ou@s' ov d akove, paeaddpov Exyove 
a> > / \ > / / \ \ 
Movoat’, e€epeéw yap adnféa, undé ce Ta Tpiv 
ev oT 0ecar davevta Pidrns aidvos apépon. 
> \ / -~ / / / 

ets d€ Adyov Detov Breas ToUTW mpocédpeve, 

(OUvev Kpadins voepov KUTos: ct 8 émiPawe 

atpamitod, odvov 8 éodpa Kdapoto avaKta 


eita droPas Suappydnv emidéper: | 

els €or , avToyerns, Evds Exyova TavTa TéTUKTAL® 

ev © avtots adtos TepwicceTtat, OvdE Tis adToV 

etoopaa Ovnta@v, adros b€ ye mavtas oparat. 

o \ 67; > , , 41 A 
ovtws pev 07 “Opdeds: xpovw yé* mote cuvijKkev 

aAAa od px weAAwv, Bpoté trorxiASpntL, Boadvve, 

> \ / / \ ¢€ / 

aAAa tadinmAayKTos otpéas Gedv tAdoKouo. 

> \ \ \ / > 4, / ~ / 
el yap Kal Ta puadtoTa evavopaTd Twa Tod Adyou 

~ / LG a ee, Wild + ~ 
Tob Getov AaPovres “EAAnves oAlya drrta Tis 
adnbetas epbéeyEavto, mpoopaprupodar pev tiv 
dvvauuv adtis ovK aToKeKpuppevny, odds dé adrovs 
eAéyyovow aaGeveis, ovK EDLKOMLEVOL Tov téAous. 
76) yap omar travti tw SHAoV yeyovevat ws TaV 

1 yé Stahlin. 7é mss. 



And the Thracian interpreter of the mysteries, who CHAP 

was a poet too, Orpheus the son of Oeagrus, after Orpheus 

his exposition of the orgies and account of the idols, 

brings in a recantation consisting of truth. Now at 

the very last he sings of the really sacred Word : 

My words shall reach the pure ; put bars to ears 
All ye profane together. But hear thou, 

Child of the Moon, Musaeus, words of truth ; 
Nor let past errors rob thee now of life. 

Behold the word divine, to this attend, 
Directing mind and heart aright ; tread well 
The narrow path of life, and gaze on Him, 

The world’s great ruler, our immortal king.* 

Then, lower down, he adds explicitly : 

One, self-begotten, lives ; all things proceed 
From One; and in His works He ever moves : 
No mortal sees Him, yet Himself sees all.¢ 

Thus wrote Orpheus; in the end, at least, he under- 
stood that he had gone astray: 

Inconstant mortal, make no more delay, 
But turn again, and supplicate thy God.® 

It may be freely granted that the Greeks received 
some glimmerings of the divine word, and gave 
utterance to a few scraps of truth. Thus they 
bear their witness to its power, which has not been 
hidden. On the other hand, they convict them- 
selves of weakness, since they failed to reach the 
end. For by this time, I think, it has become 

@ Orpheus, Frag. 5 Abel. 
& Sibylline Oracles iii. 624-625. 



CAP. Xwplis rob Adyou Tijs dAnBeias € evepyouvray Tey Kab 
dleyyouevwy opoiwy ovtTwv Tots xwpis Pdoews 
Badilew Bralopevors. 

vowrovvtTwy b€ ae eis owrnplav Kal OL rept 
tovs Beods tudv eAeyxor, ods dia THY aAnjfecav 
éxBralopevor Kopmdodar mounTat. Mévavdpos ss 
6 Kwpikos ev ‘“Hudyw [ev ‘YroBoApaiw)|* ro 

? / cA ite) / \ 7 ” A 
ovdels ” apéoxer (pyat) mepimatav e€w Geos 
peTa ypads, ovd’ eis OiKias TrapeLroLwy 
emt Tod aavidiov" 

[yntpayvprys ] 2 rovodTou yap ot ENTpayvpTar. obev 
elkoTws 6 “Avriobevns edeyev avrots peTaLTovow’ 
“ob Tpepw THhv penrepa tov bedy, Hv ot Deol Tpépou- 
ow. mddAw dé 6 adros kepuepBiorrouds ev ‘lepeia 
T®@ Spapate xaNerraiveny T™pos THY ovv7ibevav du- 
ehéyyew meipata tov deov rhs mAdvns Todor, 

emidbeyydopmevos euppovws 

> \ ¢ A A 
el yap €AKet Tov Geov 
A / ~ > a“ Pr, 
tots KupBdArous avOpwaros ets 6 BovAeTau, 
6 TOUTO ToL@V e€oTe peilwv TOD Geod: 
UNA. a SA \ / 3 a > w+ 
aAd’ gore TOAUNS Kal Biov® tadT’ opyava 
wel avOputrovow. 

év ‘TroBo\tpwalw]Clericus (missing from Justin, De mon. 5). 
untpayuptns| Dindorf. 3 Bilas Bentley : Stahlin. 

@ For the fragment see Kock, Comic. Attic. Frag. iii. 
p. 58. The priest would seem to have carried on a tray an 
image of Attis; and the ‘old dame” personated Cybele, 
the mother of the gods. But é7i may mean “in charge of,” 
‘© presiding over,” in which case the priest personates Attis, 



plain to everybody that those who do anything or cHap. 
utter anything without the word of truth are like VY! 
men struggling to walk without a foothold. 

The comic poets also, owing to the compelling The comie 
power of truth, bring into their plays convincing Pts bear 
arguments against your gods. Let these shame against 

: : z i the gods 
you into salvation. For instance, the comic poet 

Menander, in his play The Charioteer, says : 


No god for me is he who walks the streets 
With some old dame, and into houses steals 
Upon the sacred tray. 

For this is what the priests of Cybele? do. It was 
a proper answer, then, that Antisthenes used to give 
them when they asked alms of him: “I do not 
support the mother of the gods; that is the gods’ 
business.”° Again, the same writer of comedy, in 
his play The Priestess, being angry with prevailing 
custom, tries to expose the godless folly of idolatry 
by uttering these words of wisdom: 

For if a man 
By cymbals brings the God where’er he will, 
Then is the man more powerful than God. 
But these are shameless means of livelihood 
Devised by men.4 

ee oe ey lee ati aie Wi Vea tee 
and yytpayéprys ought perhaps to be retained (see note on 
text). Grotius observes, however, that ‘‘ the statement has 
to do with the god himself, whom the travelling priest 
carries, and not with the priest.” The quotation occurs in 
Justin Martyr (De mon. 5) with this addition: “the god 
ought to stay at home and take care of his worshippers.” 

> 2.¢. Metragyrtae. See p. 48, n. a. 

¢ Antisthenes, Frag. 70 Mullach, Frag. phil. Graec. ii. 
p. 287. 

@ Menander, Frag. 245 Kock, Comic. Attic. Frag. iii. 
p. 70. 



CAP. Kal ovdXL }ovos 6 Meévavdpos, aAAa Kat “Opnpos Kat 
63 P. Evpumidns Kal dAAou ovyxvot TounTat dteAdyyovow 
dua@v Tovs Yeods Kat Aovdopetacbar od Sediacw ovdE 
> ¢ / > A 2) / \ > ~ ce / 
Kal’ omdcov atrois. attixa thv “A@nvav “ Kuva- 

” A \ “ Co ee) 4 ” ~ 
purav”’ Kat Tov “Hdacotov “ayduytnv’’ kadotow, 

Th S€ Adpodity 7 “EXévyn drat 
UnKeTe cotat 7ddecow tbrootpéeperas "OAvpTov. 
emt d€ TOD Atovdcou avadavdov “Opnpos ypader 

Os ToTE ratvouevoro Arwrdaoro TLOjvas 
oete kat Hyabeov Nuojov: at & aua aoa 
4 \ Lp, Cue > / 
Gvcbra xapat Katéyevay tm’ avdpoddvoro Auk= 

afwos ws adnbas LwKpatiks diatpBis 6 Edpimidys 
els THY aAjOevav amidwv Kal Tovs Deatas brepidwr, 
mote ev Tov AzmoAAwva, 

os becoppadous edpas 
vaiet Bpototar oropa véeuwy cadéorata, 


/ i ~ 
Kelvw muOdmevos! tiv TeKoDoav ExTavor, 
a e A > / 
éxeivov nyeto8” avdc.ov Kal KTelvete*? 
A > 
€KElvos HuapT , OVK eyw, 
bs] Q / 7 oN 3 ~ Av A \ ~ 5 / 
apabéatepos y wv? Tob Kadob Kal Tis dikns, 

\ 3° >? ~ > / ¢ H r / \ 0 / 
Tote 0 eupavn eloaywv ‘Hpakréa kai peOvovra 
> / \ »” ~ \ > / “a ¢ / 
adAaxot Kai amAnorov: THs yap obxi; ds éoTiw- 
fevos Tots Kpéact 

1 ro’Tw miOduevos Euripides. xelvyw mevOduevos Mss, 

= xrelvere Euripides. xrelvate Mss, 
y &v Euripides. v mss. 



And not only Menander, but also Homer, Euripides cuap., 

and many other poets expose your gods, and do not poner 

shrink from abusing them to any extent whatever. 

For instance, they call Athena “dog-fly,’% and 

Hephaestus “ lame in both feet ” ®; and to Aphrodite 

Helen says : 

Never again may thy feet turn back to the halls of 

Of Dionysus Homer writes openly : 

He, on a day, gave chase to the nurses of mad Dionysus 

Over the sacred hill of Nysa ; but they, in a body, 

Flung their torches to earth at the word of the savage 

Euripides is indeed a worthy disciple of the Socratic Euripides 
school, in that he regarded only the truth and dis- 
regarded the audience. On one occasion, referring 

to Apollo, 

Who, dwelling in the central spot of earth, 
Deals out unerring oracles to men,¢ 

he thus exposes him : 

His word it was I trusted when I slew 

My mother ; him consider stained with crime, 
Him slay ; the sin was his concern, not mine, 
Since he knew less of good and right than I¥ 

At another time he introduces Heracles in a state 
of madness,’ and elsewhere drunk and gluttonous.” 
What else could be said of a god who, while being 
feasted with flesh, 

@ Homer, Iliad xxi. 394, 421. > Iliad i. 607 etc. 

¢ [liad iii. 407. @ Iliad vi. 182-134. 

¢ Euripides, Orestes 591-592. S Orestes 594—596, 417. 
? i.e. in the Hercules Furens. h Alcestis 155-760. 

G 171 


CAP. xAwpa abr’ emjabev 
VII »” a, ie ~ a / aA 
duovo’ vAakTav wote BapBapw pabetv. 

” \ > ” ~ / ~ A a 
non Sé ev “lw TH Spdpate yuuvA TH KepadrF 
exkukAet TO Oedtpw Tovs Beovs: 

m@s obv Sikavov Tovs voyous tuds Bpotois 
- b) \ > / > / 
ypaibavras abrovs adikias odAvoKdvew ; 
el 0°’, od yap €oTat, TH Adyw 5é xpyjcopmat, 
dikas Biraiwy dwcer avOpwtrots yapwv, 
\ \ ~ / > a 3 A a 
ov Kat Ilocerddv Zevs O, ds odpavod Kpartet, 
\ / 


"Qpa Tolvuv TOV aAAwy ji TH TAket mpodunvu- 
opeveny em Tas mpopyticas ¢ iévau ypagas: Kal yap 
66 P. ol xpnopol Tas €ls Thy beood Bevav jp apoppas 
evapyeorara mpOTELVOVTES Bepedtobor THV aAnBevav 
ypagpat dé at Detar Kat * moduret Cau owdpoves, ovvTOMoL 
GwTnplas dot’ yupvat KOMLLWTUKHS KL THS exTOs 
kaddudurvias Kal orwpudias Kal Kodaketas dmdp- 
yovoa avicT@ow dy xO pLevov bio KaKlas TOV avbpw- 
TOV, dmepidobcat Tov dALobov Tov Brarexor, pug Kal 
TH avr h povy moAAa Jepamevovaa,” a darotpeToveat 
prev Las Tijs emunpiion dmdrns, TpoTpemrovoau be 
eupavas 43 TpovTTov owTnpiav. avTika yoov 1 
1 at Geta, <e> kal Schwartz: Stahlin. 
2 @eparevovoa: Sylburg. Oeparedoat Mss. 

@ Kuripides, Frag. 907 Nauck. 

> Literally, **‘ with head bare.” © Ton 442-447, 

4 For other references to the ‘‘ short road” to salvation 
see pp. 217, and 240, n. a. Clement means to say that 



Did eat green figs, and howl discordant songs, CHAP. 
Fit for barbarian ears to understand ? ¢ VII 

And again, in his play the Jon, he displays the gods 

to the spectators without any reserve ?: 

How is it right that ye who made men’s laws 
Yourselves are authors of unrighteous deeds ? 
But if—I say it, though it shall not be— 

Ye pay men penalties for violent rapes, 

Phoebus, Poseidon, Zeus the king of heaven, 
The price of crime shall strip your temples bare.° 


Now that we have dealt with the other matters The witness 
in due order, it is time to turn to the writings of apenas 
the prophets. For these are the oracles which, by 
exhibiting to us in the clearest light the grounds of 
piety, lay a firm foundation for the truth. The 
sacred writings are also models of virtuous living, Tne sacrea 
and short roads to salvation.¢ They are bare of Sea 
embellishment, of outward beauty of language, of style, but ot 
idle talk and flattery, yet they raise up man when aaah anes 
fast bound in the grip of evil. Despising the snare 
of this life,° with one and the same voice they pro- 
vide a cure for many ills, turning us aside from 
delusion that works harm, and urging us onward 
with clear guidance to salvation set before our eyes. 

Christian teaching puts truth in simple form so that the 
humblest may at once understand as much of it as is 
necessary to ensure his salvation. Some aspects of truth 
are reached through philosophy, but that is a long and 
difficult process, beyond the efforts of all but a few. 

° i.e. all the dangerous pleasures which this life offers. 
In the Paedagogus Clement uses the same word ‘snare ” in 
reference to feasting (ii, 9. 4), wine (ii. 23. 1, 28. 2, 29. 2), 
and laughter (ii. 47, 3). 



CAP. mpopHris Huiv godtw mpwrn LiBvrra To dopa 76 
OWT? pLoV* 
«e ? A / 1, \ > fs e / 
obtos t6ov mavtecou* cadijs atAdvyntos brdpyxeu: 
” \ / \ / \ / > Be 2 
eAJete, jun oKoTinv de duwKeTe Kal Cogov ailei. 
? / / ] / 4 ” / 
neAtov yAuKvdepKeés, idov, daos e€oxa Adprre. 
yrOre d€ KaT0éwevor codinv ev at7Jeow tudv. 
els Oeds éott, Bpoxds, avéwous, aevopovs 7 em- 
> / / \ A / \ 
aorepotras, Ayovs, Aoywovds Kal KHdea Avypa 
\ \ \ > 2 / \ eG ? 
kal videtovs Kat TaAAa,” ti 57) Kal? ev e€- 
ayopevw ; 
ovpavod yyetrar, yains Kpatet adtos am’ apyjs.3 
> , / A \ > / > / ~ 
evdéws opddpa THv pev amatnv ameckalovoa TO 
oKoTel, THY dé yvaow rie Kal putt tod Oeod, 
appw dé Tmapabenevn TH ovyKpices, THY exAoyny 
duddoKer’ TO yap Webdos ov purg TH _Tapabécer 
Tarnfods SiacKkedavvuTat, 7H, d€ xpjoee Tijs aAnbeias 
exBialopevov puyadeverat. ‘Tepepias b€ 0 6 mpopyjTns 
6 mavoodgos, pL aMov de € ev ‘lepeuta To dyvov medpa 
emBetKvuar tov Oedv. “Beds eyyifev eyes elpue, 
pyot, “ Kal odxt Jeds ToppwHev. el TOLnoEL TU av- 
Opwros év Kpudaios, Kat eye ovK orpopac avTov; 
ovxL Tovs ovpavods Kal THY yy eyw mAnpa ; ; 

A€yer KUpLOS.” maAw be ad dua ‘Hoatov “ris 
HETPHCEL, » ONG i TOV ovpavov omBaps Kal méoay 
Thv yhv dSpaki;’’ dpa To peyeBos Tod Beotd Kal 

KkatamAdyn Oe. ToOTov TMPookuvnowLev, ep? ob. b.dnow 
6 mpodytns “aro mpoowmov cov Opn TaK7oovTaL, 

1 rdvrecot Sib. Or. and Clement, v. Strom. 115. 6, av?’ 
éoTt MSS. 
2 xal raddXa Cobet. xkpioradda mss.: Stahlin. 
3 am’ dpxfis Mayor. wmdpye mss.: Stahlin. 



To begin with, let the prophetess, the Sibyl, first CHAP, 
sing to us the song of salvation: he eras 
from the 
Lo, plain to all, from error free He stands ; Sibyl 
Come, seek not gloom and darkness evermore ; 
Behold, the sun’s sweet light shines brightly forth. 
But mark, and lay up wisdom in your hearts. 
One God there is, from whom come rains and winds, 
Earthquakes and lightnings, dearths, plagues, grievous 

Snowstorms and all besides,—why name each one ? 
He from of old rules heaven, He sways the earth. 

With true inspiration she likens delusion to dark- 
ness, and the knowledge of God to the sun and 
light; and by putting them side by side in her 
comparison she teaches what our choice should be. 
For the false is not dissipated by merely placing 
the true beside it ; it is driven out and banished by 
the practice of truth. Now Jeremiah, the all-wise Jeremiah 
prophet, or rather the Holy Spirit in Jeremiah, 
shows what God is. “I am,’ he says, “a God who 
is near, and not a God afar off. Shall a man do 
anything in secret, and I not see him? Do not I 
fill the heavens and the earth, saith the Lord?” ® 
Once again, the same Spirit says through Isaiah : Isaiah also 
«“ Who shall measure the heaven with a span, and Paks of 
the whole earth with a hand-breadth?”° See the greatness 
greatness of God and be amazed! Him let us 
worship, about whom the prophet says: “The hills 
shall melt from before thy face, as wax melteth 

@ Sibylline Oracles, Preface 28-35, 
6 Jeremiah xxiii. 23-24, 
¢ Isaiah xl. 12, 



67 P. 


Ws a0 TMpoowmov TUpos THKETAL KNPOS. OvTOS, 
dnaotv, éariv 6 Deos, “ob Opovos pev ecoTw 6 ovpavos, 
brro7r05Lov d€ 7) vy, ” 6s “dav dvoten TOV ovpavor, 
Tpojmos oe Ajerar.”’ BovAeu Kat mrept Ta@v €tdwmAwv * 

aKoboa Ti dnaw <o>* mpoprjTns otTos; Tapadery - 
parrafjoovrat eum poodev TOU jAtov Kal €oTat Ta 
Ovnoipata att@v Bpwyata Tots metewots Tov 
ovpavod Kai Tots Onplois THs yis, Kal camyjoeTar 
bo Tob 7Xlov Kal THS ceAjvys, a adToL HyamynoaV 
Kal ols attolt edovrAevoav, Kal eumpynobjceTar 7 
mods attav.” dbapjocobar dé Kal Ta oToLxeta 
Kal TOV KOGMOV ody Kal adtois Aéyer: “7 YH, 
dat, ‘“madawynoera Kal 6 otpavos mapedcvoe- 
Tat,’ “To dé pHua Kupiov pever eis TOV aldva.’ 
Ti O€ OTaV mahw €auToV Oeuvuvau fe} Beds Bovan?A 
Oud Mavoews ; “(dere Were o ore eye Elut KaL ouK 
€oTL Deos €Tepos mAnv euod. eyo dmoKTeva) Kat 
Civ TOLnow* maragw Kaya (doopat, Kal ovK EaTW 
os efeeirau € ex TOV XEL~pav pov. 

“AMa Kal érépov emmaxodoa bédeus xpnopood ; 
cwras Tob Mwucéws. Ti pno avtots TO mved}La. 
TO dyvov da "Qoné; ovK oKvyiow A€yeu" “tov, 
eye orepedy Bpovrny Kat krilov mvebpa,’ o0 at 
xeipes THY aTpaTiav TO ovpavod eBeyeAiwoav. ETL 

1 ¢ldwdAwy : can this be a scribe’s mistake for e/dwdodarpav 
(c P. Pp. 178, 1. 12)? 
2 <6> inserted by Dindorf. 

@ See Isaiah lxiv. 1-3. > Isaiah Ixvi. 1. 

© See Isaiah lxiv. 1 (Septuagint). 

@ The text gives ‘*idols,” but the quotation refers to their 
worshippers. It is possible that there is a slight error in the 
text. See textual note. 



from before the face of the fire.’ * He is God, the cnap. 
prophet says again, “whose throne is heaven, and V!! 
the earth His footstool’’®; before whom “if He 
open heaven, trembling shall seize thee.” ° Would 
you hear too, what this prophet says about idol- Isaiah tells 
worshippers?@ “They shall be made a spectacle 9°" ction 
before the sun; and their dead bodies shall be of idolaters 
meat for the fowls of the heaven and the beasts of 
the earth, and shall be rotted by the sun and the 
moon, things which they themselves loved and 
served; and their city shall be burnt up.”° He And also of 
says also that the elements and the world shall be es 
destroyed with them. “The earth shall grow old, 
and the heaven shall pass away;” but “the word 
of the Lord abideth for ever.’ What does God 
say when at another time He wishes to reveal 
Himself through Moses? “Behold, behold, I am Moses 
He, and there is no other god beside Me. I will ee 
kill and I will make alive; I will smite and I will 
heal, and there is none that shall deliver out of 
my hands.” 9 

But will you listen to yet another giver of oracles ? 
You have the whole company of the prophets, who 
are joined with Moses in this sacred fellowship. 
What says the Holy Spirit to them through Hosea ? The witness 
I will not hesitate to tell you. “Behold, I am He™ seals 
that giveth might to the thunder, and createth the 
wind,” * whose hands established the host of heaven.? 

e A collection of passages from Jeremiah, not Isaiah. 
See viii. 2; xxxiv. 20; iv. 26. 

f Isaiah li. 6; also compare St. Matthew xxiv. 35 and 
Isaiah xl. 8. 

9 Deuteronomy xxxii. 39. 

Amos iv. 13; not Hosea. 

é See Jeremiah xix. 13 and Psalm viii. 4 (Septuagint). 



CAP. 6€ Kal did ‘Hoatov (xa Tavryy arropynovevow 


4 eds 

go. THV puri) “éya) eit, eyo elut,’” dnoiv, “o 
KUptos 6 AaAdv Sucaroavyny Kal avayyehwv aAn- 
fevav' ovvdyOnrte Kal yKeTe: BovAcdoacbe aya, ot 
owlopevot aro THV EBVO. odK Eyvwoay of alporTes 
\ ~ a 
to EVAov yAvppa atdT@v, Kat mpocevyopevor Oeois 
a > / > / ) 32)? € / ¢¢ 9 ye! 
ot o¥8 awaovaw adtrtovs.’ €i0 tmoBds “ éyw, 
ce ¢ / \ > ” A >? ~ / 
gnow, 6 Deos, Kal odK €oTL TrAnVY Emod diKavos, 
Kal owrTp ovK €oTL mapek € ejo0- emaTpagnte Tpos 
pe Kal owbjoccbe ot dim” €oxaTou THs vis. eyo 
eit 0 Beds Kai odK €otw GAAos: Kat éepsavTod 
> / ” A A >? “4 / / 
ouvta.” tots d€ eldwAodAdtpats Svcyepaiver A€éywv 
cate avTov; pn elkova emoinoev TEKTWY, 7) XYpUTO- 
xd0s ywvevoas ypvolov mepiexptowoev adrTov; 
‘ s a 
Kal Ta €ml ToUTOLS. py) Ov ETL Bets EldwdAo- 
v. > \ nn ~ / A > / 
Adtpar; adda Kav viv dvddEacbe tas ametdds: 
> / S A A \ \ / a 
droAVEEL yap Ta yAUTTA Kal TA YELpoTOinTa, PGA- 
a \ 
Aov dé ot em attots memootes, avaicbntos yap 
% UAn. ETL gyoty: “0 KUpLos celoet TOAEts KaT- 
oukoupevas Kal TH olKoupevny oAnv Katadn erat 
TH xEupt ws voooiav.”’ ti aor codias avayyeAAw 
/ Nisa. 7. > \ ¢ / / 
puvoTHpia Kal pyaets ex 7ravdos ‘EBpatov cecoduape- 
vou; “‘KUpios exTiaév fe apy7v oO@v adTod eis 
” ~ A > \ 
epya avTov,’ Kal “‘KUpios didwor codiav Kat amo 
Tpoownov avTod yv@ats Kal ovveots.”’ ““Ews OTE, 
> > / 
oKvnpé, KaTaKELoaL; mOTE dé e€& Unvov eyepOyjon; 

@ Isaiah xlv. 19-20. > Isaiah xlv. 21-23. 

¢ Isaiah xl. 18-19. @ Isaiah x. 10-11, 14 (Septuagint). 

* i.e. Solomon ; see 1 Kings iii. 7; iii. 12. 

‘ Proverbs viii. 22. ‘* Wisdom ” is, of course, the speaker. 
Clement’s quotation, here as everywhere else, is taken from 



And again through Isaiah (this utterance too I will cnap. 
remind you of): “I, even I,” he says, “am the Lord iit. 
that speaketh righteousness and declareth truth. witness _ 
Assemble yourselves and come. Take counsel to-™'***" 
gether, ye that are being saved out of the nations. 

They have no knowledge, who set up their carved 

image of wood, and pray to gods who shall not save 
them.’”* Then, lower down, he says: “I am God 

and there is none righteous except Me, there is no 
Saviour beside Me. Turn ye unto Me and ye shall 

be saved, ye who come from the end of the earth. 

I am God, and there is no other. By Myself do I 

swear.” ® But He is displeased with idol-worshippers 

and says: “To whom did ye liken the Lord? Or 

to what likeness did ye liken Him? Did the 
carpenter make an image? Did the goldsmith 

sinelt gold and gild it?””—and what follows. Are 

you then still idol-worshippers? Yet even now Isaiah pre- 
beware of God’s threats. For the carved images uonecien 
made by hand shall cry out,? or rather they who ‘4olatry 
trust in them; for the material is incapable of 
feeling. Further he says: “'The Lord shall shake 

the inhabited cities, and in His hand shall grasp 

the whole world as it were a nest.Ӣ Why tell 

you of mysteries of wisdom, and of sayings that 

come from a Hebrew child who was endowed with The wise 
wisdom? “The Lord created me in the beginning aot 
of His ways, for His works’: and, “the Lord God as ie 
giveth wisdom, and from His face are knowledge tee 
and understanding.” 9 ‘ How long dost thou lie at 

rest, thou sluggard; when wilt thou awake from 

the Septuagint. The Hebrew text of this verse gives a 
different meaning—‘‘ possessed” instead of ‘‘created” ; 
but see R.V. margin. 9 Proverbs ii. 6. 

G2 179 

68 P. 


éav de doKvos Tis» néer cou womep THYH 6 aunTos 
gov,” 6 Adyos 6 ST | 6 dyatos Avxvos, 6 
KUpLos eTaywY TO pas, THY mor maou Kal owrn- 
plav. “ KUpvos ” vap “6 mommoas THY yhv ev TH 
toxve avTov,’ ws dnow ‘lepepias, “avaipbwoev THY 
olKovpevny ev TH copia. avToo. dmomecovTas yap 
mas emt Ta eldwAa 7 codia, 7 eoTw 6 Aoyos 
avrod, dvopBot emt THY adn Bevav. Kal avrn 7 
TpwrTn TOO TApanTaLaTos dvdoracis: d0ev amroTpe- 
Tay eOwhodarpetas a amdons 6 Jeorréatos TayKddws 
avakexpaye Mwvofjs: ‘‘dxove LopanA: KUpLos 6 
Beds cov, KUpios eis éott,”’ Kat “ KUpLov TOV Beov 
Gov TpooKvvycets Kal avT@ povw AaTpevoets:’ 
vov 87) obv ovvere, @ dvOpwot, KaTa TOV LaKapLov 
padumdoy € eke LVOV TOV Aafis: “8pdgacbe mavdelas, 
pH mote dpyro0F KUplos, Kal dmroetobe e€ 6600 
ducaias, orav exkav0y ev TdayeL Oo Oupos avrov. 
peardprot TavTEs ot memoores én ave.” 78n 
d€ vmEepoikteipwv nas 6 KUplos TO owrnpLov 
evdidwat pédos, olov €uPpatypiov prbpov- “viol 
avOparmrev, ews mOTe BapvKdpdio; iva Tt aya are 
paraoTyTa Kat Cyreitre peddos;’’ tis otv 7 
pataldTyns Kal Ti TO Webdos; 6 dytos amdaToAos 
Tod Kupiov tovs “EAAnvas aitidpevos eEnyjoetat 
gow “ore yrovtes Tov Dedv oby ws Oedv edd€acav 
) ndxapiornoay, GAN éuatawwOnoav év tots d.ia- 
oytopots avT@v, Kal 7AAa€av THV dd€av Tod Geod 
1 aitn 7 Mayor. atin Mss. 

@ Proverbs vi. 9, 114. (The latter verse is found only in 
the Septuagint.) 

® Possibly from Proverbs xx. 27 (see the Septuagint 
reading as quoted by Clement, vii. Strom. 37. 6 and by 



sleep? If thou art diligent, there shall come to thee cmap. 

as a fountain thy harvest,” @ that is, the Word of the VY!!! 
Father, the good lamp,? the Lord who brings light, 

faith and salvation to all. For “the Lord, who made Jeremiah 
the earth in His strength,” as Jeremiah says, “re- God motores 
stored the world in His wisdom,” © since, when we ~ moe by 
have fallen away to idols, wisdom, which is His Word, 

restores us to the truth. This is the first resurrection,¢ 

the resurrection from transgression; wherefore the 

inspired Moses, turning us away from all idolatry, Moses bears 
utters this truly noble cry: “Hear O Israel, the 0G, 
Lord is thy God; the Lord is one’”’*: and “thou is one 
shalt worship the Lord thy God and Him only shalt 

thou serve.” Now therefore, learn, ye men, in the 

words of that blessed psalmist David: “ Lay hold of David wams 
instruction, lest at any time the Lord be angry; and te ee 
ye shall perish from the right way, if ever His wrath voice 

be hastily kindled. Blessed are all they that trust 

in Him.”9 And, in His exceeding great pity for us, 

the Lord raises high the strain of salvation, like a 
marching song. ‘Sons of men, how long will ye And to 

be heavy-hearted? Why do ye love vanity and serene 
seek after falsehood?” What, then, is this vanity, eeteeds 
and this falsehood? The holy apostle of the Lord idolatry 
will explain to you, when he accuses the Greeks: 
“because, knowing God, they glorified Him not as 

God, neither gave thanks, but became vain in their 

reasonings, and changed the glory of God into the 

Clement of Rome i. 21. 2). Cp. also Psalm ecxix. 105, where, 
however, the Septuagint (cxviii. 105) has ‘* Thy law” instead 
of ‘* Thy word.” ¢ Jeremiah x. 12. 

4 See Revelation xx. 5. ¢ Deuteronomy vi. 4. 

7 Deuteronomy vi. 13; x. 20; St. Matthew iv. 10; 
St. Luke iv. 8. 

9 Psalm ii. 12 (Septuagint). h Psalm iv. 2. 



69 P. 


ev Opovwmpare elKOvos plaprod avOpurrou, Kal 
é\dtpevoav TH KTioeL Tapa TOV KTicavTa.” Kal 
pnv 6 ye Beds obtos, ds “ev apxh €moince TOV 
ovpavov Kal THY ynv’’: od de Tov pev Beov od voets, 
Tov d€ ovpavov mpookuveis, Kal THs odK acePeis ; 
GKOUE madw Tpopytov A€éyovtos “‘exAcixber prev 6 
7Avos Kal re) oupaves oKoriabioerat, Adpiber SE 0 
TOVTOKPATEp els TOV aidva, Kal at Suvdpers TOV 
obpavav cahevOjaovrat Kal of ovpavol etAvyjoovrat 
ws d€ppis EKTELVOMLEVOL Kal ovoTeAdopLevor ” (abdrau 

yap at mpodytikal dwval) “Kat 7 yh pevEerar 

> / »”? 
QmrO Tpocwr7rov KUpLov. 


Kat pevpias dy EXOLUL GOL ypadas Tapapepew, 
dv ovde “ Kepaia Trapehevoerau pia, 7) ovxt 
emiTEAs yevojevn* TO yap OTOL Kupiov, TO 
aylov mvedpa, edddnoev Tatra. ““p1 Towvv pnk- 
ett, noir, “ vlé pov, dAvywpet madelas Kupiov, 

dS’ é€xAvov bm’ adtob édeyxydpevos.”’ @ THs UmEp- 

/ / »Q> e A e 
BaddrAovons diravOpwrias: otd’ ws pabhtais 6 
dudacKados od’ ws oiKéTrats 6 KUplos ovd’ ws 
Geos avPparrots, “ rar7p d€ ws Amos’ vovbere7 

e "4 om > 
vious. eita Mavo7s pev oporoyet eupoBos elvar 
Kal €vTpomos, akovwy mept Tot Adyov, ad dé Tob 

@ Romans i. 21, 23, 25. 

> Genesis i. 1. 

¢ A collection of passages from Scripture ; see Isaiah xiii. 
10; Ezekiel xxxii. 7; St. Matthew xxiv. 29; Isaiah xxxiv. 4; 
Psalm civ. 2; Joelii. 10. Stéhlin thinks that the whole may 
possibly be taken from the Apocalypse of Peter, with which 



likeness of an image of corruptible man, and served cuap. 
the creature rather than the creator.’”* Of a truth Y™ 
God is He who “in the beginning made the heaven 

and the earth.” ® Yet you do not perceive God, but 
worship the heaven. How can you escape the 
charge of impiety? Hear once more the words of 

a prophet: “The sun shall fail and the heaven be Final 
darkened, but the Almighty shall shine for ever; rinagment 
and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken, and 

the heavens shall be folded up, being spread out and 
drawn together like a curtain’’— these are the 
prophetic utterances— “and the earth shall flee 

from the face of the Lord.’ ¢ 


And I could bring before you ten thousand Many 
passages of Scripture, of which not even “ one tittle esi teeses 
shall pass away” without being fulfilled?; for the could be 
mouth of the Lord, that is, the Holy Spirit, hath anes 
spoken it. “No longer, then, my son,’ it says, 
“regard lightly the chastening of the Lord, nor faint 
when thou art reproved of Him.’ O surpassing love 
forman! He speaks not as a teacher to disciples, nor 
as a master to servants, nor as God to men, but as 
a “tender father’’’ admonishing his sons. Again, God speaks 
Moses confesses that he “ exceedingly fears and 35 #Fathet 

quakes,’ % when hearing about the Word; do you children 

we know Clement to have been acquainted (Eusebius, H.E. 
vi. 14). 

@ See St. Matthew v. 18; St. Luke xvi. 17. 

¢ Proverbs iii. 11. 

‘ Homer, Odyssey ii. 47. 

9 Hebrews xii. 21. 



CAP. Aoyou a aK pocjLevos Tob Oetov ov dedias; ovK ayw- 
vids; ovxL aa TE evAafi} Kal a7evoets expabety, 
TourEoTt omevdets ets owrnpiay, poBovpevos THY 
opyny, ayamnoas THY xapw, CnAwoas THY eAmida, 
iva. exkaiys THY Kplow ; KETE NKETE, @ veohata 
nH ELn “nV yap 7) avers a ws TO Tra.t8ta yevnobe Kal 
avayevyn fire,’ ws dnow 7 y) Ypepy, TOV ovTws OVTA 
Tare pa, ov 1x17) aTroAdByTe, ‘odd’ od pa) cigedevaeobe 
mote eis THY BaotAciavy TOV odpavav.” mas yap 

> ime , x , 2\\> ¢ 5 
etaeADety emUTeTpamTaL TH Seven ; add’ drav, ofa, 
evyypaph Kal modurevO 7} KaL TOV TaTEpa amoAdBn, 
Tote “‘év trois tov matpos”’ yevnoerat, TOTE 
KAnpovounaae katagivljoerar, TOTE Tis BactActas 
THS Tarpa@as Kowwvnger TO yvnoiw, TO “nya 
TmwEevyw’’* atrn yap 7) mpwTdToKOS exxAjoia 7 7) ex 
TOAADY ayalav cvyKeyevyn Tadiwv: tabr’ ori 7a 

> A 
“aTpwrToToKa Ta evaToyeypaypeva ev otpavots”’ 
Kal TooavTaus “ Lupiaou ayyehov ” ovpmavnyupt- 

Covra. TPWTOTOKOL d€ matdes jets ob Tpopysoe 
708 feod, of Tob “ TPwToToKOV yvyotou giro, 
ot TPAToL TOV GAAwY avOpw7wv Tov Gedv vevonkKoTes, 
OL TpOTo TAV apLapTL@v ameoTacLEVvol, OL TPMToL 
Tod dtaPdoArov Keywpiojevot. 

\ \ / / > > f- Lz 
Nuvi d€ tocovTw Tiwés elow abedtepor, dow 
, e / ¢ \ \ ? / F 
dtAavOpwrotrepos 6 feds: 6 pev yap ex dovrAwv 

ChiN ¢e ~ / a ¢ \ \ ri / 
viovds nuds yeverBar BovrA€eTAaL, ot d€ Kal viol yevécbat 
KUptov ematoytvecbe. éXAevfepiay éemayyédAeran, 

@ St. Matthew xviii. 3; St. John iii. 3, 5. 
’ St. Luke ii. 49. ¢ St. Matthew iii. 17 etc. 
4 See Hebrews xii. 22, 23. 



not fear when you listen to the divine Word Himself? cHap, 
Are you not troubled? Are you not careful and at 1* 
the same time eager to learn; that is to say, are you 

not eager for salvation, fearing God’s wrath, loving 

His grace, striving after the hope, in order that you 

may escape the judgment? Come ye, come ye, my 

little ones! For “except ye become once more as Unless we 
little children and be born again,” as the Scripture become 
says, ye shall not receive the true Father, “nor shall we cannot 
ye ever enter into the kingdom of heaven.”’* For Fatnev's” 
how is the stranger allowed to enter? Why, in this kingdom 
way, I think; when he is enrolled, and made a 

citizen, and receives the Father, then he will be once 
found “in the Father’s courts,’ ® then he will be ae 
counted worthy to enter into the inheritance, then kingdom 
he will share the Father’s kingdom with the true Son, (i32°,, 
“the beloved.” ° For this is the “ church of the first- Son 
born,” which is composed of many good children. 

These are “the first-born that are enrolled in Goa’s many 
heaven,” who join in solemn assembly with all those shildren 
‘innumerable hosts of angels.” % And we are these “church of 
first-born sons, we who are God’s nurslings, we who pea 
are the true friends of the “ first-born,’ ° who have 

been the first of all mankind to know God, the 

first to be torn away from our sins, the first to be 
separated from the devil. 

Yet the truth is, that the more God loves them But many 
the more do some men depart from Him. For He ee = 
wishes that we should become sons instead of slaves, blessings 
but they have disdained even to become sons. What 
depth of folly! It is the Lord of whom you are 

ashamed. He promises freedom, but you run away 

¢ Colossians i. 15, 18; Hebrews i. 6, 


70 P. 


byuets Se ets Sovieiav drrodipaokere. owTnplav 
* xapilerau, d dprets de els Odvarov* drrogepedte. Cony 
Owpetrau aiwviov, ders Oe THY KoAacw avapLeveTe 
Kal “To mop RADE mpookomretre, 33 Hrotwacev 0 

KUpwos TO diaBorAw Kat Tots dyyeAous avrod. ¥2 fot 
ToTO O jLakdpLos dmoaToAos ve poapTupopar ev 

Kuply, | dyno, “ pnere bpas TepuTatetv, Ko Ws 
Kal TO evn mepuTraret ev HaTOLoTHTL Tov voos avTa@v, 
EOKOTLOPLEVOL Th duavoia Oo ovres Kal dar Aor prenpLevot 
Tijs wis Tob Oeod, Sud THY ayVvoLav Thy ovoav ev 
avro is, Oud THY THpwWoLW THs Kapdlas avTav’ oirwes 
EavTous Tapedwkayr | aanhynKores TH doedyeia ets 
epyactav aKkabapotas maons Kal i mAeovegias. ” rovov- 
Tov pudpTupos edéyXovTos THY T&v avOpwrwv avovav 
Kal Beov em Bowpevov, Ti O17) ETEPOV brodetmeT at Tots 
dmiarous 7 Kptots Kal KaTadiKy ; od Kapver” de 0 
KUpLOS TrApaLVvav, expoBav, TpoTpeTav, dueyeipwv, 
vovberav' adumviler yé Tou Kal TOO oxdrTous avToou 
TOUS memrAavn|Levovs dvaviornow: if eyepe, ’ dnow, 
pire 6 Kabevowv Kal avaora éK Trav veKpGy, | Kal emipav- 
cel cou 6 Xptoros KUpLOS, 6 TAS | avaocTacews Avs, 
6 ‘7™po éwaddpov’”’ yevvwpevos, 6 Cwiv xaptadpevos 
axriaw (dtais. 
M7) ov mepuppoveitw Tis 708 Aoyov, py Adby 
KaTappovay eavtod. Aé€ye yap TOU y) ypagy: 
O7}[LEpOV eav THS povis avrod dovonre, [7) 
oKdnpvyyre Tas Kapdtas tuav ws ev TH Tapa- 
TUKPAopLD KATO TIHV Tepav Too Tmetpagp.od ev Th 
épjuwm, 00 émeipacay of matépes tudv ev SoKt- 

1 @¢varov Stihlin. dmdd\eav Sylburg. &v@pwirov Mss. 
2 ob kduvec Miinzel. ovx amede? Mss, 



into—-slavery! He bestows salvation, but you sink 
down into death. He offers eternal life, but you 
await His punishment; and you prefer “the fire, 
which the Lord has prepared for the devil and his 
angels’’!* Wherefore the blessed apostle says: “1 
testify in the Lord, that ye no longer walk as the 
Gentiles also walk, in the vanity of their mind, being 
darkened in their understanding and alienated from 
the life of God, because of the ignorance that is in 
them, because of the hardening of their heart, who 
being past feeling gave themselves up to lascivious- 
ness, to work all uncleanness and greediness.” ? 
When such a witness reproves the folly of men 
and calls upon God to hear, what else remains for 
unbelievers but judgment and condemnation? Yet 
the Lord does not weary of admonishing, of terrifying, 
of exhorting, of arousing, of warning; no indeed, He 
awakes men from sleep, and those that have gone 
astray He causes to rise from out the darkness itself. 
* Awake, thou that sleepest,’ He cries, “and arise 
from the dead, and there shall shine upon thee 
Christ the Lord,’¢ the sun of the resurrection, He 
that is begotten “before the morning star,’? He 
that dispenses life by His own rays. 

Let no one then think lightly of the Word, lest 
he be despising himself unawares. For the Scripture 
says somewhere, 

To-day if ye shall hear His voice, 

Harden not your hearts as in the provocation, 

Like as in the day of the temptation in the wilderness, 
Where your fathers tempted Me by proving Me.® 

@ St. Matthew xxv. 41. > Ephesians iv. 17-19. 
¢ Ephesians v. 14. 2. Psalm cix. 3 (Septuagint). 
¢ Hebrews iii. 7-11, from Psalm xcy. 8-11. 



The punish- 
ment that 
awaits them 

He exhorts 
us to hear 
His voice 


CAP. pacia.” 7 Se Soxacta tis eotw ef OéAers pabety, 


TO aylov ou me dua eSnynoerac: “Kal eldov Ta 
epya pov,” " pyat, © TEToapaKovra, ern) du’ 6 mpoc- 
wx Ouo0 TH yeved Tavrn Kal €t7rov" det TAav@vrar 
TH Kapdia: avrot d€ ovK eyvwoay Tas ddous jou: 
WS WLooa ev TH opyi Lov, et etoehevoovrat els THY 
kardaavoly pov.” opare THY ameiAnv: opare TY 
TpoTpomiy: opare THY TYULHV? Ti o7) oy ETL TIHV 
Xdow els opyny peta\dooopev Kal ovxt dvarrenTa.- 
juevaus Tats aKoais KaTadexopevor Tov Adyov ev 
ayvais Eevodoxobpev Tats puxais TOV Geov; peyahy 
yap Ths €7a yyedvas avTod 1 Xapus, * ‘ dav o7nepov 
THs puvijs avTod axovowpev TO de onpLEpov 
Kal” exdoray [adrob] 4 avgerau THY NLepav, €OT av 
n onpLepov dvopdlnrar. pexpe de ouvredctas Kal n 
onLEpov Kal 7 pabyots Svapever: Kat TOTE 4 ovTws 
onwepov 7 aveAdum7s TOO Beob 7uEepa Tots aidat 

’"Ael otv THs dwvis trakovwpyev Tod Oetov 
Aoyou: 1) O7LEpov yap adiou aidves * eoTw 
eixwv, cvpBodrov de Tod Pwros 1) HuEpa, POs d€ 0 
Aoyos avOpurrors, bu" ov Kkatavyalopeba TOV Gedv. 
ELKOTWS Apa TmoTEVoaCL pev Kal UraKovovow 7 
yapis vmeptAcovdce, amejnoact d€ Kal TrAavw- 
jeévous Kara. Kapdlav odovs TE Tas KUpLaKas pay 
eEyVMKoow, as evdeias Tovety Kal edrpemiCew Tmapny ~ 
yetdev ‘Twavrys, Tovrows dé mpoowxOicev 6 6 Oeos Kal 
dmewet: Kal 7) Kat TO TéAOS THs aTeLARs aiviypa- 
TWoOs amewrrydacw ot madraot Tav ‘EBpaiwv 

1 [av’rod| Stahlin. 
2 didiov alévos Arcerius, didios aiwy Mss, 



If you wish to learn what this “proving”’ is, the cHap. 
Holy Spirit shall explain to you. ssi 

And they saw My works forty years. 

Wherefore I was displeased with this generation, 

And said, They do always err in their heart : 

But they did not know My ways ; 

As I sware in My wrath, 

They shall not enter into My rest. 
See the threat! See the exhortation! See the 
penalty! Why then do we still exchange grace for 
wrath? Why do we not receive the Word with 
open ears and entertain God as guest in souls free 
from stain? For great is the grace of His promise, The meaning 
“if to-day we hear His voice”; and this “ to-day ”’ is ae 
extended day by day, so long as the word “ to-day ” 
exists.2 Both the “to-day” and the teaching con- 
tinue until the consummation of all things; and 
then the true “to-day,” the unending day of God, 
reaches on throughout the ages. 

Let us, then, ever listen to the voice of the 

divine Word. For “to-day” is an image of the 
everlasting age, and the day is a symbol of light, 
and the light of men is the Word, through whom 
we gaze upon God. Naturally, then, grace will Grace 
abound exceedingly towards those who have believed (o70"'s 
and listen; but as for those who have disbelieved those that 
and are erring in heart, who know not the ways others God 
of the Lord, which John commanded us to make aa rtoaea 
straight and prepare, with them God is displeased, punishment 
and them He threatens. Moreover the ancient 
Hebrews received in a figure the fulfilment of the 
threat when they wandered in the desert. For, 

@ Hebrews iii. 7-11, from Psalm xcv. 8-11. 
6 See Hebrews iii. 13. 



r ~ ‘ > A aq >] rb aA ) \ rd 33 
cap. mAavaTau od yap “ eioeABetv els THY KaTdmavow 
Aéyovrar Sia TV amoriav, mpw 7 odds adbrovs 
/ ~ / , > / 
KkatakoAovinoavras TH Mwvoéws diaddyw oypé 
mote epyw pablety otk av ddAdAws owbhhvar wy 
odxt ws “Inoots memuotevKoras. 
Diravopwmos 5€ dv 6 KUpLos TavTas avOpeétrous 
‘ > ~ e a \ 
els emiyvwow ths adnfelas’’ mrapakxaXe?, 6 Tov 
mapaKkAntov amootéAAwy. tis obv 7 emiyvwats; 
/ ce / A \ / > / , 
BeoodBeva- “‘ PeoodBeva dé mpos mavTo. odpehyios 
\ ~ 
KaTa TOV IladAov, “ emayyeAiav é éxovoa lwis Tijs 
vov Kal THS peMovons.” maou cpohoyjaare, @ 
avOpwrot, et emumpdoKeto owTypia aidios, wr7- 
A > \ > \ / a ~ 
cacba av; ovde et tov IlaxtwAov tis dAov, Tob 
/ \ ~ > 
Xpuvctov TO pedua TO pvoiKdv, amromeTpHoal, avT- 
df tov owrTnpias prabov apiOujnoer. pur) ovv d.7r0 - 
Kdpnte’ e€eatw viv, nv ebdAnre, eLwvjoacBar THY 
moAuTipn Tov owrnpiay oiketw Oncavpa, ayaary Kab 
miorer, wis 6s eatw a€idroyos pucbds2 radryv 
nOews THY TYULnv O Beds AauBaver. “‘ HATiKapev 
rs . ae) ~ Pa 7 3 b] a = i 4 
yap emt Oe Cav, 6s eoTt owTnp TaVTwWY aV- 
Gpwmwv, pddvota moray.’ of dé dAdo zept- 
~ Qu 
mepuKkoTes TH Koouw, ola duKia twa evadots 
~ e 3 
meTtpais, aavacias ddtywpotow, Kabdrep 0 I6a- 
/ td ~ ~ ~ 
KnoLos yépwv od THS adAnOeias Kal THs ev odpav@ 
/ \ A 
TaTploos, mpos O€ Kal TOD OvTWS GVTOS tWeELpopevoL 
dw7os, aAXAa Tob KaTrvod. 
1 dydiry Kal mlore fwis, bs . . . puocOds. Stahlin. The 

punctuation given above is suggested by Mayor. 
2 imepdmevoc Markland. ime:pduevos Mss. 

@ 1 Timothy ii. 4 

> St. John xv. 26. There is a play on words in the Greek 
which it is hard to reproduce in English. The word para- 


owing to their unbelief, they are said not to have cap. 
“entered into the rest,’ until they followed the ™ 
successor of Moses and learnt, though late, by ex- 
perience, that they could not be saved in any other 

way but by believing, as Joshua believed. 

But the Lord, being a lover of man, encourages Truth and 
all men to come “ to a full knowledge of the truth” @ ; S#ivation 
for to this end He sends the Comforter.? What through 
then is this full knowledge? It is godliness; and et 
“ godliness,” according to Paul, “is profitable for all 
things, having promise of the life which now is, and 
of that which is to come.Ӣ* If eternal salvation Salvation 
were for sale, at what price would you, brother men, So Reaene 
have agreed to buy it? Not even if one were to for money 
measure out the whole of Pactolus, the legendary 
river of gold, would he count a price equivalent to 
salvation. But do not despair. It is in your power, 
if you will, to buy up this highly precious salvation 
with a treasure of your own, namely, love and faith, 
which is a fitting payment for eternal life. This But God 
price God is pleased to accept. For “we have our 0¢P's | 
hope set on the living God, who is the Saviour of love vee 
all men, especially of them that believe.”? The?" 
rest, clinging to the world, as certain sea-weeds 
cling to the rocks of the sea,’ hold immortality of 
little account. They are like the old man of Ithaca, 
yearning not for truth and their fatherland in 
heaven, nor yet for the Light that truly exists, but 
for the smoke from the hearth’ 

kletos, translated Comforter in the New Testament, is 
formed from parakalein, a verb which combines the meanings 
of summon, comfort (i.e. strengthen), and encourage ; or, to 
put it in another way, of invitation coupled with assistance. 
¢ 1 Timothy iv. 8. @ | Timothy iv. 10. 
* See Plato, Republic 611 pv. 4 Homer, Odyssey i. 57-58. 





/ / ? ~ ~ ~ \ A 
OcoceBeva dé, efopo.toa TH Oe Kata TO 
duvatov TOV avOowrrov, Kardnrov emuypdgerat du- 
ddoKadov Beov Tov Kal pdovov dmeukdoat Kat agiav 
duvduevov avOpwrov bed. tavtrnv 6 amdatoXos 
THY didacKadiay Getav OVTWS emLoTdpevos “ av 
PS) Ue > o ¥ 40 ce 3 \ / ¢ \ 
é, @ Tyso ee,’ gnoiv, “amo Bpépovs iepa 
ypdppara. oldas, Ta Suvdpevd Ge cogioa ets 
cwrnpiay: Sua mloTEws EV Xpior.”” tepa yap ws 
adn Gas TO teporovobvra Kal GeorroobvTa ypdppara, 
e€ Ov ypapparov Kal ovAdaBay TOV tep@v was 
ovyKeyievas ypadds, Ta ovvtdypata, 6 avTos 
> / > / ce / , 
axoAov8ws azmoaToAos Geomvevatovs’” Kare, 
Cie ge / 4 \ / A ” 
wdheXijwous ovoas mpos Sibackadiav, mpos EAeyxov, 
Tos erravopIwow, , MpOs Taoetav THY ev Suxaroowyy, 
iva aptios 7 0 TOO deo dvOpwros ™mpos may €pyov 
ayabov eSnpTnuevos. | ovK av TUS ovTws exrAayetn 
Trav a cov ayiwy Tas mpoTpomas Ws avrov TOV 
KUptov Tov diAavOpwrov: ovdev yap | add’ 7) TodTo 
Lu ~ 
Epyov povov éotiv att@ owlecbar tov avOpwrov. 
~ ~ ¢ 
Boe yoov émelywv eis owrTnpiav adtos “ ny yeKev a) 
la b] ~ +”) > / \ / 
Bao.reia THY otpavav’’: emiortpéder todvs avOpw- 
mous mAnoidlovtas TH doBw. tTa’Ty Kal 6 azro- 
orodos Tov Kupiov TrapaKaAay tovs Maxeddvas 
Epunveds yiverat Tis eias puvijs, “6 KUptos 
TY YUKev ” déyewv, “ edAaBeiobe pi) Katadndldpev 
ie) ( a be b] A > A lan Noe 
pets b€ €s TOoODTOV adeets, UGAAOV SE aAmLGTOL, 
/ “A ~ A " 
pynTE avT@ trevOopevor TH Kupiw punte TH IlavrAw, 
Kal tadra brép Xpiotod dedenevw.t “* yedcaobe 

1 Seouévy correction in P (cp. 2 Corinthians v. 20). 
@ 2 Timothy iii. 15. > 2 Timothy iii. 16, 17. 


Now when godliness sets out to make man as CHAP, 
far as possible resemble God, it claims God as a ,J* 
suitable teacher; for He alone has the power Himself 
worthily to conform man to His own likeness. This ae eee 
teaching the apostle recognizes as truly divine, 
when he says, “And thou, Timothy, from a babe 
hast known the sacred letters, which have power to 
make thee wise unto salvation, through faith in 
Christ.”* For the letters which make us sacred 
and divine are indeed themselves sacred, and the 
writings composed from these sacred letters and 
syllables, namely, the collected Scriptures, are con- Through the 
sequently called by the same apostle “inspired of SP" 
God, being profitable for teaching, for reproof, for 
correction, for instruction which is in righteousness ; 
that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly 
furnished unto every good work.’® No one could 
be so deeply moved at the exhortations of other holy 
men as at those of the Lord Himself, the lover of 
men ; for this, and nothing else, is His only work, 
that man may be saved. In His own person He 
cries out, urging men on to salvation: “ The kingdom 
of heaven is at hand.” * He converts men when they 
draw nigh to Him through fear. On this point the 
Lord’s apostle becomes an interpreter of the divine 
voice when in appealing to the Macedonians he says, 

“The Lord is at hand; take care lest we be found 
empty.” 4 

But you have so little fear, or rather faith, that 
you obey neither the Lord Himself, nor Paul, though 
Paul was a prisoner for the sake of Christ. ‘“ O taste 

¢ St. Matthew iv. 17. 
4 Philippians iv. 5; the latter half of the saying is not 
found in the New Testament. 


CaP. Kal idere OTL xpynares 6 Oeds.”’ 1) Triotts elodger, 


7 reipa. dddter, a ypagy TawayurynoeL " debe, 
® teKva,’ Aéyovaa, “ akovoaTé pov, oBov Kuplov 
ddagw bas.” elra ws On TemoTEVKOGL ovV- 
TOLWS emuheyer “tis €oTW avOpwrros 6 OéAwy 
Cwnv, ayarav juepas idetv ayabds 5 mets eopev, 
dyjcomev, ot tayabob TpookvyyTat, ob Tov ayabay 
Cywrat. akovoate ovv “ot paKpay, aKovoaTe 
“ot éyyts’'* ovK darexpuBn twas 0 Adyos: das 
€OTL Kowor, emAdpuTrEt méow avOpesrrots: ovoels 
Kuupeépros ev Adyw: orrevowyiev els OwTnplav, emt 
TH Tmaduyyeveotay™ els play ayamnv ovvax Ojvae ot 
moNot KaTO TH THs povadiKns ovatas evwow 
orevowpev. ayaloepyovpevor avardyws evdoTyTa 
SubKkwuev, THY ayabiyy éexlyntobvTes wovdda. 1 de 
ex ToAA@Y Evwots ek ToAVdwVias Kal dSLiaoTOpas 
dppoviay AaBotoa Oeikiy pia yiverar ovpdwvia, 
EvL XOpEevTH Kal dudacKkdhy TO Aoyen ETOMEVN, 
em avriy THY a.Ar/Fevav dvamravopevn, “ABBE vg 
Aéyovoa “6 maTHip'’: tavTnv oO Deos THY Pwvijy 
Tv adnOurjy aomdletar Tapa THv avtTod maidwy 
TpWTHV KapTrOvpLEVos. 
1 Stahlin suggests ayédny. 

¢ Psalm xxxiv. 8. > Psalm xxxiv. 11. 

¢ Psalm xxxiv. 12. 

@ Jsaiah lvii. 19; Ephesians ii. 17. 

e See St. John i. 9. 

J The Cimmerians were a mythical people who dwelt 
beyond the Ocean in a land of mist and cloud and total 
darkness. See Odyssey xi. 13-16. 

9 Or, if Stahlin’ s suggestion is accepted (see note on text), 
‘‘into one herd,” or ‘* flock.” The word ayéAn is used for 
the ‘* flock ” of men on p. 247 of this volume, and in i. Strom. 
156. 3, and 169. 2. Cp. St. John x. 16. 



and see that God is good.”"% Faith shall lead you, cHap. 

experience shall teach you, the Scripture shall train ™ 

you. “Come, ye children,” it says, “hearken unto 

me; I will teach you the fear of the Lord.’”’® Then, Atl who 

as if speaking to those who have already believed, it {f8"°) jit, 

adds briefly, “ What man is there that desireth life, may come 

and loveth to see good days?”’’ We are they, we 

shall answer, we, the worshippers of the good, we who 

are zealous for good things. Hear then, “ye that 

are afar off” ; hear, “ ye that are nigh.” @ The Word 

was not hidden from any; He is a universal light ; 

He shines upon all men.’ No one is a CimmerianS 

in respect of the Word. Let us hasten to salvation, 

to the new birth. Let us, who are many, hasten to Though 

be gathered together into one love’ corresponding to meade? 

the union of the One Being. Similarly, let us follow into a units 
: - : rough 

after unity by the practice of good works, seeking love and 

the good Monad.* And the union of many into one, 2°04 Works 

bringing a divine harmony out of many scattered 

sounds, becomes one symphony, following one leader 

and teacher, the Word, and never ceasing till it 

reaches the truth itself, with the cry, “Abba 

Father.’* This is the true speech which God 

welcomes from His children. This is the first-fruits 

of God’s harvest. 

» The Monad, or unit, was a term used by the Pytha- 
goreans, who regarded all things as in some way constituted 
out of number. Odd numbers were more perfect than even, 
and the Monad, from which the rest were derived, was 
conceived as the perfect first principle of the universe. 
Clement here makes it a name for God, but in another place 
(i. y edenoe 71. 1) he says that God is ‘* above the Monad 

* See St. Mark xiv. 36; Romans viii. 15 and Galatians 
iv. 6, 


73 P. 



"AM €x matépwr, date, mapadedoevov Hiv 
éGos avatpéemew ovK evAoyov. Kal TL o7 ovxl TH 
TPwTN TpoPfp, TO yadanre, xpapeBa, @ Ojmoubev 
ovveiOicav pas eK yeverijs at virB ; Ti 6 
ave dvouev 7 jrecodpev THY TaTpway ovoiar, | wai 
odyt THY Lonv, ws TrapetAnpaper, Siatulenranee Tt 
d€ ovKETL Tots KdATOLS Tots TaTpwots evaTroBAU- 
Copev, 7) Kal Ta aAdXa, & vnmidlovTes bd NTpaow 
TE EKTPEPO[EVOL yerura wproper, emteAobpev ETL, 
aAAa odds atrovs, Kat €t 7) Tadaywyay € eTUXOHEV 
ayabar, erravenpaicarer ; eiTa. emt TOV mAdwv 7 at 
mapekBacets Kaitou emCnpot Kal emapadets ovcat, 
Ouws yAvKEtal ws TpooTimtovoL, em dé Tod Biov 
ovyxl TO €0os KataXirdvTes* TO TrovnpoV Kal éuTrabes 
Kat aleov, Kav of maTepes xadeTTaivwow, emi THY 
aAnfevav exKAtod}sey Kal TOV OVTWS OVTA marépa 
emelyriaoper,» otov On ANT prov PdppaKov TV ouv- 
nOevav AT WOGLEVOL TOOT avro ydp ToL TO Kan- 
Avarov TOV ey XELpOUMEVenY eoTiv, drodeiéat buiv ws 
amo pravias Kat rob i tpaabAiov rovrov eGous eptanOn 
7) GeooeBeva od yap av euronOn wrote iu) amnyopevOn 
dyabov Tooobrov, od petlov ovdev ex Jeod d<da)- 
pytat mw TH TOV avOpwrwy yeveoer, et 7) CUV- 
aptraCojevor TH Ver, elra pévtTor amoBvoavTes TA 
Ota Hutv, olov tmmor oxAnpavyeves adyvialorres, 
Tovs xaAwovs evdakorTes, aTredevyerte * Tovs Adyous, 

1 rrédwv Cobet. maidwy Schwartz. aaéév ss. 

2 xaradurdvres Cobet. Karadelrovres MSS, 

3 émignticouey Sylburg. émifnrjowuev MSS. 

4 awepevyere . . . Urea Bdavere Stiihlin. dmoge’yere . .. 
U7o\auBavere MSS. 




But, you say, it is not reasonable to overthow a Itis 
way of life handed down to us from our forefathers. },)¢es, 
Why then do we not continue to use our first ought not 
food, milk, to which, as you will admit, our nurses ee 
accustomed us from birth? Why do we increase or customs 
diminish our family property, and not keep it for 
ever at the same value as when we received it? 

Why do we no longer sputter into our parents’ 

bosoms, nor still behave in other respects as we did 

when infants in our mothers’ arms, making ourselves 

objects of laughter? Did we not rather correct 
ourselves, even if we did not happen to have good 
attendants for this purpose? Again, in voyages by Yet new 
sea, deviations from the usual course may bring loss {iy yetimes 
and danger, but yet they are attended by a certain good 
charm. So, in life itself, shall we not abandon the 

old way, which is wicked, full of passion, and without 

God? And shall we not, even at the risk of dis- 
pleasing our fathers, bend our course towards the 

truth and seek after Him who is our real Father, custom is 
thrusting away custom as some deadly drug? This (ere 
is assuredly the noblest of all the tasks we have in godliness 
hand, namely, to prove to you that it was from 
madness and from this thrice miserable custom that 

hatred of godliness sprang. For such a boon, the 

greatest that God has ever bestowed upon the race Custom 
of men, could never have been hated or rejected, aneis 
had you not been clean carried away by custom, and and 
so had stopped your ears against us. Like stubborn na. 
horses that refuse to obey the reins, and take the bit 
between their teeth, you fled from our arguments. 



\ ¢e ~ ~ , 
CAP. dmrocetoacbat prev TOUS nvioxous VULa@V Tob Biou 

74 P. 

nas emmobobvres, emt d€ TOUS Kpnpvovs Tijs 
dmwAcias b10 THs avolas hepdpevor evayy Tov 
aytov bmeAapPavete! Tod Peot Aoyov. EmeTaL ToOL- 
yapoby vutv Kata Tov LodokAda ta emixeipa THs 

~ 55 5s > 5 A 43) 4 
vots Ppoddos, WT axpeta, ppovTides Keval, 

Kal ovK tote Ws TavTOs LaAAov TobTO aAnfés, Ste 
dpa ot pev ayaboit Kat BeooeBets ayabfs ths 
apoubns TevEovtar Tayalov TeTYyYLNKOTES, OL SE EK 
TOV evavTiwy Tovnpot THs KatadAjAov Tiuwpias, 
KaL T@ YE GpXovTt THS KaKlas emHpTHTaL KdAaats. 
ameirel yotv att@ 6 mpodyrns Zaxapias “‘ém- 
Tyunoar ev aot oO ekdArcEdpevos THV “lepovcadnp: 
ovK L00v TobTO Sadds eEcomacpévos €k TUpds;”” Tis 
ovv ett Tots avOpuwrrois dpeEis EyKertar Oavarov 
exovaiov; Ti de TH darAD TH Gavatynddpw tovrw 
mpootepevyaow, pel od KatalprexOjcovra, e€ov 
Bidvar Kahds Kata Tov Oeov, ov KaTa TO eGos; 
Deds prev yap Cony xapilerat, | €Oos de Tmovnpov pera 
THY evbevde ama ayy peTavovav Keviyy dye TL- 
pewpia mpootpiperat, “ mabwyv dé TE viymios éyvw,”’ 
ws amroAAver Sevovdayovia Kal ole feoo€Beva. 
der TUS bpav Tovs Tapa Tots eidiAous Aa- 
TpeVvovTas, KON puT@vTas, ecOATL Tapa Kal KaT- 

1 dredevyere . . . UmeNauBavere Stéhlin. daogevyere. . . 
UrodauBavere MSS. 

# Clement plays upon the similarity between hagios, holy, 
and enagés, accursed. 
> Sophocles, Frag. 863 Nauck. ¢ Zechariah iii. 2, 



You yearned to shake yourselves free from us, the cHap. 
charioteers of your life; yet all the while you * 
were being carried along by your folly towards the And leads 
precipices of destruction, and supposed the holy O24 (0), 
Word of God to be accursed. Accordingly the 
recompense of-your choice attends upon you, in the 

words of Sophocles, 

Lost senses, useless ears, and fruitless thoughts ; 

and you do not know that this is true above all else, 
that the good and god-fearing, since they have 
honoured that which is good, shall meet with a 
reward that is good; while the wicked, on the other 
hand, shall meet with punishment corresponding to 
their deeds: and torment ever hangs over the head 
of the prince of evil. At least, the prophet Zechariah 
threatens him: “He that hath chosen Jerusalem 
take vengeance upon thee! Behold, is not this a 
brand plucked out of the fire?” *° What a strange why do 
longing, then, is this for a self-chosen death which oes 
still presses upon men? Why have they fled to this life is pos- 
death-bearing brand, with which they shall be burnt hi 
up, when they might live a noble life according to 
God, not according to custom 4? For God grants Tae : 
but wicked custom inflicts unavailing repentance 
together with punishment after we depart from this 
world. And “by suffering even a fool will learn” ° 
that daemon-worship leads to destruction, and the 
fear of God to salvation. 

Let any of you look at those who minister in the Description 
idol temples. He will find them ruffians with filthy ¢,P743° ™ 


2 A play upon the words theos (God) and ethos (custom). 
¢ Hesiod, Works and Days 218 


CAP. Eppwyvia kauBoropevovs, Aoutpav pev TavTamaow 
ameipdrous, Tats dé T@v ovd xe akpats exTeOnpiw- 
pevous, moAXovs 5€ Kal TOV aidoicy adnpniievous, 
epyp Seuxvdvras TOV cdwhev TA TEMLEVY Tabous 
TWas 7 Seopwri pia OvTOL [LOL Soxodar mevoetv, ov 

pnokevew Tovs Jeous, €Agou padov 7 7) seamge non 

agéia memovOdres. Kal Tatra opa@vres ere tuphair- 
KUpLOV Tov oAwy avaBréfete; odyi d€ Kataded- 
foe, ek TOV evrad0a Seoputnpiov expevyovres, 
emt Tov €Aeov tov e& ovpavay ; re) yap feos ex 
ToAAHs Tis diravopwrias avtéyetar Tob avOpesrou, 
@omrep ex Kadds €KTIMTOVTOS veoTTod 7 LTP 
opvis epinrara.: et O€ mou Kal Onpiov EpmrynotiKoV 

LATHp 5 auduroraras ddupopevn didra réxva: 

6 de Geos TmarT)|p Kal Cntet TO mAdopa Kal iarau TO 
TApaTTwWPLa Kal Sucdicer TO Onptov Kal TOV VEOTTOV 
avis dvahapBdver emt THY Kadiav avamThvat Trap- 
opua@v. elta KUves pev 7301 TreTAavnwevor odpais 
pwndarobvres efixvevoay TOV Seomdorny Kal ‘rot 
TOV avaBarny dmroTELodfLevor evi Tov ouplypare 

Um7Kovoay TO Oeom TN “ éyvw Sé,”’ py, * ' Bods 
TOV KTNOG\LEVvOV Kal ovos Thy paryyy | Tob Kuptov 
avrod, ‘opanA b€ [Le OUK ype. ? Tt ovv oO Kdipvos ; 

ov pynoucaret, ete €Acel, ETL THY jeeTdvovay dmaurel. 
epecbar dé vpas BovAopa, el ovUK GTOTOV eo 
doxe? mAdopa buds Tovs avOpaTous éemvyeyovdras } 

1 émvyeyovéras Mss. [éme]yeyovdras Stahlin. 


hair, in squalid and tattered garments, complete cuap. 
strangers to baths, with claws for nails like wild * 
beasts; many are also deprived of their virility. 

They are an actual proof that the precincts of the 

idols are so many tombs or prisons. These men 

seem to me to mourn for the gods, not to worship 

them, and their condition provokes pity rather 

than piety. When you see sights like this, do you The sight 
still remain blind and refuse to look up to the ofthese 

Master of all and Lord of the universe? Will you Heat lead 
not fly from the prisons on earth, and escape to the j> ae 
pity which comes from heaven? For God of His 

great love still keeps hold of man; just as, when a 
nestling falls from the nest, the mother bird flutters 

above, and if perchance a serpent gapes for it, 

Flitting around with cries, the mother mourns for her 

Now God is a Father, and seeks His creature. He Godisa 
remedies the falling away, drives off the reptile, Tather, 
restores the nestling to strength again, and urges it though His 
to fly back to the nest. Once more, dogs who have qn" 
lost their way discover their master’s tracks by the know Him 
sense of smell, and horses who have thrown their 

rider obey a single whistle from their own master ; 

“the ox,” it is written, “knoweth his owner, and 

the ass his master’s crib, but Israel doth not know 

Me.” ® What then does the Lord do? He bears How can we 
no grudge; He still pities, still requires repentance 57%? "e 
of us. I would ask you, whether you do not think instead 

it absurd that you men who are God’s last creation, eae 

@ Homer, /liad ii. 315. 
6 Isaiah i. 3. 



CAP. TOD Jeob Kai trap’ adrod tiv pvyiv etAnddras Kal 


” v7 A te a POY 4 / , 

ovras dAws Tod Oeobd érépw Sovdevew Sea70rTn, 
mpos d€ Kal Depamevewv dvti ev Tod Bactdéws Tov 
TUpavvoyv, avtTt d5é€ Tod ayabod tov movnpdv. Tis 
yap, @ mpos Ths aAnbeias, cwdpovav ye tayabov 
Kkatadeimwy Kakia ovveotw; Tis S€ datis TOV Deov 
> , / aA / \ e\ - 

amtogevywv Saipoviors avpPiot; tis S€ vids elvat 
duvdwevos TOD Geos SovAcvew HSerar; 7 Tis ovpavod 
troAirns elvar duvdjevos EpeBos | SudKer, €€ov mapa- 
devoov yewpyetv Kal odpavov mepimoAciv Kal THs 

WTLKHS Kal aKynpatov petadapBave mnyyqs, 
Kat ixvos éekelvns ths pwrewhs depoBarotvTa 

/ og eo / ~ \ e \ 
vehéAns, womep 6 “HiXlas, Bewpotvra tov verov 
<Tov>+ awripiov; of dé cKwrjKwv Siknv mept 
TéAuata Kat BopBdpous, Ta Sovas pevuata, KaAw- 
dovpevot avovytouvs Kal avornrovs exBdocKkovrat 
tpvfdas, twdes Twes avOpwror. ves yap, dyaiv, 
co @ / ) a nn ~ 4 \ 

ndovTat BopBdpw’’ paAdov 7} Kabap@ vdate Kal 
“él hopvT@ papyatvovaw” cara AnudKpurov. 442) 
d7jTa ody, un SAta eEavdparrodicbGpev pydé ba- 
des yevopela, GAN’ “cis téxva dwrds’’ yvijowa, 
> / 4 > / > A ~ \ 
avabpnowpev Kat avaBrdswuev eis TO das, [1 
vobous nuds eEeAdyEn 6 KUpios Wamep 6 Atos 
TOUS aeTous. 

Meravojowpev obv Kal peracrdpev e€ apablas 
Ets emoTHunv, e€ adpoatvys eis dpovnaw, && 
aKpacias els eykpdrevay, €€ adikias ets duxaroavvny, 
> > / > / \ e / 1 a 
e€ abedtntos eis Bedv. Kadds 6 Kivduvos avdtouorety 

1 <réy> inserted by Sylburg. 

* Clement has drawn together the Elijah of the Trans« 
figuration (St. Matthew xvii. 5) and the Elijah of Mount 
Carmel (1 Kings xviii. 44). 



who have received your soul from Him, and are 
entirely His, should serve another master; aye, and 
more than that, should pay homage to the tyrant 
instead of to the rightful king, to the wicked one 
instead of to the good? For, in the name of truth, 
what man in his senses forsakes that which is good 
to keep company with evil? Who is there that flees 
from God to live with daemons? Who is pleased 
with slavery, when he might be a son of God? Or 
who hastens to a region of darkness, when he might 
be a citizen of heaven; when it is in his power to 
till the fields of paradise, and traverse the spaces of 
heaven, when he can partake of the pure and life- 
giving spring, treading the air in the track of that 
bright cloud, like Elijah, with his eyes fixed on the 
rain that brings salvation?” But there are some 
who, after the manner of worms, wallow in marshes 
and mud, which are the streams of pleasure, and 
feed on profitless and senseless delights. These are 
swinish men; for swine, says one, “take pleasure in 
mud”? more than in pure water; and they “are 
greedy for offal,” according to Democritus.° Let us 
not then, let us not be made slaves, nor become 
swinish, but as true “children of the light,” @ direct 
our gaze steadily upward towards the light, lest the 
Lord prove us bastards as the sun does the eagles. 
Let us therefore repent, and pass from ignorance 
to knowledge, from senselessness to sense, from in- 
temperance to temperance, from unrighteousness to 
righteousness, from godlessness to God. It is a 

> The words are from Heracleitus: Frag. 54 Bywater, 
13 Diels. 

¢ Democritus, Frag. 23 Natorp, 147 Diels. 

4 Ephesians v., 8. 

H 203 


Yet some 
are like 
worms and 
loving what 
is unclean 

Let us 
repent, and 
come over 
to God’s 


76 P. 


mpos Jeov. modAdv Sé Kal ddAwv EoTw arodabaat 
ayabav todvs Suxatoovyns epaords, ot TrHV ald.ov 
dudkopev OwTypiav, atap 67 Kal av avTos aivit- 
4 A ae 3 oh ~ 
tetat 6 Oeds dia ‘Hoatov Aadrdv “ Eore KArpovop.ia 
Tots Qepamevtovor Kuvpiov’’: Kahn ye Kat epa- 
ap.tos 7) KAynpovopia, o8 ypvatov, odK apyupos, OUK 
eoOns, Ta THS ys,’ Eva mov ons Kat AnoTHs Tov 
/ \ \ / ~ > ~ 
KaTadveTau Tmept TOV xapailnrov mAodrov opbaApay, 
aAd’ éxetvos 6 Onoavpos THs owrnpias, mpos Ov Ye 
emretyeobau xp7) pirodoyous VEVOLLEVOUS, ouvamaiper 
de Huiyv evOvde Ta Epya Ta GoTeta Kal OvviTTTATAL 
TO THS adn Betas TTEPO. 

Tavrnv jpiv THY KAnpovopiay eyxerpiler 1 
aid.os Sabin Tod Geod 7 aid.ov Pic 
Xopnyotca: 0 dé pAcaropyos ovTos HOV TATHp, 
6 OVTWS TAaTHpP, OD TaveT aL TpOoTpeTronv, vovleTov, 
Taetwr, Pirdv: o8d€ yap owlwv maveTar, cvp- 

ae \ A ” ce / / / 
BovAever 5€ Ta dpiora: “‘ dixator yéveobe, Eyer 

/ ¢€ ~ ‘A 27 3 ie \ Ld 
KUptos* ob Oupdavres mopeveobe ep vowp, Kal Ogot 
pa exeTe apytpiov, Badicate Kal dyopdcare Kal 
mleTE AVE dpyuptov.. * éml to Aovtpdv, emt THV 
cwTnpiav, émt Tov dwtispov mapakaXe? povov- 
ovyt | Body Kai A€ywr: yhv cor didwyt Kat 
OaAatrav, maidiov, otpavov Te Kal TA EV avTois 

/ a > 

mavra CHa oor yapilopar: povov, w Tatdtor, 
/ ~ / / ¢ 
dixnoov tod matpos, apiobet cor SeryOyjoeTar 6 
6 Ve % > / ¢ > / ‘S / \ \ 
€0s' od KamrnAcveTar 7 aAyOea, Sidwat cou Kat TA 
TTHVA Kal TA VNKTA Kal TA ETL THS yas’ Tatra cov 

1 ra ris yas after éo67s Markland: after ois kal mss. : Kai 

[ra 7s ys] Stahlin. 

* Isaiah liv. 17 (Septuagint). 


glorious venture to desert to God’s side. Many are cHap. 

the good things which we may enjoy who are lovers 
of righteousness, who follow after eternal salvation ; 
but the best of all are those to which God Himself 

alludes when He says through Isaiah, ‘‘ there is an We shall 

inheritance to those who serve the Lord.”% Aye, 

then enjoy 

and a glorious and lovely inheritance it is, not of gold, imheritance 

not of silver, not of raiment, things of earth, into 
which perchance moth and robber may find a way,? 
casting longing eyes at the earthly riches; but that 
treasure of salvation, towards which we must press 
forward by becoming lovers of the Word. Noble 
deeds set out from hence in our company, and are 
borne along with us on the wing of truth. 

This inheritance is entrusted to us by the eternal 
covenant of God, which supplies the eternal gift. 
And this dearly loving Father, our true Father, 
never ceases to exhort, to warn, to chasten, to love; 
for He never ceases to save, but counsels what is 
best. ‘Become righteous, saith the Lord. Ye 
that are thirsty, come to the water; and as many 
as have no money, go ye, and buy and drink without 
money.’ ° It is to the font, to salvation, to en- 
lightenment that He invites us, almost crying out 
and saying: Earth and sea I give thee, my child; 
heaven too, and all things living in earth and heaven 
are freely thine. Only, my child, do thou thirst for 
the Father; without cost shall God be revealed to 
thee. The truth is not sold as merchandise; He 
gives thee the fowls of the air and the fishes of the 
sea and all that is upon the earth. These things 

> See St. Matthew vi. 19, 20. 
¢ Isaiah liv. 17 (Septuagint) ; lv. 1. 

All things 
are ours 
without cost 



A / a~ 
tats evyaptotos Tpudais SednpwovpynKev O Tarr. 
dpyupiw pev @vincetat 6 vdbos, ds amwdAcias earl 
~ / 
qadiov, os “‘ papwvd Sovdrevew '’ mponpynTar, cot 
aA / ~ ~ 
Sé ra od emitpéret, TO yunoiw éyw,' TH drdrobvre 
> if a 
Tov matépa, du ov ett epydlerat, @ povw Kal 
an \ e “~ 
dmuoxveitar A€ywv: “Kat y yh od mpabycerar Ets 
BeBaiwow’’: od yap Kupotrar tH Popa: “ Eun 
aA ~ \ \ 
yap €oTW 7400 1 YH, ETL de Kai on, Eav arroAdBys 
e€ \ >] / / a 
tov bedv. dOev 7) ypadi cikdTws ebayyeAtleTau Tots 
memuatevKoow: “ot dé aytor Kupiov KAnpovop- 
covat tiv dd€av Tob Deod Kat THY SvVamW adTod.” 
/ ss / / ? / coon bd \ 
moiav, ® pakdpie, dd€av, ei7é ror: “Hv odBaAuos 
> > >? \ 5S. ” > A Su 8 , > 
ov« eldev obdE Os HKOVGEV, OVSE ETL KapdiaY av- 
Opwrov aveBy Kal xapyoovrar emt 7H Baovdeca 
~ ~ IA 
Tod Kupiov adTa@v eis Tovs aidvas, aun. €xXETE, 
& dvOpwrrot, TH Oeiav THs xapitos erayyeAiav, akn- 
/ \ \ ” ~ / > / ~ 
/ A / ~ 
6 KUpios owler, PoBw Kat xdpiTe TaLldaywyav Tov 
dvOpwmov: ti peAdopev; Ti ode exKXvomev THV 
/ / > / s\ / / x 
KoAaow; TL od Katadexoueda THY Swpedv; Ti de 
\ ~ A 
ovy atpovpeba ta BeATiova, Deov avti Tod movnpod, 
Kal codlav eldwAoAatpeias mpoKpivowev Kat Cary 
> / Q 2 fa] / 3 ce aS) \ “9 \ 
avrikataAAacoopeba * Bavatov®; “ idov TéGerka po 
1 \éyw Stahlin. Aéyeu Mss. 

2 ayrixarad\\acobueba Heinsius. davtixatra\\acodmevor MSS. 
3 @avdrov Mayor. @avaryw Mss. 

a St. Matthew vi. 24; St. Luke xvi. 13. 

’ See St. John v. 17. 

¢ Leviticus xxv. 23. 

4 Clement takes the Old Testament phrase in a spiritual 
sense. It is the ‘‘inheritance incorruptible . . . reserved 
in heaven” (1 St. Peter i. 4) which is not ‘‘ delivered over 
to corruption.” 



the Father hath created for thy pleasant delights. 
The bastard, who is a child of destruction, who has 
chosen to “serve mammon,” @ shall buy them with 
money ; but to thee, that is, to the true son, He 
commits what is thine own,—to the true son, who 
loves the Father, for whose sake the Father works 
until now,2 and to whom alone He makes the 
promise, “and the land shall not be sold in per- 
petuity’’°; for it is not delivered over to corruption.4 
“For the whole land is mine,’* He says; and it 
is thine also, if thou receive God. Whence the 
Scripture rightly proclaims to believers this good 
news: “The saints of the Lord shall inherit God’s 
glory and His power.” What kind of glory, thou 
Blessed One? Tell me. A glory “which eye hath 
not seen, nor ear heard, nor hath it entered into 
the heart of man. And they shall rejoice in the 
kingdom of their Lord for ever, Amen.”/ You 
have, my fellow-men, the divine promise of grace ; 
you have heard, on the other hand, the threat of 
punishment. Through these the Lord saves, train- 
ing man by fear and grace. Why do we hesitate ? 
Why do we not shun the punishment? Why do 
we not accept the gift? Why do we not choose 
the better things, that is, God instead of the evil 
one, and prefer wisdom to idolatry and take life in 
exchange for death? “Behold, I have set before 

e Leviticus xxv. 23. 

/ The first part of this passage is from 1 Cor. ii. 9, where 
it is introduced by St. Paul as a quotation. Origen tells us, 
in his Commentary on St. Matthew (see Migne, Origen vol. iii. 
p. 1769), that St. Paul took it from the Apocalypse of Elijah. 
Doubtless the rest of the passage, as given by Clement, 
comes from the same source. 



Because we 
are God’s 

Our choice 
is between 
grace and 


CaP. mpoowrTrov buaov,” prot, “ov Odavatov Kat TH 

77 P. 

* Cwiv.” reipder ge fo} KUptos exAesacdas: TH Cwnv, 
ovpBovrcver got as TATnp metDecBar* TO Oe@. 

€av yap aKovanTé jLov, pyot, “Kal dedijonre, 
Ta ayaa, Tis vis payerbe, ” bTaKons 1 Xapes: 
“* €av b€ pa) drraKovonre [Lov pede DeArjonre, pedxaupa 
dpds Kal 7p KaTedeTau, | Tapako7s uF Kplous. 

TO yap oTO"a Kuptou ehdAnoev tabta:’’ vdpos 
dAnbeias Adyos Kupiov. | 

BovAcobe tyiv ayabos yévwpar cvpPovros; add’ 
bets pev aKkovoate’ eyw dé, et duvatov, evdeiEopar. 
expnv pev duds, @ avOpwrror, adtod 7épu evvooupe- 
vous Tob ayabot eéudutov éerayeobar tiotw, uwdpTupa 
agwxpewy ® adrobev oikobev, mepipavs atpovpevynv 
70 BéAttoTov, unde [Cyntetv |? ef pwetadwwxréov éx- 
qovetvy. Kal yap el Tw peOvatéov, pepe eimety, 

apdibarrcw xen" dpets de mplv yn emuoKéepacba 

peBvere- Kal ef vBpioréov, od modumpaypovetre, 

adn’ 44 raxos bBpilere. povov 8 4 dpa et i Peooefyréov, 
etek: Kal EL TO COPD TOUT [89] ° TO Oe kal TO 
Xpiot@ KaraxodovbyTéov, tobTo 67° Bovdjs | Kal 
oxerpews aé.obTe, od" fo) mperrer bed, é Tl TOTE €OTL, 
vevonkoTes. muaTevoaTe Yuiy Kav ws peln, wa 
cudpovnonre: muoTevoare Kav ws UBpet, iva 
ae el b€ Kat mreiBeobar BPovAecbe tiv evapyh 

1 reidecOa Sylburg. eideoGe Mss. 
2 riot, maprupa aéidxpewy Wilamowitz. pdprupa aéidxpewr, 
mioT.v MSS. 
3 [{nretv] Mayor. Stihlin retains ¢nrety, and inserts 76 0’ 
d-yaBor (Schwartz) before éxzovety. 
4 7 Sylburg. 7 Mss. 
__® [6m] Stablin. ® 67 Stahlin. 5€ mss. 

a Deuteronomy som Le: > Isaiah i. 19, 20. 



your face,’ He says, “death and life.”* The Lord cnap. 
solicits you to choose life; He counsels you, as a 
father, to obey God. “For if ye hearken to Me,’ 

He says, “and are willing, ye shall eat the good of 

the land,’—the grace follows upon obedience. “ But 

if ye hearken not to Me, and are unwilling, a sword 

and fire shall devour you,’—the judgment follows 
upon disobedience. “For the mouth of the Lord 
hath spoken it;” ® and a word of the Lord is a law 

of truth. 

Would you have me become a good counsellor to An inborn 
you? Then do you hearken; and I, if it be possible, ee 
will show myself one. When reflecting upon the is good 
good itself, you ought, my fellow-men, to have 
zalled to your aid faith, implanted in man, which is 
a trustworthy witness from within ourselves, with 
the utmost clearness choosing what is best. You 
ought not to have toiled to discover whether or no No long 
the best is to be followed. Let me give you yetied 
an illustration: you ought to doubt whether it is 
right for a man to get drunk; but your practice is Men follow 
to get drunk before considering the question. Or ee 
in the case of riotous indulgence, you do not make ™ a 
careful examination, but indulge yourselves with all men 
speed. Only, it would seem, when godliness is in Only in the 
question, do you first inquire; and when it is a God de they 
question of following this wise God and the Christ, inamire 
this you think calls for deliberation and reflection, 
when you have no idea what it is that befits God. 

Put faith in us, even as you do in drunkenness, that 
you may become sober. Put faith in us, even as 
you do in riotous indulgence, that you may live. 
And if, after having contemplated this clear faith 
¢ Cp. Aristotle, Eth. Nicom. 1169 a 17 (p. 192 Bywater). 


~ ~ >? he / / a 
CAP. TWV apeTOv eTromTevaavtes t TLOTLY, hépe bytv €K 

Teptovaias THV TEpL TOD Adyou Tapafyaopar TeLOa. 
tpuets d€, o8 yap Ta TaTpLAa Buds ert Tis dAn Betas 
amacxonet €0n _MpokatTnXnpLEevovs, ducovour” av non 
TO pera TOUTO Omrws exet Kal O71) [L7} TLs Djuas TODSE 
TOO ovopaTos aiaxwn mpokatadrapBaverw, “77 
dvdpas pLeya olveTar, | TapaTpéTrovea cwrnpias. 
"Amodvaduevo. 6° otv Trepipav@s ev TO Tis 
aAnfeias aradiw yyotios aywrilapeba, BpaBev- 
OVvTOS pev TOD Adyou Tov aylov, aywvobeTobvtos dé 
Tov dSeomoTou THV ohww. ov yap _OpuKpov Hiv TO 
dOXrov abavacia TpOKelTaL. pa ovv ete dpovtilete 
unde [el]* dAlyov, Tt buds ayopevovar ovppakes 
TWES ayopaior, Sevovdayrovias abeou Xopevrat, avola 
Kal Tapavola és avro wOovpevor TO Bdpabpov, 
eldcdAwy Tountat Kat Aibwy mpooKkuryTal: olde yap 
avOputrous amoBeoby TeTOALHKAGL, TproKatBeKarov 
EES) TOV Maxedova avaypadovtes Beov, “ dv 
BaBvrwv nAeyEe VEKpOV. dyopuae Tolvuy TOV Xitov * 
cop.oTHy, Oeoxpitos ¢ ovopa avr @: ueTa THY ’Adcé- 
avopov TeAeuTHV ETLOKWTTWV O @edKpitos tas d0€as 
Tas Kevas TOV avOpwruv as elxov epi beady, Tpos 

\ , CGF ” > 
Ff 7s moAiras | avdpes, ELTTEV, “ Oappetre ax pis 

cv Opare TOUS Beovs TpOTEpov TOV avOpwtrwv a a7TO- 

l éromtrevoarvtes Potter. wromretcavres MSS. 
? [e¢] Kontos. 3 Xtov Cobet. eZov mss. 

« This seems to refer to the ‘* implanted faith ” mentioned 
at the beginning of this paragraph. It may, perhaps, refer 
only to the preceding sentence ; in which case we should 
translate, ‘this clear proof of the virtues,” i.e. the proof 
derived from studying the lives of Christians. 

>’ Homer, /liad xxiv. 45; Hesiod, Works and Days 318. 

¢ Sibylline Oracles v. 6. Alexander was called the 



in the virtues,* you desire to be obedient, come cuap. 
then, I will lay before you in abundance persuasive ,,* 
arguments concerning the Word. On your part abundant 
(for it is no longer the case that the ancestral (8,7 
customs, in which you have formerly been in- provided for 
structed, prevent you from attending to the truth), desis 16 
listen now, I pray you, to the nature of the words |e" 
that follow. Moreover, let no feeling of shame for 
the name of Christian deter you; for shame “does 
great hurt to men,’ ’ when it turns them aside from 
Having then stripped before the eyes of all, let The true 
ehh 8 . contest for 
us join in the real contest in the arena of truth, the prize of 
where the holy Word is umpire, and the Master immortality 
of the universe is president. For the prize set 
before us is no small one, immortality. Cease then 
to pay any further heed, even the slightest, to the 
speeches made to you by the rabble of the market- 
place, godless devotees of daemon-worship, men who ‘The folly 
are on the very verge of the pit through their folly and Shea 
insanity, makers of idols and worshippers of stones. pers, who 
For these are they who have dared to deify men, iceangee 
describing Alexander of Macedon as the thirteenth 4 804 
god, though “ Babylon proved him mortal.” © Hence 
I admire the Chian sage, Theocritus by name, who How ~ 
in ridicule of the vain opinions which men held about j7@¢ait"s 
gods, said to his fellow-citizens after the death of pure 
Alexander, “ Keep a cheerful heart, comrades, so 
long as you see gods dying before men.’ 4 But 
‘thirteenth god ” because his name was added to the twelve 
deities of Olympus, to whom Clement alludes on p. 53 of 
this volume. 
@ For this and other witty remarks attributed to Theocritus 
of Chios (quite a different person from the poet Theocritus) 
see Frag. hist. Graec. ii. p. 86. 
H 2 211 


CAP. OviaKxovras.”’ Oeods dé 517 Tods Spatovs Kal TOV 
avyKAvia TOV yevnTav ToUTwv oxAov 6 mpoaKUVaY 
Kal mpoceTarptlojevos, avTa@v eKelvenv TOV Say.o- 
voov abAudrepos paKp@. eos yap ovdapyn ovdauds 
aduKos waomep ot Satpoves, aA’ as oldv Te OuKauo - 
TATOS, Kal OVK EaTW aUT@ OpoLdTEpov ovdEV 7 Os 
av nuav yévytat ote SukardTatos. 
Bar’ eis dddv 57) 7as 6 yeip@va€ Acuds, 
ot tv Avs yopy@mw *Epyavnv+ beov 

A / 
OTATOLOL Aixvots mpootpereabe, 

] / ~ / U \ , 
¢ / ¢ ~ Ay ae / (4 / 
6 Dedias tudv cai 6 TloAvKAettos HKdvTwv Lpaki- 
, = We) z \¢ \ , 
téAns Te ad Kat “AmeAAfs Kai door Tas Bavavaous 
yap dyot Tes Tpopnreia SvoTuxycew TA THOE 
mpaywara, oray avOprdar TLOTEVTWOW. BKOVTOV 
ovv av&is, od yap avnow Karay, OL [LLKpOTexXVa. 
ovdels Tov ToUTw €umVvouv €iKova Sednpwovpynker, 
ovde pny ek yas parbarny eudhage odpka. Tis 
eTn£e pevedov n Tis emn&ev doT€a.; Tis vedpa du- 
érewev®; tis dA€Bas efvonoev; tis aiua evéxeev ev 
avtats 7 Tis Sépua meprerewev; mot 8 ay tis 
> ~ > \ z / / > 
attav odfaruodrs moujoa. BA€movras; tis ev- 
edvonoe wuyjv; tis diuKacocdvvynv edwpycato; Tis 
aBbavaciay bréoyyntar; povos 6 Tav CrAwy Syt- 
oupyos, 6 “ apiototéyvas maTHp, ToLodTov dyaAua 
” ¢ ~ 4 \ a @ ” r . 3 8 \ 
euvyov [yuds|* tov avOpwmov emAacev: o Se 
1 ’Epydvnv from Plutarch, De Fortuna 99a. épyamny Mss. 

2 mrpoorpérecbe Plutarch. mporpémecOe mss. 
3 Guérewev 7) Wilamowitz. 4 [judas] Mayor. 

« Cp. Plato, Theaetetus 176 B-c, 


indeed, as for gods that can be seen, and the motley 
multitude of these created things, the man who 
worships and consorts with them is far more wretched 
than the very daemons themselves. For God is in 
no way unrighteous as the daemons are, but righteous 
in the highest possible degree, and there is nothing 
more like Him than any one of us who becomes as 
righteous as possible.@ 

Go forth into the way, ye craftsmen all, 

Who supplicate, with winnowing fans aloft, 

The goddess Industry, stern child of Zeus,? 
—stupid fashioners and worshippers of stones! Let 
your Pheidias and Polycleitus come hither, Praxiteles 
too, and Apelles, and all the others who pursue the 
mechanical arts, mere earthly workers in earth. For 
a certain prophecy says that misfortune shall over- 
take this world of ours, on the day when men put 
their trust in statues.¢ Let them come then, I say 
again,—for I will not cease to call,—-puny artists that 
they are. Not one of them has ever fashioned a 
breathing image, or made tender flesh out of earth. 
Who gave its softness to the marrow? Who fixed 
the bones? Who stretched out the sinews? Who 
inflated the arteries? Who poured blood into them 
and drew the skin around? How could any of these 
men make eyes that see? Who breathed life into 
man? Who gave him the sense of right? Who 
has promised immortality? None but the Creator 
of the universe, the “ Father, the supreme artist,” 4 
formed such a living statue as man; but your 

» Sophocles, Frag. 760 Nauck. The goddess ‘ Industry,” 
whom the craftsmen worshipped in their processions, is 
Athena. See Plutarch, De Fortuna 99 a. 

¢ The source of this quotation is unknown. 

4 See Pindar, Frag. 57 Schroeder. 



A righteous 
man is the 
to God 

The crafts- 
mep’s work 
is paltry, 
when com- 
pared with 


fis) Le 


> rv / € ~ , , - / ra ~ >] 
Odvpmuos buav, eiKovos elkwv, TOAD TL THS aXn- 
fetas amddwyv, Epyov éoti kwhov yetipav “AttiKdv. 

f-) ~ ~ ~ 
“eikwmv '’ prev yap “Tob Geod”’ 6 Adyos adbrob (Kal 
cy ~ a ~ 
vlogs TOO vod yryjatos 0 Oetos Aoyos, dwTos apyeé- 

~ , \ \ w~ s Syae, | ¢ 1 

TUTTOV das), ElLKWY O€ TOU Adyou oO avlpw tos <O7 
>) / c ~~ € ’ 5 / € ¢¢ > > / ” 
aAnfivds, 6 vots 6 ev avOpamw, 6 “ Kat’ eikova 

~ ~ A , ~ ~ 
tov Geod Kat ““ kal’ Opotwow ” Sia TOUTO yeyevjobat 
Aeyomevos, TH KaTa Kapdtav dpovnce. 7TH Oeiw 
mraperkaldjrevos Aoyw Kal TAUTY Aoytxos. dvOpcsrov 
d€ TOU OpwpLevov TOU yayspods yuwos €ELKWV TO 

aydApata Ta avdpeikedAa < Kai>* méppw THs adnbeias 

emriKaupov exparyetov KaTapaiveTae. ovdev ovv 
aad’ 7) pravias epmAcus 6 6 Bios ed0€é jeow yeyovevat, 
TooaUTy O7T0Vv0} wept THY vAqy KATAYWOLEVOS.. 
’"EmitéOpamrar® dé bo Kevis ddEns 1) cvv7bera 
dovrcias pev yevoaca tuds Kal aAdyouv Tept- 
Epyacias: vopimwy dé avopwy Kat atatnA@v t7o- 
Kploewy ayvoa aitia, 7) 61) KaTacKevas eladyovca 
eis 4 70 THY avOpmmwv yévos Knpav bAcOpiwy Kat 
elowrAwy éemotuyav toAdas TOV Satpdvewv E7W07)- 
caca popdds, KynAida Tots Emopevois avTH ev- 
amtepagato Oavatov paxpod. AdfBete ovv vdwp 
Aoyikov, Aovoacbe of pepwodAvopéevor, TrEpippavaTe 
avTovs amo Ths ouvneias Tats aAnOwais oraydouw: 
Kalapovs eis ovpavods avaBfvat Set. avOpwros «i, 
1 <6>inserted by Mayor. 7? <xai>inserted by Wilamowitz. 
3 éritéOpamra: Mayor. émirérpimrac Mss. 

4 katackevas elcdyouoa eis Schwartz. karacKkevobeioa MSS. 
Stahlin marks the passage as corrupt. 

« A reminiscence of the Platonic theory of ideas, in which 
there are three stages of reality: first, the archetypal idea ; 
secondly, the object, which is a visible expression and a 



Olympian Zeus, an image of an image, far removed cHap. 
from the truth,“ is a dumb lifeless work of Attic * 
hands. For “the image of God” is His Word (and the image 
the divine Word, the light who is the archetype of 0! Solis 
light, is a genuine son of Mind ®); and an image o 

the Word is the true man, that is, the mind in man, The true 
who on this account is said to have been created “in M2), *2 
the image” of God, and “in His likeness,” ° because is an image 
through his understanding heart he is made like the °% *® ¥°" 
divine Word or Reason, and so reasonable. But 

statues in human form, being an earthen image of Statues are 
visible, earthborn man, and far away from the truth, ee 
plainly show themselves to be but a temporary im- body a 
pression upon matter. In my opinion, then, nothing ras 
else but madness has taken possession of life, when 

it spends itself with so much earnestness upon matter. 

Now custom, in having given you a taste of Ignorance 
slavery and of irrational attention to trifles, has been '5 '2° ,¢ 
fostered by idle opinion. But lawless rites and idolatrous 
deceptive ceremonies have for their cause ignorance ; gb 
for it is ignorance that brought to mankind the ap- 
paratus of fateful destruction and detestable idolatry, 
when it devised many forms for the daemons, and 
stamped the mark of a lasting death upon those 
who followed its guidance. Receive then the water 
of reason. Be washed, ye that are defiled. Sprinkle 
yourselves from the stain of custom by the drops 
that truly cleanse. We must be pure to ascend to 
heaven. In common with others, thou art a man; 
seek after Him who created thee. In thine own 

particular instance of the idea; thirdly, the picture, which 
is but a representation of the object, nothing more than the 
image of an image, three stages removed from reality. 

> 4.¢. the Father. Cp. v. Strom. 8, 7. ¢ Genesis i. 26. 



> / \ 
GAP. ULOs El, TO (dLaiTaToOV, avayvespiaov TOV TaTépa: ad 
cal c / / 
X 8é €rt Tals apaptiais mapapevers, mpooreTyKWS 

80 P 

¢ a L / / ree wn . ¢ 
noovats; tive AadAjoer KUpLos vp@v eotw 7 
~ ~ ~ rs .,A\ 

Baotrela TOv odpavav’’; tu@dv eotw, eav JeAjonte, 
~ / > ~ 
TOV pos TOV Beov TIV TpOaipecw EayyNKOTWY BUOv, 

~ A a nw 
€av eOedijonre muoTedoat Lovov Kal TH GvVTOMIa TOb 
*e / ¢€ a 
Knpvypatos emec0ar, Hs UraKovoavtes ot Nuwevirar 
~ ¢€ / / 
Ths mpocdokynletons aAwoews pEeTavola yvyoiw TV 
Kadny avtiukatnAAdgavto owrnpiay. 
~ S > / cf ¢ / ” 
Ilds ody avéAdw, dnoww, els ovpavous ; 000s 
€or O KUPLOS, za orev) pev, ann’ * “é& otpavar,”’ 
orev) per, aA’ ets odpavovs dvamepmrouca.” OTEV?) 
emi ys Umepopwpévn, TAaTeta ev otpavois mpoc- 
Kuvoupevn. €i0’ 6 ev amrvaTos Tob Adyou ovyyvwipnv 
~ / ” \ yy € A ’ > , 
Ths mAavns Exel THY ayvowayv, oO de Eis WTa BadAdpevos 
nw ~ ~ A 
Kal TH puyh mapa THs yuupns déper THY a7reiBevav, 
Ss — 
Kal ow ye Ppovywwrepos Etvar dd6£et, mpos KaKOD 7 
avveots atT@, OTL TH Ppovycer KEXPNTAL KaTNYyOpw 
TO 3 BéArworov | ovx eAdprevos: mépuke yap ws dvOpw- 
Tos olKelws exew pos Oedv. womrep obv TOV UmToV 
apotv ov Pialoueba otd€ Tov Tabdpov KuvnyeTeir, 
mpos 6 médhuke S€ ExaoTov THY Cawv mrepLeAKomer, 
ovTws apéAer Kal Tov avOpwrov emt TV odpavod 
/ 0 4 A >) / ¢ iA A ~ > \ A 
yevopuevov Oéav, dutov odpaviov ws adnbas, emt THv 
yvaow TapaKkadodpev tov Geot, TO olKetov avTrob 
A > , A > A \ A »” ~ 
Kal e€aipetov Kal iduwpatikov Tapa Ta dAda Coa 
KaTelAnupevor, avtapKes eddd.ov aiwvwv, Oeocé- 

1 @s Schwartz. dddws mss. 

St. Matthew v. 3, 10; St. Luke vi. 20. 

Compare p. 172, n. d. 

Jonah iii. 5, 10. @ St. John xiv. 6. 
St. Matthew vii. 13, 14; St. John iii. 13, 31. 


self thou art a son; recognize thy Father. But cHap. 
thou, dost thou still abide by thy sins, engrossed in 4.7 ona His 
pleasures? To whom shall the Lord say, “ Yours kingdom 
is the kingdom of heaven?” It is yours, if you 7e ous” 
wish, for it belongs to those who have their wil! 
set upon God. It is yours, if you are willing simply 
to trust and to follow the short way of our preach- 
ing. This it is which the Ninevites obediently 
heard; and by sincere repentance they received, in 
place of the threatened destruction, that glorious 

“ How then,’ you may say, “am I to go up into 
heaven?” The Lord is “the Way’ 4; a “narrow” The Lord is 
way, but coming “from heaven”; a “narrow” way, ‘? Way” 
but leading back to heaven.¢ It is narrow, being 
despised upon earth; and yet broad, being adored 
in heaven. Accordingly he who has never heard 
the Word can plead ignorance as an excuse for his Ignorance 
error; whereas he whose ears ring with the message ou}y for him 
deliberately nurses his disobedience in the soul who has 
itself; and, the wiser he may seem to be, his "°°" 
intelligence ever proves a source of evil, because 
he finds wisdom an accuser, once he has failed to 
choose what is best. For it is his nature, as man, 
to be in close fellowship with God. As, then, we Manis 
do not force the horse to plough, nor the bull to g24¢% 
hunt, but lead each animal to its natural work ; 
for the very same reason we call upon man, who 
was made for the contemplation of heaven, and is 
in truth a heavenly plant, to come to the know- 
ledge of God. Having laid hold of what is personal, 
special and peculiar in his nature, that wherein he 
surpasses the other animals, we counsel him to equip 
himself with godliness, as a sufficient provision for 



car. Peay, mapacKevdleabar avj.Bovdevovres. yEewpyet, 
ey a 
paev, et yewpyos ef, aAAA yrOO Tov Oedv yewp- 
yov, Kat mAh 6 THs vavTiAlas ep@v, adda Tov 
ovpdviov KuPepyitny mapaxad@v: ortparevdpevov 
ce Katethyngev 7) yv@ous: Tod Sikava onpaivoytos 

/ 508 / \ / / > 
Kaéarep otv kdépw Kat wéby BeBapynuévor dava- 
sal, \ 8 r a >\ 7 > Aa) , 

vypate Kat dvaPrépavtes oXrtyov evvoyOyre, TI 
~ \ 
Jedovow tyiv ot mpooxvvotpevor ABor Kal & rept 
TV vAnv Kevoorovdws SaTavate: els dyvovay Kal 
Ta XpHuaTa Kal Tov Blov ws To CHv tydv eis 
avatov KatavaXioKkete, TodTO pdvov THs pmaratas 
2 lis 
~ > / < / \ / > \ e \ / 
tudv €Amidos edpopevor 76 épas, oddé adtods ofol 
a > A ~ ~ 
~ / > 7. / / / 
Ths TAavns emit Servo. welMccbar yiveobe, cvvybela 
Kakh Sedovdwevor, As amnptnuévor avfaiperou 
bEeXpt THs e€axaTns dvamvofs eis amwAevav tro- 
/ A \ ~ > / > \ / \ 
depeade “ dtu to hads eAjArvOeEV eis TOV KdcpoV Kat 
~ 7 \ 
nyamnaav of avipwrot paddov 76 oKdtos 7) TO 
POs, eSov amoudtacba ta euToSav 7H cwTypia 
Kat Tov TOdov Kat Tov mAODTOV Kal TOV dofov, 
emipbeyyomevous TO TountiKov 81) TobTo 
PoRTSN , Ure , AAA \ BIN 
7H) ON Xpywara moAAa hépw Tade; mH SE Kal adros 
> / <a \ / / \ \ 
ov fovdAcobe odv tas davracias ravras Tas KEVaS 
amopptubavres TH ouvnlela adtH amotdéacbar, Kevo- 
do€ia éemAéyovtes: 
A ” / > QA SB DMP 
yevdets Overpou yalper’, ovdev HT apa; 

1 whet. Sylburg. 7X0 Mss. 

@ St. John iii, 19. > Homer, Odyssey xiii. 203-4, 


his journey through eternity. Till the ground, we CHE. 

say, if you are a husbandman; but recognize God 
in your husbandry. Sail the sea, you who love 
sea-faring ; but ever call upon the heavenly pilot. 
Were you a soldier on campaign when the knowledge 
of God laid hold of you? Then listen to the com- 
mander who signals righteousness. 

Ye men that are weighed down as with torpor 
and drink, awake to soberness. Look about you and 
consider a little what is the meaning of your worship 
of stones, and of all that you squander with useless 
zeal upon mere matter. You are wasting both 
money and livelihood upon ignorance, just as you 
are wasting your very life upon death. For nothing 
but death have you gained as the end of your vain 
hope. You cannot pity yourselves,— nay, you are 
not even in a fit state to be persuaded by those who 
have compassion upon you for your error. Enslaved 
to pernicious custom, you cling to it of your own 
free will until the latest breath, and sink down 
into destruction. “For the light has come into 
the world, and men loved the darkness rather than 
the light,’* though they might sweep away the 
hindrances to salvation, absurd folly and riches and 
fear, by repeating this verse of the poet: 

Whither this wealth do I bear; my journey, where doth it 
lead me ?? 

Do you not then wish to fling away these vain 
fancies, and bid good-bye to custom itself, saying 
these last words to vain opinion >— 

Farewell, deceitful dreams ; for ye were nought.¢ 

© Kuripides, Iphigeneia among the Taurians 569. 


Money and 
life are 
wasted on 


81 P. 


Ti yap jyetabe, @ aviparot, TOV Tvywva* | 
Epphy kal Tov “Avdoxidov” Kat Tov “Apoyrov ; 7 
mavTl TW dfAov 6 ore AiBous, wamep Kal < avrov >8 tov 
‘“Epujv. ws d€ odK €oTt Oeds 7) GAws Kal ws ovK 
EoTe Jeos 1 ipts, aAAa 7d On aépos* Kat vepav, Kal 
év TpoTrov ovK corw TpEpa feds, ode pry ovde 
eviauTos ovde ypdvos 6 é€k ToOUTWY oupTrAnpou- 
pevos, ovTws ode HALos ovdE oehqvn, ots EKAOTOV 
TOV Tpoeipn Levey Suopilerar. Tis av ouv THY 
evOuvav Kat THY KoAaoW Kal THY Siknv Kal THY 
vepweow ev ppovav brrohdBou Jeovs ; ovde yap 
od Eepivis odd€ protpar ovdE Etappevn, emrel pnde 
moditeia punde OdEa punde mobros Geol, ov Kal 
Cwypadoe tuddrov éemdeckviovow: et d€ atd@ Kal 
Epwra Kat adpoditnv éexberalete, axoAovbovvtwv 
avtois aicyvvn Kat opi) Kal KaAXos Kal ovvovaia. 
ovKouv €T av etkdtTws Umvos Kal Odvatos bea 
Sidupdove map tyutv vopilowro, ma0y TadtTa wept 
Ta CHa oupBatvovra pvoikds: ovoe py KT pa 
ovde etpapprevny ovoe joipas Deas évdikws épeire. 
el O€ Epis Kal ayy ov Oeot, odde "“Apys ovde 
‘Evue. ETL TE <ei>® at dorparrat Kal ob KEpavvol 
Kat ot ouPpor od Geol, THs TO Top Kal TO Bdwp 

1 Tvxwva Meurs (see Hesychius s.v.). tuddva mss. 
2 ’Avdoxidov Heinsius. dyvdoxidny mss. 

3 <avréy> inserted by Mayor. 
4 dépos Markland. dépwy mss. ° <e’> inserted by Sylburg. 

« The Hermes was a stone pillar ending in a bust, which 
was set up in fields and roads as a landmark, and also before 
the doors of Athenian houses. An essential part of the 
figure was a phallus, which points to Hermes being originally 
a fertility god. He was, therefore, easily identified with 
Tycho, an Attic nature divinity of similar character to 



Why, my fellow-men, do you believe in Hermes cuap. 
Tycho and in the Hermes of Andocides and the one ,, * a. 
called Amyetus?* Surely it is plain to everyone plainly 
that they are stones, just as Hermes himself. And 2othing but 
as the halo is not a god, nor the rainbow either, 
but conditions of the atmosphere and clouds; and 
precisely as day is not a god, nor month, nor year, 
nor time which is made up of these; so also neither 
is the sun or moon, by which each of the before- 
mentioned periods is marked off. Who then in his 
right mind would imagine such things as audit, pun- 
ishment, right and retribution to be gods? No, nor 
even the Avengers, nor the Fates, nor destiny are 
gods; for neither is the State, nor glory, nor wealth, 
the last of which painters represent as blind. If 
you deify modesty, desire and love, you must add to The _ 
them shame, impulse, beauty and sexual intercourse. ae auieee 
No longer, then, can sleep and death be reasonably passions and 
held among you to be twin gods, since these are *°°¥" 
conditions which naturally affect all animals; nor 
indeed will you rightly say that doom, destiny, or 
the Fates are goddesses. And if strife and battle 
are not gods, neither are Ares and Enyo. Further, 
if flashes of lightning, thunderbolts and showers of 
rain are not gods, how can fire and water be such? 

Priapus (Diodorus iv. 6; Strabo 588). For the identification 
see Hesychius s.v., and A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. pp. 175-6. In 
415 B.c., Just before the sailing of the expedition to Sicily, 
all the Hermae in Athens were mutilated except one, which 
stood in front of the house of Andocides and was called the 
‘““Hermes of Andocides” (Plutarch, Nicias xiii.). The 
account of the excitement caused by this outrage, and the 
accusation made against Andocides, is found in Thucydides 
vi. 27, and in Andocides, On the Mysteries. The Hermes 

Amyetus was, according to Hesychius, on the Acropolis at 



CAP. Geol; mas be Kal ot Oudaoovres Kal ot Koparat 


82 P. 

dua 7aB0s aépos yeyevnpévor; 6 de THY esl deov 
Aéyov Kal Ty mpagw dAeyérw Geov. i on) oy 
TOUTWY ovoe eV Deds elvar vopilerat “oBBE pen 
exelvwv TOV XELpoKpeTTov Kal avatobntwv tAacha- 
TWV, Tpovola O€ TLS TEPL HUGS Karagaiverat duva- 
pews Deixfs, Actrrerat ovdev aro 7 7] TOUTO opodoyet iv, 
or dpa ovTws pLovos €oTe TE Kal UPeoTHKEV O [LOVOS 
OVTWS bard pKov eds. 

“AMa yap jeavdpayopav 7 TL ado dappakov 
meTwkKoow avOpu7rois € coikare ot avonrot, feos be 
opiy avavyyat doin OTE Tobe Tob UmVvoU Kat 
cuvievar Oedv pde Xpucov 7 AiWov 7 dSévdpov 7) 
mpagw 7 mabos 7 vooov 7) poBov ivodAAecbat as 
fedv. “‘tpis yap pvpvoi etow”’ ws adn Bas ert 
yOovt movdvBoteipy Saipoves’’ otk “‘ abdvatou”’ 
ovde pny Ovytol (obdé yap aicbjcews, Wa Kal 
Oavarov, petetAndaow), AiMwor dé Kat EvAwou Se- 
on7otat avOpwrwvr, OBpilovres Kat mapacmovdodvTeEs 
tov Biov dua Tips | cuvvynfetas. “4 Pa de TOD Kuptov, 
yo, “Kat TO Aj papa avrhs: eita Tt ToALGS 
ev Tots TOU Kuplov Tpupav ayvoety Tov SeomoTny ; 
KaTdAewte THY yhv THY Eunv, epet ao o KUpLos, py) 
Ocyns Tob voaTos O eyo avadlowpl, TOV KapT@v 
av eyw yewpy@ Ley) peta\duBave: a7r00os, av 
Gpwme, Ta Tpopeta. TO Deg eiyven0t cou TOV 
Scondryv: iSwov ef tAdopa Tob Geod- TO O€ olketov 
avTod mas av evdikws adAdtpiov yévoiTo; TO yap 

1 €oixare of Schwartz. éoikac.y Mss. 

* Hesiod : quoted above, p. 89. 


How, too, can shooting stars and comets, which come CHAP. 
about owing to some condition of the ‘atmosphere : P 

Let him who calls fortune a god, call action a god 

also. If then we do not believe even one of these 

to be a god, nor yet one of those figures made by 

hand and devoid of feeling, but there is manifest we must 
round about us a certain providence of divine power, ep confess 
then nothing remains save to confess that, after all, is but one 
the sole truly existing God is the only one who "°° 
really is and subsists. 

But verily, you who do not understand are like They who 
men that have drunk of mandrake or some other MK 
drug. God grant that one day you may recover from are in some 
this slumber and perceive God, and that neither gold °°? **P 
nor stone nor tree nor action nor suffering nor disease 
nor fear may appear to you as God. For it is quite Daemons 
true that “there are thrice ten thousand daemons 27° °C 
upon all-nourishing earth,’ but they are not “im- 
mortal” as the poet says.“ No, nor yet mortal,— 
for they do not partake of feeling, and therefore 
cannot partake of death,—but they are stone and They are 
wooden masters of mankind, who insult and violate shai 
human life through custom. It is written, “The lifeless 
earth is the Lord’s, and the fulness thereof.” Then **°"% 
how do you dare, while enjoying the delights of the 
Lord’s possessions, to ignore their Master? Leave 
My earth, the Lord will say to you; touch not the 
water I send forth; partake not of the fruits My 
husbandry produces. Give back, O man, to God the 
recompense for your nurture. Acknowledge your raat ie 
Master. You are God’s own handiwork ; and how God; how 
could that which is His peculiar possession rightly ¥2> he 

i 4 become 
become another's? For that which is alienated, another's? 

’ Psalm xxiv. 1. 


> ~ 
~ 3 > * 
Ta THs aAnbelas. % yap ody 7 NidBy tpdzov tia, 
paArov S€ iva pvaotiKwtepov mpos buds aropbéy- 
\ ~ € / / \ > / 
Ewpar, yuvarkos THs ‘EBpatas diknvy (Aw éxadovv 
adriv of madaol) ets avatcOnoiav petatperedbe ; 
AAOwpéerny ravryv mapedjndapev THY yuvaika Ova 
\ / 2 A a \ ¢€ A \ ¢€ 
TO Loddpwv épav: Vodopirar S€ ot aBeou Kat ot 
\ \ > / ? / / / 
mpos tiv acéBerav emotpeddopevor oxAnpoKdpo.ot 
\ ’ / / ” / > / / 
te Kal AB. tavTas olov Oedbev émdr€yeobat 
» < 
go. tas dwvds: pi) yap olov Aidovs pev evar 
¢ \ \ / \ A \ yy > 7 
fepa Kat EvAa Kal dpvea Kal odders, avOpwmous 
Sé py odd 8€ todvavtiov tepols pev dvTws 
aN b) a / e A / 1 \ Py A a / \ \ 
tovs avOpwmrous broAauBave,* Ta dé Bnpia Kat Tous 
Nibous Sep ciciv. ot yap Tou SetAaror TOV avOpw- 
mwv Kat d0Avr Sia pev Kopakos Kat KodAo.od 
/ \ \ > ~ \ te) / a 
vouiCovar Tov Gedv euBoay, dia dé avOparrov oww7av, 
Kal TOV ev KépaKa TeTYLNKAGW Ws ayyedov Geod, 
tov S¢ dvOpwrov 70d Feod dudKovow, od Kpw@lovTa, 
> / / / ” . ~ \ 
od KAdlovra, Pbeyyopevov S€- otpor, AoyuK@s Kat 
piravOpammws Katnyotvta amoodarrew arravOpw- 
Tus emyelpotow, emt THY SiKaocvvnY KaAdobvTa, 
bY \ 
odte Tv xapw TH dvwhevy arexdexdpevor OvTE THY 
Kodaow extpeTopevor. od yap TmuaTevovar TH Dew 
ovdé expavldvovar THY SvvapLl avTod. 
e A e / / > / 
OS dé dppyros 7 diAavOpwria, TovTOV axwpyTos 
4) pucomovnpia. tpéper dé 6 pev Bupos THY KoAaow 
emt djapria, €6 move? O¢ emt petavoia 7 piravOpwmia. 
oikrpotatov d€ TO atepecbar Tijs mapa Tov beob 
= at 
€mikouplas. OppdT@v ev odv 7 Tpwots Kal TIS 


1 JrokduBave Markland. wdaodauBavere Mss. 

« Genesis xix. 26. > Or, an angel. 


being deprived of its connexion with Him, is deprived cHap. 
of the truth. Are you not turned into a state of y.* |... 
insensibility after the manner of Niobe, or rather— worship 

to address you in more mystical language—like the Serie tke 

Hebrew woman whom the ancient people called stones 

Lot’s wife? This woman, tradition tells us, was 

turned into stone on account of her love of Sodom ; # 

and by Sodomites we understand the atheists and 

those who are devoted to impiety, who are both hard 

of heart and without sense. Believe that these 

utterances are being spoken to you from heaven. 

Do not believe that stones and stocks and birds 

and snakes are sacred things, while men are not. 

Far rather regard men as really sacred, and take he reany 

beasts and stones for what they are. For indeed sacred 
ne gs 

the timid and wretched among men believe that are men 

God cries out through a raven or a jackdaw, but 

is silent through man; and they have given honour 

to the raven as a messenger? of God, while they Goa’s 

persecute the man of God, who neither caws, nor (.° 

croaks, but speaks. Yes, alas! they set to work through 

with inhuman hatred to slaughter him when he acts 

instructs them with reason and human love, and Pi4s 

calls them to righteousness, while they neither look 

for the grace that comes from above, nor do they 

seek to avoid the punishment. For they do not trust 

in God, nor do they fully understand His power. 

But He whose love for man is unspeakably great, God hates 

has also an unbounded hatred for sin. His wrath Sin,and 
; punis 

breeds the punishment to follow upon sin; on the it 

other hand, His love for man brings blessings upon 

repentance. It is a most pitiable thing to be deprived 

of the help that comes from God. Now the blinding 

of the eyes and deafening of the ears are more 



oe dicons n Kapwots dAyeworépa Tapa, Tas Aowras 

83 P. 

Too mrovnpob mAcovetias* 7 pev yap avTav adypnrat 
THs ovpaviou Tpooopews, 7 be THs Betas pabicews 
eoTépyntar. vets dé mpos THY GARnOevav avarnpot 
Kat tuddAot pev tov vobdv, Kwhot dé Thy avveow 
ovtes ovK GAyetre, OUK ayavaKTEtTE, OV TOV Ovpavov 
idetv Kal TOV TOO ovpavod TroLnTiHV | émeOvEHoaTe, 
ovdé TOV TOV TavTwv SyLOVpyov Kal TaTépa 
akotca. Kal pabeivy e€elntioate, THY Tpoaipeow 
TH owTypia ovvdaavtes: eutodwv yap ltoTratae 
ovoev TH omevOovTe TpPOs yv@ow eo’, ovK amat- 
devoia,! od mevia, ovK adotia, obK aKTnLoavVn: 
ovd€e Tis THY OvTWs aAnO7 codiav “ yaAK@ dywoas”’ 
petadAAdgar evyeTar oddE aLd7}pw" €b yap ToL TAVTOS 
uaAAov TobTO ElpynTar* 

6 xpynoros €OTL TAVTAXOU OWTNpLos* 

¢ \ ~ / / ¢ nN ~ > ~ 
6 yap Tod dikalov CyrAwTis, ws av Tob avevdeobs 
> / b] 7 > > a” A a“ > b} ~ 
eépastys, dAvyoders, odK ev dAAw TWi 7) ev atTa 
ie ~ a / : 
[eat ] 37@ Oed 70 poaKdpeov noaupioas, evOa ov avs, 
ov Anoris; ov TEtpaThs, GAN’ 6 Tav ayabav ald.os 
Oorip. dpa oty elkOTWs wpotwabe Tots opeow 
exelvols, ols TA WTA TpPOS TOUS KaTemq0ovTas a a7rO - 
\ A 
KékAcvorac. “ @uos yap avrtots,’’ dnoiv n ypady, 
“ KaTa THY opoiwow Tod opews, Woel daamidos 
Kwdhs Kat Bvovons Ta WTa adrhs, 7Tis ovK €lo- 
1 @mradevoia Hopfenmiiller. dzadia mss. 

2 xpnorés Blass (from Stobaeus, Flor. 37. 6). xpiords Mss. 
3 [kat] Barnard. év abr@ «at Dindorf. 

«@ Homer, Jliad viii. 534. The phrase, well known, no 
doubt, to Clement’s first readers, is used metaphorically. 
Cp. the ‘‘sword of the Split ” in Ephesians vi. 17. The 



grievous than all the other encroachments of the cuap. 

evil one; for by the first of these we are robbed of 

the sight of heaven, and by the second we are 
deprived of the divine teaching. But you, though 
maimed in respect of the truth, darkened in mind 
and deaf in understanding, still are not grieved, are 
not pained, have felt no longing to see heaven and 
its maker, nor have you sought diligently to hear 
and to know the Creator and Father of the universe, 
by fixing your choice on salvation. For nothing 
stands in the way of him who earnestly desires to 
come to the knowledge of God, not want of instruc- 
tion, not penury, not obscurity, not poverty. And 
when a man has “conquered by brass,” “ or by iron 
either, the really true wisdom, he does not seek to 
change it. Indeed no finer word has ever been said 
than this: 

In every act the good man seeks to save.? 

For he who is zealous for the right, as one would 
expect from a lover of Him who is in need of nothing, 
is himself in need of but little, because he has stored 
up his blessedness with none other than God Himself, 
where is no moth, no robber, no pirate,° but only 

To be blind 
and deaf to 
truth is the 
worst of 
all evils 

The way to 
God is open 
to all 

the eternal giver of good things. With good reason, But some 

therefore, have you been likened to those serpents 
whose ears are closed to the enchanters. “ For their 

are like 
deaf adders, 

who listen 

. : ° ono 
heart,” the Scripture says, “is after the likeness of persuasion 

the serpent, even like an adder that is deaf and 
stoppeth her ears, who will not give heed to the 

earthly warrior is ever bent on fresh conquests and spoils: 
the spiritual warrior finds ‘‘ the true wisdom” a sufficient 
prize, and seeks to save others rather than to destroy. 
> Menander, Frag. 786 Kock, Comic. Att. Frag. iii. p. 217. 
° See St. Matthew vi. 19, 20. 



84 P. 


AKOUVGETAL puvis emadovtwy.’ GaAd’ dtpets ve 
katemaabnre TV dypidrnta? Kat mapadegacbe TOV 
NLEpOv Kal nLeTEpOV Adyov Kal Tov lov dmomru- 
care TOV _SnAntapiov, omws OTe pdAdvoTa vpiv THY 
plopay, Ws éKeivols TO Yipas, ¢ atroévoacbat S067. 
‘Axovoaré pov Kal p71) TO ara damoBvanre pinde 
Tas akoas amoppagyre, aA eis vobv Bddeobe Ta 
Acyopeva. kahov € €oTt TO dappakov Ths abavacias: 
oTnGaTE TOTE Tovs 6AKovs TovVs EpmyaTikoUs. “‘ ob 
yap €x8pot Kuptou xobv_ Acifovor, ”  dnaiv [7 ypady 
Aéyer| * dvavevoare Ths yhs eis aidépa, avaPrébare 
els ovpavor, Oovpdcare, mavoacbe KapadoKoovTES 
Tov Sikaiwy THY wWTépvav Kal “Thy OdoV Tis 
aAnbeias”’ éurrodilovtes: Ppoviior yéveo0e Kat 
aBAaBets: TaX0L jTov 0 KUptos amhorntos div 
SwpnceTa TTEpOV (1rrep@oar mporjpyntat Tovs ynyE- 
veis ), iva 57) Tovs XnpapLovs KataAeimovTes olKnonre 
TOUS ovpavous. povov e€ oAns Kapdias jeravor- 
ower, ws oAn Kapdig Suv Oijvae Xwpijoae TOV Deov. 
“ eAmioare em avrov, oqct, “doa ovvaywy? 
Aaod, EKXEETE eveoTrLov avToo maoas Tas Kapolas 
Dua. Tpos TOUS KEvovs Tijs movnpias A€yeu" énect 
Kal Sucaroovy7s mAnpot | aiorevoor, avOpwrre, av- 
Opa Kal Je: miotevoov, avOpwre, TO mabovre 
Kal Tpookvvoupevey. beQ Cave morevoaTe ot 
Sod)or TO vEeKp@- mdvres dvOpwror TuoTEvoaTE 
pLovw T@ TavTwv avOpurrav bed: moTEvOaTE Kal 
ycbov AdBete owrnpiav: “ exinticare Tov bedy, 

1 dypiornta Heyse. ayidrnTa Mss. 
2 [n ypagdh Aéyer] Mayor. 

a Psalm lviii. 4, 5. 6 Psalm lIxxii. 9. 


voice of charmers.’’* But as for you, let your wild- cHap. 
ness be charmed away, and receive the gentle Word * 
we preach, and spit out the deadly poison, in order 

that as fully as possible it may be given you to cast 

off corruption, as serpents cast their old skin. 

Listen to me, and do not stop up your ears or shut Cease to. 
off your hearing, but consider my words. Splendid ae 
is the medicine of immortality ; stay at length your 
serpent-like windings. For it is written: “the 
enemies of the Lord shall lick the dust.” ® Lift up 
your head from earth to the sky, look up to heaven 
and wonder, cease watching for the heel ° of the just 
and hindering “the way of truth.’@ Become wise 
and yet harmless;¢ perchance the Lord will grant 
you wings of simplicity (for it is His purpose to 
supply earth-born creatures with wings)’ in order 
that, forsaking the holes of the earth, you may dwell 
in the heavens. Only let us repent with our whole 
heart, that with our whole heart we may be able to 
receive God. “ Hope in Him,” the Scripture says, 

“all ye congregations of people; pour out all your 
hearts before Him.”2 He speaks to those who Become 
are empty of wickedness; He pities them and fills °™*y,°t 


them with righteousness. Trust, O man, in Him and be. 
. - : filled with 
who is man and God; trust, O man, in Him who righteous. 

suffered and is adored. ‘Trust, ye slaves, in the living "5s 

God who was dead. Trust, all men, in Him who 

alone is God of all men. ‘Trust, and take salvation Life is the 
for reward. “Seek after God, and your soul shall Re oe 

¢ Genesis iii. 15: Psalm lv. 7 (Septuagint). 
@ 2 St. Peter ii. 2. 
e¢ See St. Matthew x. 16. 
? See Plato, Phaedrus 248 c, and elsewhere, 
9 Psalm lxii. 8. 



CAP. Kal Cyoerar 7» ux? tudv.” O exlnT@v TOV Beov 
THY iotav ToAuTpaylWwovet owTnpiav: et pes Tov Geov, 
eels TV Cony. CnTjowpev ovr, iva Kat Criowperv. 
6 puolos Tis ebpecews Cw) Tapa. Dea. i“ ayan- 
Ndacbwoav Kat edppavOnrwoay emt gol TAVTES Ob 
Cyrobvres GE Kat Acyérwoav dua TavtTds, weyaduv- 
Ontw 6 Oeds.”’ Kados tvyvos Tob Geot aGavatos 
diofpconos, Sucaoovvy) olKodopovjievos, ev @ TA 
Adya Tis aAnfetas eyKeyapakTat. moo yap ad- 
Aaxobe 7 uy) ev awdpovr tbuyh Sucaroavyny € EY YPATrTEOV ; 
mod ayaa 5 aida d€ mod; mpadtyTa Sé 70d; 
TavTas, oleae, Tas Geias iaees evaTrooppaytoape- 
VOUS Xp) TH pox KaAov adeTiprov oopiav jyetobae 
Tots ep coc Tob Biov Tpametot [Lépos, Opov 
TE THY adr + arcdpove curnpias codpiav voile: 
dv iv dyabol péev matépes Téxvwv of TH Tratpt 

mpoadedpajinKoTEs, ayabot d€ yovetow viol? of 
TOV ULOV VEVONKOTES, ayafot dé avdpes yuvarKk@v 
ol jeep Levor Tob vupdiov, ayalot dé oikeTav 
EOTTOTAL OL Tijs eoxaTns dovAcias Achutpwpevor. 

"Q. pakapiitepa tris ev avOpwmos mAavns 7a 
Onpia- eTTLVE LET AL THY ayvouay, os dpets, ovx 
bmoKkpiverar de Ty aAjnGevav: odK €oTt Tap advTois 
KoAdkwv yévn, od Serovdayrovotow tybves, ovK 
e(dwAoAatpet TA Gpvea, Eva povov eKTAnTTETAL TOV 
ovpavor, emet Oedv vojoa py Svvatar amnfuwpeva 
tod Adyov. er’ odK aicydvecbe Kat TOV adAdywv 
odds avtods ddoywrépous TemoinKdTes, Ot da TO- 
covTwy HALKL@V ev aBbedtyTL KaTaTEeTpLple; Traides 

1 tiv airyy Mayor. ov adrov Mss. 
2 yovetow viol Potter. -yovets vidowv MSS. 

4 Psalm lxix. 32. 6 Psalm Ixx. iv. 


live.’* He who seeks after God is busy about his crap. 
own salvation. Have you found God? you have * 
life. Let us seek then, that we may also live. 

The reward of finding is life with God. “Let all 

who seek Thee be joyful and glad in Thee, and let 

them say always, God be exalted.”® A _ beautiful rhe best 
hymn to God is an immortal man who is being built hymn to God 
up in righteousness, and upon whom the oracles of who has 
truth have been engraved. For where else but in a Vth 
temperate soul should righteousness be inscribed ? or 

love, or modesty, or gentleness? We ought, I think, 

by having these divine writings stamped deeply into 

the soul, to regard wisdom as a noble starting-point, 

to whatever lot in life men turn, and to believe that 

the same wisdom is a calm haven of salvation. For pivine 

it is because of wisdom that they whose course has Gna 

led them to the Father are good fathers of their faithfully 
children; that they who have come to know the Ante 
Son are good sons to their parents; that they who 

have been mindful of the Bridegroom are good 
husbands of their wives; that they who have been 
ransomed from the deepest slavery are good masters 

of their servants. 

Surely the beasts are happier than men who live Beasts are 
in error! They dwell in ignorance, like you, but ue eeEee 
they do not falsely pretend to truth. Among them idolaters 
are no tribes of flatterers. Fishes do not fear 
daemons; birds do not worship idols. One heaven 
alone they marvel at, since God they cannot come 
to know, having been deemed unworthy of reason. 

When you think of this, are you not ashamed to 
have made yourselves less reasonable than even 
the creatures without reason, you who have wasted 
so many stages of life in atheism? You have 



85 P. 


yeyovate, elra peipakia, elra epyBou, elra avdpes, 
xpnarot S€é oddémote. Kav TO yhpas aidéoOnTe, emt 
Svapais tod Biov yevopevor owhpovicate, Kav emt 
téXeu Tod Biov Tov Oeov emiyvwte, ws 8 TO TEAOS 
div Tob Biov apyiyv dvaAdBou cwrypias. ynpdoare* 
mpos Sevardayoviay, véor adixeobe mrpos Feoo€Bevav: 
maidas akdKous eyepwel Deeds. 6 pev odv “AOnvaios 
tois LdAwvos éréabw vopois Kat 6 “Apyetos tots 
Dopwrvéws Kal 6 Lmapridtyns tots AuKovpyou, €t 
Sé ceavTov avaypdders TOO Deo’, odpavos | ev cot 
 matpis, 6 S€ eds vouoberns. tives 5é Kal ob 
voor; “od dovetaes, od potyevcets, od matdo- 
Ab0opices, od KrKfers, od pevdopapTupHcets, aya- 
mice KUpLov TOV Dedv Gov.” etal dé Kal TOUTwWY 
Ta TapaTAnpwpara, Adyror vopoe Kal yor Adyor ev 
atbtais éyypaddpevor tats Kapdias: “‘ ayamyoets 
Tov mAnoiov gov ws aeavTov,” Kal “7 TUrTOVTL 
Ge eis THY olayova mapexe Kal THY GAAnY,” Kal 
“odx embuuroets, emOvpia yap LoVvn wewolxevKas.” 
mdaw yoov dpewov tots avOpwmois Too TUyxavew 
Tav émOupudv apynv pndé éemiOvpety ebéhew av 
pun) Set. 

"AAN’ ders pev TO adoTynpov THs GwTypias v70- 
eve od Kaptepeite, Kabamep d€ THY attiwy Tots 
yruKéow Hdopeba Sia THv AevdTHTA THs Hdovijs 

A \ 

mpoTy@vres, tatar dé Huds Kal vyidler Ta TUKPA 

1 éynpdcatre Wilamowitz: Stahlin. 

a See Exodus xx. 13-16; Deuteronomy vi. 5. For the 
added commandment ‘‘ Thou shalt not corrupt a boy ” see 
the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles ii. 2; Epistle of Barnabas 
xix. 4, The prevalence of this vice in the early centuries of 
Christianity doubtless led to the insertion of the precept. 



been boys, then lads, then youths, then men, but cnap. 
good you have never been. Have respect to your * 
old age; become sober now you have reached the 
sunset of life; even at the end of life acknowledge 
God, so that the end of your life may regain a 
beginning of salvation. Grow old to daemon- 
worship; return as young men to the fear of God ; 

God will enroll you as guileless children. Let 

the Athenian, then, follow the laws of Solon, the 
Argive those of Phoroneus, and the Spartan those of 
Lycurgus, but if you record yourself among God’s 
people, then heaven is your fatherland and God your 
lawgiver. And what are His laws? “Thou shalt God's 
not kill; thou shalt not commit adultery; thou shalt Children, 
not corrupt a boy; thou shalt not steal; thou shalt God's laws 
not bear false witness ; thou shalt love the Lord thy 
God.” * ‘There are also the complements of these, 

wise laws and holy sayings inscribed in the very 
hearts of men; “Thou shalt love thy neighbour as 
thyself,’ ® and, “to him that smiteth thee on the 

one cheek, offer also the other,’”’ and, “thou shalt 

not lust, for lust by itself is an act of adultery.” 4 
How much better is it for men not to have the least 

wish to lust after forbidden things, rather than to 
obtain the object of their lusts ? 

But you do not patiently endure the severity of The way of 
the way of salvation. Nevertheless, just as we take oe 
delight in sweet foods, preferring them because they but good 
are smooth and pleasant, and yet it is the bitter” 
medicines, rough to the taste, which cure and restore 

> Leviticus xix. 18, and often in New Testament. 
e St. Luke vi. 29. 
@ See St. Matthew v. 28. 



86 P. 


TPAaXVVOVTO. THY atofnow, aAAa Tovs aobeveis TOV 
oTOpaxov pobvvvow n TOV pappakey avornpia, 
ovTws mee peev Kal yapyaniler 1 ovv7 eva, add’ 7 
pev ets TO Bapabpov whet, 7 ovr Gea, n de ets 
ovpavov avayet, 7 adrnfea, “ Tpaxeta a pev TO 
mpaTov, “GAA? aya KOUpoTpogos [+ eae oem) pev 
7 yuvatkwvitis avTn, cwppwv dé 7) yepoucia: ovde 
€oTL Ovompoouros ovde advvatos AaBetv, add’ éorw 
eyyuTaTw évoixos! yudv, 7] gnow a.iviTTOMeEVOS 
6 mavaoodos Mavojs, Tpiot tots Kal? *uds ev- 
SvauTenpevn fepect, ““yepot Kal ordpate Kal 
Kapdia.’ atpuBodov tobto yrvyjatov Tpici Tois maou 
oupTAnpoupevns: TAS: adnfeias, BovdAF kal mpager 
Kal Aoye pnde yap Tode deiatve, pi} oe Ta 
moh\a Kat emitepTh pavralopneva? apednrat codias: 
avTos EKOV darepByon Tov Anpov THs ovvn betas, 
Kabamrep Kal ot 7a ides Ta ab¥ppata avdpes VEVOpLEVOL 
amréppupav, _Taxee pev 57) avutrepBAjTw evvoig TE 
EUTpooiTw 1) Ovvapis 7 n Oeixr emAduupaca THY ynv 
GwrTyplov amépuatos évérAnoe | To mav. ov yap 
av ouTws ev oAiyw Xpove TooovTov epyov avev Oeias 
Kop.vo7js eSyvucev 6 6 KUplos, oper KaTagppovovjLevos, 
Epyw TPOOKUVOUJLEVOS, O xabdpovos Kal owr7pLos 
Kat petAixtos, 6 Hetos Adyos, 6 davepwratos dvTWwS 
feds, 6 TH SeomdTHn TH&V dAwy eEvowbeis, STL Fv 
vios adtob Kai “6 Adyos Hv ev TH Oe@,”’ ov Ste 
1 évo.xos Markland. éy oikovs Mss. 
2 gavrafoueva Stihlin. gavrafduevoy mss. 

4 The epithets are applied by Homer to Ithaca. See 
Odyssey ix. 27. 

» Having compared truth to Ithaca, the home of 
Odysseus, Clement goes on to divide it into two parts, 
sanctity and prudence, one being represented by the women’s 



us to health, the severity of the remedies strengthen- CHAP, 
ing those whose stomachs are weak; so custom 
pleases and tickles us, but thrusts us into the pit, 
whereas truth, which is “rough” at first, but a 
“ goodly rearer of youth,” % leads us up to heaven. 
And in this home of truth, the chamber of the 
women is the abode of sanctity ; while the assembly 
of the old men is prudent.? Nor is truth hard of Nor is it 
approach, nor impossible to grasp, but it is our inner- “" * 
most neighbour, dwelling, as the all-wise Moses darkly 
says, in the three parts of our being, “hands and 
mouth and heart.”* This isa genuine symbol of truth, 
which is made complete by three things in all, by 
purpose and action and speech. And be not afraid’ Once found 
of this, that the many delights of the imagination bales se 
may draw you away from wisdom; of your own for custom 
accord you will willingly pass beyond the childishness 
of custom, just as boys throw away their playthings 
on reaching manhood. With a swiftness beyond The whole 
parallel and a goodwill that is easy of approach, the “'4is, 
divine power has shone forth upon the earth and with this 
filled the whole world with the seed of salvation. sak 
For not without divine care could so great a work 
have been accomplished, as it has been in so short 
a time by the Lord, who to outward seeming is Greatness of 
despised? but in very deed is adored; who is ‘® Wr" 
the real Purifier, Saviour and Gracious One,’ the 
Divine Word, the truly most manifest God, who is 
made equal to the Master of the universe, because 
He was His Son and “the Word was in God.’ / 
chamber, the other by the council of old men. Perhaps, 
too, there is an allusion to the chastity of Penelope and the 
prudence of Odysseus. 

¢ Deuteronomy xxx. 14. 4 See Isaiah liii. 3. 

¢ Titles of Zeus. 4 St. John i. 1. 

I 235 


CAP. TO TP@TOV mpoexnpvy On, amvoTy Gets, ov” OTe TO 
* dvOperrov mpoowrretov avaAaBav Kat capKi ava- 
TAacdLevos TO GWTIpLov Opaya Tis avopwndrnros 
drreKptveTo, ayvonfeis: ‘yyjovos yap my dywvearns 
Kat Tob TAdopmatos avvaywrioTis, TaytoTa dé Els 
mavtas avOpurrous diado0bels Oarrov jAtov e€ avris 
avateiAas THs TAT PLKNS Bovajoews, pgora mpety 
ereAapuipe TOV feov, olev Te Hv avtos Kal os nV, 
du dv edidagev Kai evedelEato, TapacTyodpevos, 
6 omovdopopos Kal duahAaxrijs Kal CWTHp NL@v 
Adoyos, my Cworrovos, eipnvikyn, emt mav TO 
Tpoowmov Tis ys xeomevos, dv Ov ws Eos 
el7elv TA TAaVTA 707) TEeAayos yéyovev ayalav. 


Mixpov dé, et BovrAa, avwhev aOper tiv Oeiav 
evepyeoiav. 6 mp@tos [ote ]+ ev mapadelow emrarle 
AeAvpévos, eel madiov jv tod Oeod- ore be 
drromimreny * 00v"n (ogus dAAnyopetrat nOSov2) ETL 
gene épTovoa, Kakia ynivyn, eis vAas Tpe- 
dopevy *) TapijyeTo emBupiiaus, 6 Tats dvdprCouevos 
amevBetg. Kal ‘Tapaxovoas TOO TOT POS 7 HOXVVETO TOV 
fedv. olov tayvoev ndov7n: 6 &° amAdtyta Aedv- 
uévos avOpwros dpaptia edpéOn Sedeuevos. TaYV 
deonOv AGoat TobTov 6 KUptos abOis AOEAnoEV, Kat 
capkl évdeleis (uvatypiov Oeiov tobro) Tov odw 
exetpwoato Kal Tov TUpavvoy édovAdcaTo, TOV 

1 [oré] Stiihlin. 67é wey Dindorf. ére jv Markland. 

2 bromimrwy Schwartz. baémurrev MSS. 
3 orpepouévn Heyse: Stihlin. 


When at the first His coming was proclaimed the cnap,. 
message was not disbelieved; nor was He unrecog- * 
nized when, having assumed the mask of manhood 

and received fleshly form, He began to act the drama 

of salvation for humanity. For He was a true Heis the 
champion, and a fellow-champion with His creatures ; aes of 
and, having been most speedily published abroad to humanity 
all men,—for swifter than the sun He rose from the 

very will of the Father—He readily lighted up God 

for us. Through His teachings and signs He showed He has 
whence He came and who He was, namely, the Drought 
Word our herald, mediator and Saviour, a spring of blessings 
life and peace flooding the whole face of the earth, 

thanks to whom the universe has now become, so to 

speak, a sea of blessings. 


Now consider briefly, if you will, the beneficence Man was 
of God from the beginning. The first man played aoe 
in Paradise with childlike freedom, since he was a 2nd free 
child of God. But when he fell a victim to pleasure But he fell 
(for the serpent, that creeps upon the belly, an saa 
earthy“ evil, reared to return to matter, is an allegory 
for pleasure), and was led astray by lusts, the child, 
coming to manhood through disobedience and refus- 
ing to listen to the Father, was ashamed to meet 
God. See how pleasure prevailed! The man who 
by reason of innocence had been free was discovered 
to be bound by sins. The Lord purposed once again 
to loose him from his bonds. Clothing Himself The Lord 
with bonds of flesh (which is a divine mystery), He foo ies" | 

subdued the serpent and enslaved the tyrant death ; set man free 
from sin 

« Because it feeds on earth ; cp. Genesis iii. 14. 



87 P. 


Oavarov, KQL, TO mapadogoraroy, exetvov Tov avOpw- 
Tov TOV 750v7 metrAavnpevov, TOV TH POopa dedepe- 
vov, xepatv n7Awpevas cderée AceAvpevov. a) Oavpa- 
Tos puoTiKod: KéKAtTaL ev 0 KUpLos, avéoTn dé 
avOpwros Kal 6 €k TOO Tapadetcov Teawy peilov 
drakons GOAov, odpavovs, amoAapBdaver. 51d pow 
doKel, eet adTos HKev ws 7ULds ovpavdbev 6 Adyos, 
Huds em avOpwrivny tévar 7) xphvat didacKkadlav 
ett, A€rvas Kat tHv adAnv ‘EAAdéa, mpos d€ Kal 
’Twviav ToAuTpaypovobyTas. el yap nLtv [6] 1 §- 
daoKadros 6 TAnpwoas Ta mavro. duvdjeow ayias, 
Snpvoupyia owrnpig evepyeota vopo|Gecia pop - 
Tet ddackadia, TavTa vov 0 duddoxahos KaTnxet 
Kal TO 7Gv faa "AOfvar Kat “EAAas yéyovey TH 
Adyw. od yap 57 pvOw prev emioteveTE TOLNTLKD 
TOV Mivw Tov Kpijra tod Atos dapioTny dvaypapovrt, 
7p pds d€ amuotnoete pabntas Jeot yeyovoras, THY 
ovTws adn OA codiav eTavypnuevous, 7] nv ptAoccodias 
akpou ovoyv nvi€avto, ot d€ Tob Xpiorod pabnrat 
Kal KaTewAjpact Kal avexnpvéav. Kai 51) Kal 74s, 
ws mos elmety,2 6 Xptoros od pepilerar: ove 
BdapBapds éorw ovre “Jovdatos ote “EAAny, ovK 
appev, od Onrv: Katvos d€ avOpwros Feot mvevpatu 
ayliw eTaTreTrAAacpEvos. 

Ei? ai pev adda ovpBovdai te Kat brobjKar 

1 [6] Heyse. 

2 Stahlin, following Schwartz, suspects an omission 
between eleiy and 6 Xpicros. ' 

@ It is possible that the Greek means only ‘‘ with hands 
unloosened.” But the outstretching of Christ’s hands upon 
the cross was a familiar thought to the Christian Fathers, 



and, most wonderful of all, the very man who had cuap, 
erred through pleasure, and was bound by corruption, 
was shown to be free again, through His outstretched 
hands.“ O amazing mystery! The Lord has sunk Man gains 
down, but man rose up; and he who was driven from jore than 
Paradise gains a greater prize, heaven, on becoming 
obedient. Wherefore it seems to me, that since the The Word 
Word Himself came to us from heaven, we ought no /fom heaven 
longer to go to human teaching, to Athens and the rest teacher 
of Greece, or to Ionia, in our curiosity. If our teacher 
is He who has filled the universe with holy powers, 
creation, salvation, beneficence, lawgiving, prophecy, 
teaching, this teacher now instructs us in all things, and 
the whole world has by this time become an Athens 
and a Greece through the Word. For surely, after 
believing in a poetic legend which records that 
Minos the Cretan was “a familiar friend of Zeus,” ® you 
will not disbelieve that we, who have become disciples Christians 
of God, have entered into the really true wisdom Suan 
which leaders of philosophy only hinted at, but which 
the disciples of the Christ have both comprehended 
and proclaimed abroad. Moreover, the whole Christ, 
so to speak, is not divided ; there is neither barbarian 
nor Jew nor Greek, neither male nor female, but a 
new man transformed by the Holy Spirit of God.¢ 

Further, all other counsels and precepts, as, for 

and is alluded to by Justin (I. Apol. 35) and by Irenaeus 
(v. 17. 4), though the word used in each of these passages 
is éxrelvw and not ad7\éw. Basil uses a2rdéw in this connexion ; 
cp. In Psalm. alv. p. 272, ** having his hands outstretched 
(77\wuévas) in the manner of the cross.” Perhaps Clement 
wishes to suggest both meanings. 

> Homer, Odyssey xix. 179. 

¢ See 1 Corinthians i. 13; Galatians iii, 28; Ephesians 
iv. 24; Colossians iii. 9-11. 



CAP. Aumpat Kal TreEpt Ta el pepous eloiv, et YOpNTEor, 

88 P. 

el ToAurevTEéov, el TraLdomoLnTEOv* eaBoAur) de a dpa 
TpoT pom) povn KaL _Tpos oXov bn Aady TOV Biov, € ev 
TavTl KaLpa, ev mon TeptoTdoet Tos TO KUPLU- 
TATOV tédos, TH Cony, ovvretvovea 7 OeooeBeva: 
Kal’ 6 Kat povov emavayKés €or Civ, wa Cyow- 
aa, / / y2 ¢€ 7, 
pev aet: dtrocodia dé, 4 dacw ot mpechUrepor, 
/ / > / / >/ 
moAvypovids é€ate avpBovdAy, aodias aidvoy pvy- 
atevopevn Epwra: “‘ évtoA; dé Kupiov THAavyys, 
/ > / ”) > yA \ / 
dwrilovoa oddbadpovs.’ amdAaBe tov Xpuorov, 
amoAaBe To BAérew, arroAaBé cov To das, 

vy ) > > \ \ ] \ \ A 
odp €d ywackors nev Oeov noe Kat avdpa. 

“aqobewos’’1 6 Adyos 6 dwricas Huds “‘ dirép 
ypvotov Kat AiBov tijwov: yAvKUs* eat brEp perc 
Kat Knplov.”” mas yap od Tofewwos 6 Tov Ev GKOTEL 
KaTOpwpvy|Levov vobv evapy) TounodLevos Kal TO 

dwopopa’’ THs puxis amoguvas © Oppata.” ; Kal 
yap WoTep “ WAtou per) ovTos eveka, Tov aAAwy 
doTpwv vvé av Hv TA TaVTA,” OUTWS Et [47) TOV Adyov 
éyvwpev Kal ToUTW KaTnvydoOnuev, oddev av TOV 
OLTEvopLeveny opvidwy édevropeBa, ev OKOTEL TUALvo- 
jevou Kal Bavatw TPEPOMEVOL. Xwpyowpev TO pas, 
iva Xwpy cwpev TOV Oeov: Xwpyowpev TO Ps Kal 
pabytrevowpev TH Kupiw. TOOTS ToL Kal ET7yyeATaL 

1 rodewds—yruxvs Mayor (see Psalm xviii. 11 Sept.). 
yAuKis—n ofeu os MSS. 

= Compare this with what Clement says about the ‘short 
way ” of the gospel preaching, pp. 173 and 217. 

> Psalm xix. 8. ¢ Homer, Iliad v. 128. 

@ Psalm xix. 10. 

¢ Compare Plato, Timaeus 45 B. 

‘ Heracleitus, Frag. 31 (Bywater), 99 (Diels). 



instance, whether a man should marry, or take part cHap, 
in politics, or beget children, are of small account ~*! 
and of special application. The exhortation that Piety is 
alone would seem to be universal, and concerned eel 
plainly with the whole of existence, reaching out in precept 
every season and every circumstance towards the 
supreme end, life, is piety towards God. And it is A life of 
only necessary to live according to piety, in order to Pietyen 
obtain eternal life ; whereas philosophy, as the elders life 
say, is a lengthy deliberation, that pursues wisdom 

with a never-ending love. But “the commandment 

of the Lord shines afar, giving light to the eyes.” ® 

Receive the Christ; receive power to see; receive The Word 

thy light ; eke hi 
Thus shalt thou well discern who is God and who is but 

The Word who has given us light is “to be desired 

above gold and precious stone; He is sweet above 
honey and the honeycomb.” 4% How can we help 
desiring Him who has made clear the mind that lay 
buried in darkness, and sharpened the “ light-bearing 
eyes”’° of the soul? For just as “if the sun were Without 
not, the world would have been in perpetual night, Fe have 
for all the other heavenly bodies could do”; so been in 
unless we had come to know the Word, and had See 
been enlightened by His rays, we should have been 

in no way different from birds who are being 
crammed with food, fattening in darkness’ and 
reared for death. Let us admit the light, that 

we may admit God. Let us admit the light, and 
become disciples of the Lord. This is the promise 

9 The same simile occurs in Philostratus, Life of Apollonius 
iv. 3. 



~ \ A a A 
CAP. T@ TaTpt “‘Sunyjoopat TO dvopd gov Tots adeAdots 
> / > , e / ”) 4 
jou: ev peow exkAnotas dpvijow ce. vpvngov 
Kat Suyynoal ou Tov Tratépa cov Tov Geo: awoet 
gov Ta Sinyhpata, Tawdevoet Le 7) O71). WS WEXpL 
viv érAavwpnv Cnt@v tov Oedv, eet b€ we dwr- 
A \ ~ \ 
aywyeis, KUple, Kal TOV Deov edpicoxw dia God Kal 
Tov matépa amoAapBavw mapa ood, yivouat cov 
/ > \ \ > \ ? > / 
avyKAnpovopuos, eet TOV adeApov odK ErnaxUvOns. 
> > ~ 
AddrAwpev odv, abéAwper tiv AHOnv THs aAnOetas: 
Tv ayvovay Kal TO GKOTOS TO euTTObwWY ws ayAvV 
disews KaTayayovTes TOV dvTWws dvTa Deov émomTEU- 
cwev, TavTHVY adT@ TPATov avupvioavtes THV 
duviv ‘yatpe dds’’> PHs piv €€ ovpavod tots 
o, ~ / 
/ > / ¢ / y / 
KatakekAevopevors eێAapev 7Alov Kabapwrepov, 
~ ~ ~ ~ aA / 
lwijs tis évrad0a yAvKutepov. Oo dds exeivo Cw 
> >/ 7 / > ~ ~ ¢€ \ 
€oTw aidios, Kat doa petetAndev adtod, CH, vv 
\ ) a A ~ \ / \ \ / 
Sé edAaBetrar ro das Kal Svvovoa dia Tov PdBov 
TAapaxwpEel TH HWepa Kuplov: Ta TaAvTA POs akoiwy- 
Tov yeyovev Kal 7) OUats eis avatoAnv mEpteoTHKEV. 
TodTo 4 KTicws 7% Kawi) BeBovAnta: 6 ‘yap Ta 
/ 4 ce , ¢ pains BS ge 
mavta Kaburmedwv “ duKacoat¥vns Atos’ em Lons 
mepiTone? tiv avOpwrdTnTa, TOV TAaTEpa pYyLovpeE- 
“A CS gee ee | / > / > / A ¢ 
vos, ds “‘ ént mavras avOpwrous avarédAeu Tov 7ALov 
? a?) \ / \ / ~ 3 , 
abtod,” Kal katapexaler THY Spdcov THs aAnGetas. 
odtos tiv Stow els avatoAny petyyayev Kal TOV 
Odvarov eis Gwijv aveotatpwoev, e€apracas d¢ Tis 
dmwaAelas tov dvOpwrov mpocexpeuacev aifépr, 
1 els dvatoNiw mepiéornxey Wilamowitz. dvarodn wemiarevKev 
PE a Neen a se ee, Ys ee 
¢ Psalm xxii. 22. > See Romans viii. 17. 
¢ See Hebrews ii. 11. 


He has made to the Father; “I will declare Thy cpap. 
name to my brethren; in the midst of the congrega- ee 
tion will I sing praises to Thee.” % Sing praises, and FE 
declare unto me God Thy Father. Thy story shall 
save, Thy song shall instruct me. Until now I was 
erring in my search for God, but since Thou, Lord, 
dost become my guiding light I find God through 
Thee, I receive the Father at Thy hands, I become 
joint-heir ® with Thee, since Thou wert not ashamed 
of Thy brother.¢ 

Away then, away with our forgetfulness of the Let us then 
truth! Let us remove the ignorance and darkness (aie 
that spreads like a mist over our sight ; and let us and dark- 
get a vision of the true God, first raising to Him this 
voice of praise, “ Hail, O Light.” Upon us who lay 
buried in darkness and shut up in the shadow of 
death? a light shone forth from heaven, purer than 
the sun and sweeter than the life of earth. That The night of 
light is life eternal, and whatsoever things partake es Se 
of it, live. But night shrinks back from the light, aegis 
and setting through fear, gives place to the day of 
the Lord. The universe has become sleepless light 
and the setting has turned into a rising. This is what This is the 
was meant by “the new creation.” ° For He who poe arte 
rides over the universe, “ the sun of righteousness,’ / aT eee 
visits mankind impartially, imitating His Father, who 
“causes His sun to rise upon all men,” 9 and sprinkles 
them all with the dew of truth. He it was who Manis. 
changed the setting into a rising, and crucified death earth to 
into life; who having snatched man out of the jaws "®ve" 
of desemaisn raised him to the sky, transplanting 

4 See Isaiah ix. 2 (St. Matthew iv. 16 and St. Lukei. 79), 
¢ Galatians vi. 15. (Revised Version margin.) 
4 Malachi iv. 2. 9 St. Matthew v. 45. 

12 243 


car. petapuTevwv THY plopav ets apGapotav KaL yay 

89 P. 

* peraBddAay els ovpavovs, 6 Tob Geod yewpyos, 
‘bebe onpaivey, Aaovds 8° emt epyov”’ ayaBov 
" €yelpwy, yy oKov Brorouo * dAyfivob, Kat TOV 

péyav OVTWS Kal Oetov Kal dvagdatperov Too TATpOS 

KAfjpov XapeCopevos mp, ovdpaviw dudacKadta Deo- 

TOL@V TOV avOpwrov, ‘ 81d0vs VO|LOUS ets TV 
Sudvouay avTa@v KaL emt Kkapotay ypapav avrouvs. 

Tivas droypager vo[ous ; a OTL mavres €LOOVTAL TOV 

€OVv amo putKpod ews peyadou, Kal iAews, gnow o 0 
Oeds, “ Egopat avdtots Kat tev dyuapTecv ad’Tav ov 
pn povnoda.”’ deSdpeba TOUS VO[MoUS Tijs luis, 
mero @ev TpOTpETropEven bee, pudbwyev adrov, iva 
iAews H, aTod@pev Kat a) Seopere pucov «v- 
ydptorov evmabeias, ofdv te evolKtov [rv €v- 
o¢Bevav|* 7H Oe tis evtabOa evoixjoews. 

voea yaAKkelwv, éxaTtouBov évveaBoiwv. 
p > tid 

oAlyns miotews yy cor didwor THY TocadTHV 
yewpyety, vowp mivew Kal ado mAetv, aépa dva.- 
mveiv, Top drroupyety, KOGLOV olKety: evTedUer eis 
odpavods aTroLKiav orethacBat GOL OVYKEXwWpPHKEV 
Ta peyana TadTa Kal tooabra cou Snpoupy Tn pLara 
Kal Xaplopara oXriyns TLOTEWS peplobwker. aie 
of pLev Tots yono TETLOTEVKOTES Ta TEplamTa Kal 
Tas emaoldas ws awTnpiovs dev amodéxyovTat, 
tyets b€ od BovAcobe Tov odpaviov adrov Trepiaysa- 
ofa, Tov cwrHpa Adyov, Kal TH EeTwdH TOD Oeod 

1 evrrafelas Mayor. evrddecay Mss. evweldecav Heyse. 
2 [ri edoéBevay] Heyse. 



corruption to the soil of incorruption, and transform- 
ing earth into heaven. He is God’s husbandman, 
“who gives favourable omens, and rouses the people 
to a work” that is good, “reminding us of the true 
livelihood,’ * and granting to us the Father's truly 
great, divine and inalienable portion, making men 
divine by heavenly doctrine, “ putting laws into their 
minds and writing them upon the heart.” ® To what 
laws does He allude? “That all shall know God 
from the small to the great; and,” God says, “I will 
be gracious to them and not remember their sins.” ? 
Let us receive the laws of life; let us obey God 
when He exhorts us; let us learn about Him, that 
He may be gracious; let us render Him (though He 
is in need of nothing) a recompense of gratitude for 
His blessings, as a kind of rent paid to God for our 
dwelling here below. 

Gold in exchange for brass, a hundred oxen for nine’s worth.¢ 

At the price of a little faith He gives thee this 
great earth to till, water to drink, other water to 
sail on, air to breathe, fire to do service, and a world 
to dwell in. From hence He has granted thee power 
to send forth a colony into heaven. All these great 
works of creation and gracious gifts He has let out 
to thee in return for a little faith. Again, men who 
believe in wizards receive amulets and charms which 
are supposed to bring safety. Do you not rather 
desire to put on the heavenly amulet,? the Word 
who truly saves, and, by trusting to God’s enchant- 

@ These words are quoted from Aratus, Phaenomena, 6-7. 
> Jeremiah xxxi. 33, 34 (quoted Hebrews viii. 10-12). 
© Homer, /liad vi. 236. 
4 See Plato, Charmides 157 a. 



of God is 
for all 

God’s gifts 
are ours for 
a little faith 

The Word 
is the only 
amulet that 
can save 
from sin 


a. TuoTEvouyTEs dmadaynvar pev malay, & 57) wuy7s 

90 P. 

voool, arroomacbjvat d€ dyaprias ; ; Odvatos yap 
didios a apaptia. % TéAcov vwdol Kal i ruprot Kabarrep 
of omdAaKxes ovdev ado 7 éobiovtes ev oKOTw 
Suaitdobe, TE pLKATAppeoVvTEs TH plopG. add’ gorw, 
€OTW 7, aAnfeva 7 Kekpayvia ‘éK oKOTOUS pas 
Adprper.”” Aapapares ovv ev 7@ GTO KE K PULL LEVD TOU 
dvOpusrou, év TH Kapdia, TO das, Kal THS yracews 
at aKTives dvareharwoay TOV €yKEKPUpLLEVOV EVOOV 
exdaivovoat Kal amootiABovoa avOpwrov, Tov pa- 
On7tnv tot dwrtds, Tov Xprorod yvwpysdv Te Kat 
ovykAnporopov, udALoTa émrevday TO TYLLWTATOV Kal 
oeBacpiwratov evoeBet Te Kal ayad® madi ayabod 
TaTpos Ovopa eis yy@ow adikntat, mpooTaTToVTOS 
yma Kal T@ Tal eyKeAevopevov TA GwTHpLa. O 
dé meopuevos atdT® Kata mavta 67) mAeovenTet: 
ETETAL TO Od, metBerac TO marpl, eyvw TrAavedrevos 
avrov, jydanoe tov bedv, aydance TOV mAnotov, 
emArjpwoe THY evtoAny, 70 GOAov emlyret, tHv 
émayyeAlav amatret. 

Ilpoxertar 5€ det TH Oe rHv avOparwv ayéAnv 
owlew. tavTn Kal Tov ayalov moméva 6 ayabos 
améatetvev Beos: amAwaas S€ 6 Aoyos THY adAjOeav 
éderEe Tots avOpwtrots TO vibos THs GwTyplas, O7wWs 
n | wetavoncavtes owldow 7 py) UraKovcayTes 
Kpl@ow. totto Tihs SiKavoovvns TO KypVyp_LA, 
drrakovovaw evayyeAwoy, Tapakovoacw KpLTypLoV. 
adda odhnuyé pev 7 peyadAdxovos nx}Caca 
OTpaTiwtas cuviyyayev Kal ToAEov KaTiyyetAer, 



ment, to be freed from passions, which are dis- cHap, 
eases of the soul, and to be torn away from sin? *! 
For sin is eternal death. Surely you are altogether 
bereft of sense® and sight, spending your lives, 
like moles, in darkness, doing nothing but eat, and 
falling to pieces through corruption. But it is the 
truth, I say, which cries, “ Light shall shine out of 
darkness.” ® Let the light then shine in the hidden 
part of man, in his heart; and let the rays of know- 
ledge rise, revealing and illuminating the hidden 
man within, the disciple of the light, friend of Christ 
and joint-heir with Him; more especially since there 
has come to our knowledge the name, worthy of 
all honour and reverence, of one who is a good 
Father to a good and dutiful child, whose precepts 
are kindly, and whose commands are for His child’s 
salvation. He who obeys Him gains in all things. 
He follows God, he obeys the Father; when erring 
he came to know Him; he loved God; he loved 
his neighbour ; he fulfilled God’s commandment ; he 
seeks after the prize; he claims the promise. 

It is ever God’s purpose to save the flock of man- God's pur- 
kind. For this cause also the good God sent the Pow yore 
good Shepherd. And the Word, having spread 
abroad the truth, showed to men the grandeur of 
salvation, in order that they may either be saved if 
they repent, or be judged if they neglect to obey. 

This is the preaching of righteousness; to those It is pro- 
who obey, good news; to those who disobey, eran 
means of judgment. But when the shrilling trumpet Christ's 

° : : bloodless 
blows, it assembles the soldiers and proclaims war ; army 

@ Nwdoi means literally ‘‘toothless,” as applied to the aged. 
Clement seems to use it metaphorically for senile decay. 
» 2 Corinthians iv. 6. ¢ See St. John x. 11. 



CAP. Xpuoros be etpnvuKov emt TO mépara. TAs yijs em 
' mvedoas pelos ov ouvdger dpa Tovs etpnvuKods 
oTpaTuiras TOUS EavTob ; ovvnyaye puev oby, a) 
avOpwre, TO OTpaTiwTLKoV TO GvatpucLeT ov alate 
Kat Aoy, Kal THV Baotretav TOV obpavav avTots 
evexelpioey. addruyé €oTl Xprorob TO evayyeAvov 
avtov: oO jev eodAmuoey, nets Oe TKovoaper. 
eforAvowpeba ctpyviKOs, a “evOvadLevor TOV Ourpaa 
THs Suxcavoovyys © Kal THv aoa Tijs TLOTEWS 
dvadaBovres Kal THWV KOpuv TOU owrnptov mepubepe- 
vou Kal Tay pdxarpay Too mvevpaTos, 6 6 €oTt pHa 
feod, _aKovnTwLEV. OUTWS meas 6 amdaToXos 
cipyvuKdds extatTev’ tTadta yua@v ta Orda Ta 
dTpwTa ToUToUS efomAvcarevot Tmaparagopeba TO 
Tovnp@* Ta TETUPAKTWILEVOL Tob movnpot amo 
oBéowpev BéAn Tats ddarivaus aKkpats Tats bao Tob 
Aoyou PePapypevats, edyaptorous apeBopevor Tas 
evTroulas evAoyiats Kat Tov Jeov TO Dei yEepaipovres 
Aoyw. “ éruyap Aadobvrds cov epet,”’ dyatv, “ idovd 

"Q. tijs_ayias Kal pakaplas TavTys duvduews, 
ov as avOpedrrous oupohureverau Deds. A@ov ov 
Kal dewov Ths aploTns TOV OvTwv ovolas puyenTHV 
Omod Kal Depamevriy yeveoBar: od yap pyretobat 
tis Ouvnoetat TOV Heov 7 dv dv dotws Heparrever 
ovd ab Oepamevew Kat o€Bew 7 pysovpevos. 0 ye 
Tou ovpavios Kal Detos d6vTWSs Epws TAUTYH mpooyiverat 
Tots avOpurrrots, otav év avth mov TH Wuyh TO 
dvtws KaXov B70 TOD Oeiov Aoyou avalewmupovpevov 
exAdumew duvnbA: Kal TO péytoTov, aya TH 

1 Geparever Schwartz. Geparevioer MSS. 



and shall not Christ, think you, having breathed cHap, 
to the ends of the earth a song of peace, assemble ~*! 
the soldiers of peace that are His? Yes, and He did 
assemble, O man, by blood and by word His bloodless 
army, and to them He entrusted the kingdom of 
heaven. ‘The trumpet of Christ is His gospel. He 
sounded it, and we heard. Let us gird ourselves 
with the armour of peace, “ putting on the breast- The armour 
plate of righteousness,” and taking up the shield of °C SSS, 
faith, and placing on our head the helmet of salva- peace” 
tion; and let us sharpen “the sword of the spirit, 
which is the word of God.” * Thus does the apostle 
marshal us in the ranks of peace. These are our 
invulnerable arms; equipped with these let us 
stand in array against the evil one. Let us quench 
the fiery darts of the evil one? with the moistened 
sword-points, those that have been dipped in water 
by the Word,¢ returning thankful praises to God for 
His benefits and honouring Him through the divine 
Word. “For while thou art yet speaking,’ it says, 
‘“ He will answer, behold, I am with thee.” 4 

O sacred and blessed power, through which God We must 
becomes a fellow-citizen with men! It is then pe 
better and more profitable for man to become at the Go4 
same time both imitator and servant of the highest 
of all beings; for he will not be able to imitate 
God except by serving Him holily, nor yet to serve 
and worship except by imitating Him. Now the 
heavenly and truly divine love comes to men in this 
way, whenever somewhere in the soul itself the spark 
of true nobility, kindled afresh by the divine Word, 
is able to shine out; and, greatest thing of all, salva- 

a See Eph. vi. 14-17; 1 Thess. v. 8. 6 Eph. vi. 16. 
¢ The allusion is to Baptism. @ Isa. lviii. 9. 



cap. BovAnbAvar yvnciws TO awhivar ovvtTpéxer, opo- 

91 P. 

CuyouvTww, ws ém0s etrreiy, Tpoaipecews Kal wis. 
TOLYApTOL povn avrn 1 Tis aAnbfeias TpoT pom) Tots 
TMLOTOTATOLS a dmetkaorat TOV pilov rex pe Tijs eoya- 
TNS dvamvons TapapLevovaa Kal TrapaTrouTos 
/, > 
OAw Kal TeAclw TH Ths Pvyhs mvevpate Tots ets 
ovpavov amaipovor yevoevn. Td GE TpOTpPETTW; 
owlfvat oe éemeiyouar. todTo Xpiotos BovAeTau: 
evi Adyw Cwrv oor xapilerar. Kat Tis eat ovbTOS; 
4 / i > / / > / 
pale ovvtduws: Adyos adnfetas, Adyos adbapaias, 
6 avayevvav tov avOpwmov, eis adjfevay adrov 
avadépwv, TO KévTpov THS GwTnplas, 6 e€eAavvwv 
\ Ve Ci 22 / \ / ae > / 
tiv Pbopav, 6 €xdiwKwyv Tov Oavator, 6 év avOpwrrots 
otkodoujoas vewv, Wa év avOpumos iSpton Tov 
Gedv. dyvicov Tov vewy, Kal Tas Ndovas Kal TAS 
e / a yy > / / > / 
pabvuias womrep avlos epniepov KkaTadiumave aveLLW) 
Kal Tupi, cwppoovyys d€ TOUS Kap7rovs yewpynoov 
Euppovws, Kal CeauTov ax poOivoy | avaornooy TO 
bcd, ors ovK Epyov povor, aAXa Kai yapis Hs) Tod 
Tne mpeétrer O€ dudw TH Xprotod? yrwpipw, Kat 
/ + ~ \ / ~ 
Baoureias a€vov davivar Kat Baowreias Katn€i@abar. 


Dvywpev obv THY ovviPerav, puywpev olov akpav 
Xaremny 7 7) Xapvpdews dmreAny 7 7 Leupyvas pvbucds 
ayxee Tov avOpwrov, TAS. adAnbeias amor pErel, 
amayer THs Cwis, mayis éorw, Bapabpov éatw, 
Bo€@pos eori, XAiyvov® eotiv Kakov 1%) ovvyPeva: 

1 ns Wilamowitz. 7 Mss. 
2 Xpictrod Mayor. Xpior@ mss. 
3 dixvov Mayor. Xlxvos Mss. 


tion itself runs side by side with the sincere desire for cHap. 

it, will and life being, as we may say, yoked together. *! 
Wherefore this exhortation to the truth, and this Thisex- _ 
alone, is like the most faithful of our friends; for B@ttation is 
it remains with us until our latest breath, and proves ee in 

a good escort for the whole and perfect spirit of Ft a 
the soul to those who are setting out for heaven. 

What then is my exhortation? I urge thee to be 

saved. This is the wish of Christ; in one word, He Christ 
freely grants thee life. And whois He? Understand {es"8, 
briefly: the Word of truth; the Word of incorruption ; 

He who regenerates man by bringing him back to 

the truth; the goad of salvation; He who banishes 
corruption and expels death; He who has built His 

temple in men, that in men He may set up the 

shrine of God. Purify the temple, and abandon Let us for- 
your pleasures and careless ways, like the flower of 2k¢sim and 
a day, to the wind and fire; but labour in wisdom eT ae 
for the harvest of self-control, and present yourself as Tes 
as first-fruits to God, in order that you may be not 

only His work, but also His delight. Both things 

are necessary for the friend of Christ: he must show 

himself worthy of a kingdom, and be counted worthy 

of a kingdom. 


Let us then shun custom; let us shun it as some custom is 

dangerous headland, or threatening Charybdis, or Ske the 

the Sirens of legend. Custom strangles man ; it turns it allures 
him away from truth; it leads him away from life ; dae 

it is a snare, an abyss, a pit, a devouring evil. 





, A ~ \ 4 > \ la 

devywpev, © ovvvatrar, pevywpev TO KOA TodTO, 
mop épevyeTat, viods €oTe Tovnpa ooTois Kal 
vexpots oeowpevpervn, aoer d€ ev adTi Topvid.iov 
Wpatov, ndovn, Tavdniuw TEpTOMEVOV [LOVOLKT)* 

Seip dy’ wv, wodAvaw’ ’Odvoed, péya Kidos 

~ > > 
via KatdoTnoov, wa Gevorépyyv om akovons. 

~ Ss ~ \ 
ETaLveEt O€, W vauTa, Kal Trohvvpvn Tov déyer, KaL 
TO Kddos TOV Banca 7) mopyn, operepiCerar: 
éagov avTry emuvepeodar Tovs vekpous, mVEedUG OOL 

ovpaviov Bonfet- maple tiv Hdov7v, Bovkonet: 

pende yur) OE voov muyoaToXos e€aTaTaTw, 
C7 / \ A , 
atuvra KwrTtAdovea, TENV dipdoa Kaduny. 

mapamAe THY Wd, Odvarov epyaletar: eav efedns 
[Lovor, veviKnKas THY amwArevav Kal TH EVAw Tpoo- 
dedepevos a amdons eo7] TiS plopas Nedupevos, kuBep- 
voce oe O Adyos 0 TOO God, Kav * tois Ayréar 
Kaboppice: THY ovpavav TO TVvEebp.a TO ayLov: TOTE 
[Lov KATOTITEVOELS TOV Oeov Kal Tots dy ious éxeivols 
teAcoOnjon jvoTnpios Kai TOV EV ovpavois a.7r0- 
“d@ otre ots qKovcev ovTEe emt Kapdiav avéBn”’ 

1 go. Hoschel. ce mss. 2 kav Mayor. kal Mss. 

« Homer, Odyssey xii. 219-20. 
» See Odyssey xii. 45-46. ¢ Odyssey xii, 184-5. 



Wide of that smoke and wave direct, O helmsman, thy gyap. 
vessel. Xi 

Let us flee, comrades, let us flee from this wave. 
It belches forth fire; it is an island of wicked- 
ness heaped with bones and corpses,? and she who 
sings therein is pleasure, a harlot in the bloom of 
youth, delighting in her vulgar music. 

Hither, renowned Odysseus, great glory of all the Achaeans: See the 
Bring thy ship to the land, that a song divine may entrance example of 
thee.¢ Odysseus 

She praises thee, sailor, she calls thee renowned 
in song; the harlot would make the glory of the 
Greeks her own. Leave her to roam among the 
corpses ; a heavenly wind comes to thine aid. Pass 
by pleasure ; she beguiles. 

Let not thy heart be deceived by a woman with trailing 
Coaxing with wily words to find the place of thy dwelling.¢ 

Sail past the song; it works death. Only resolve, 
and thou hast vanquished destruction ; bound to the 
wood of the cross’ thou shalt live freed from all 
corruption. The Word of God shall be thy pilot 
and the Holy Spirit shall bring thee to anchor in 
the harbours of heaven. Then thou shalt have the 
vision of my God, and shalt be initiated in those 
holy mysteries, and shalt taste the joys that are 
hidden away in heaven, preserved for me, “ which 
neither ear hath heard nor have they entered into 
the heart” / of any man. 

4 Hesiod, Works and Days 373-4. 

e An allusion to Odysseus being bound to the mast of his 
vessel as it passed the land of the Sirens. Odyssey xii. 178. 

‘ 1 Corinthians ii. 9. 




92 P. 


\ \ Cia 4 \ ey7 ~ 
Kal pv opav prot dvo pev HArLovs SoKa, 

dtaaas dé Onfas | 

Baxyevoo edeyev TUS etduirors, dyvoig pcOdewv as 
KpaTw* éyo 5° < dv >! adrov olkteipayu Tapowobyra 
Kal TOV OUTW TapavootyTa éml owTnpiav mapa- 
Kar€oayt cwdpovotcav, dtu Kal KUplos peTavotay 
apapTwAod Kat ovxt Odavarov domdleran. HKE, @ 
TrapatrAne, p17) Ovpaw oKNpTTOMEVOS, ay) KLTT®@ 
avadovjevos, piyov THY pitpay, piyov THY veBpida, 
owppovncov: detfw gou TOV Adyov Kal Tob Acyou 
Ta pvoTnpla, KaTa THY OnV Sunyovpevos etkova. 
Opos €oTt TOUTO Dew TrehtAnpevov, ov Tpaywodilats ws 
Kibarpwv dtmoKetpevov, aAAa tots adnbelas ava- 
keipevov Spduaow, dpos vyndadiov, ayvats vAats 
avoKiov: PBakyxevovar dé ev atT@ ody at LepweAns 
“rhs Kepavvias’’ adeAdal, at wawades, at d¥aayvov 
Kpeavopiav pvovpevat, add’ ai Tod Geot buyarépes, 
at dpvddes at Kahat, Ta GEeuva TOO Adyou Deoni- 
Covoa 0 opyia, xopov ayelpovoat owdpova. 6 xopos ot 
dtKalot, TO dopa Uuvos €oTl TOD TavtTwv Baoirews* 
Padrovow at Kdpat, dogalovaww dyyehou, mpophra 
Aadodaw, Fyos oréAXeTat povoikyns, Spdwa Tov 

1 <ay> inserted by Stéahlin. 

« Kuripides, Bacchants 918-9. The speaker is Pentheus, 
king of Thebes, who was stricken with madness for refusing 
to worship the god Dionysus. The legend, which tells how 
Dionysus took vengeance by visiting the Theban women 
with his frenzy and driving them out into the hills, and how 
the mad king, in trying to spy out their revels, was torn to 
pieces by his own mother and her companions, is the subject 
of Euripides’ play, the Bacchants. In the paragraph follow- 
ing this quotation, Clement has the Bacchants constantly in 



And lo! methinks I see a pair of suns 
And a double Thebes,’ 

said one who was revelling in frenzy through idols, 
drunk with sheer ignorance. I would pity him in 
his drunkenness, and would appeal to him to return 
from this madness to sober salvation, seeing that the 
Lord also welcomes the repentance, and not the 
death, of a sinner. Come, thou frenzy-stricken one, 
not resting on thy wand, not wreathed with ivy! 
Cast off thy headdress ; cast off thy fawnskin ;? return 
to soberness! I will show thee the Word, and the 
Word’s mysteries, describing them according to thine 
own semblance of them. This is the mountain 

beloved of God, not a subject for tragedies, like j 

Cithaeron, but one devoted to the dramas of truth, 
a wineless mountain, shaded by hallowed groves. 
Therein revel no Maenads, sisters of “ thunder- 
smitten” © Semele, who are initiated in the loathsome 
distribution of raw flesh, but the daughters of God, the 
beautiful lambs,? who declare the solemn rites of the 
Word, assembling a sober company. ‘The righteous 
form this company, and their song is a hymn in 
praise of the King of all. The maidens play the 
harp, angels give glory, prophets speak, a noise of 
music rises; swiftly they pursue the sacred band,’ 

mind, and his allusions can only be understood by reading 
the play. 

® For the description see Euripides, Bacchants 833, 835, 

¢ Kuripides, Bacchants 6, 26. 

4 The Greek amnades, lambs, is meant as a play upon 
Mainades (Maenads, or women worshippers of Dionysus). 

¢ Gr. thiasos, or band of Dionysus’ followers (cp. Bacchants 
56). The word is here used of the company of maidens, 
angels and prophets, whom the Christian must follow to 
reach, not Dionysus, but the Father. 



A warning 
from the 


Word’s sober 


93 P. 


Biacov SiedKovaw, omevoovow ot KeKAnevor Tarépa 
7obobyres amoAaBeiv. HKE jou, @ mpéeopo, Kal ov, 
tas ©7Bas Aurav KQL THY LOVTLKNY KL THY Baxyetav} 
amroppupas mpos adnfevay Xetpaywyoo- idov cot 
TO EvAov errepeideobar Sidwut: oamedaov, Tepecia, 
miaTevoov’ oye: Xpiotos éemiAdprer hardporepov 
nAiov, du dv oPOaAywot tudAayv dvaBérovcw: vv€ 
GE pevgerar, Top poBnOjcerat, Odavatos olyngerau: 
oyper TOUS ovpavous, @ Yepov, o O7Bas Ly BNérowv. 
Gee Tov ayiwy ws adAnbds pvornpiwv, @ pwros 
aKnparov. dadouxodpat Tovs ovdpavovs Kal TOV 
Oeov emomTebaat,” ayLos yvopat p.vovpevos, tepo- 
davret d€ 6 KUplos Kal TOV pevorny odpayilerau 
pwtaywyav, Kat tapatiferar TH matpl Tov mem- 
OTEVKOTO, aida TI poUpevov. Taira Tév euav 
pevornptiov Ta Baxxedpara- El i Bovdex, Kal ov pvod, 
Kal Yopevces eT ayyeov appt Tov dyevnrov Kat 
aveshebpov Kat povov ovtrws Ger, ouvupvodvTos 
Hye Tob 0 Ocod Aoyou. aidtos | obTos ‘noobs, eis [6 ]® 
jeyas apyLepevs Beob TE év0s Tov avTob Kal 7aTpOs, 
diep avO pastry edxeTau Kal avOperrots eyxeAeverau 
“KékAute, pupla boda,” pdadddAov dé sdaow Tov 
avOpurrwyv Aoytxol, Kai BapBapor kat “EAAnves: TO 
mav avOpuTwv yévos Kad, av eyw Sytoupyos 
GeAjpwate matpos. AKeTE ws ene, bd’ Eva TayOnod- 
pevou Jeov Kat Tov eva Adyov Tob Deod, Kai 17) jovov 
Tov addywr Coe mAcoveKTEtTEe TO oye, ex O€ 
Tov Ovytev andvtwv bpiv aBavaciay pdvows Kap- 

1 Baxxeiavy Wilamowitz. Baxxixhy Mss. 
2 éromtredoa Schwartz. émomrevoas MSS. 
3 [6] Wilamowitz. 
“ ¢.e. instead of Teiresias’ staff; cp. Bacchants 363-4. 


those who have been called hasting with eager cHap. 
longing to receive the Father. Come to me, old _*" 
man, come thou too! Quit Thebes; fling away thy {icq fe 
prophecy and Bacchic revelry and be led by the see God and 
hand to truth. Behold, I give thee the wood of oe 
the cross to lean upon.“ Hasten, Teiresias, believe! 

Thou shalt have sight. Christ, by whom the eyes of 

the blind see again, shineth upon thee more brightly 

than the sun. Night shall flee from thee; fire shall 

fear thee ; death shall depart from thee. Thou shalt 

see heaven, old man, though thou canst not see 

O truly sacred mysteries! O pure light! In the these are 
blaze of the torches I have a vision of heaven and of Spatoea 
God. I become holy by initiation. The Lord 
reveals the mysteries ; He marks the worshipper with 
His seal, gives light to guide his way, and commends 
him, when he has believed, to the Father's care, 
where he is guarded for ages to come. These are the 
revels of my mysteries! If thou wilt, be thyself also Exhortation 
initiated, and thou shalt dance with angels around Loe a 
the unbegotten and imperishable and only true God, 
the Word of God joining with us in our hymn of 
praise. This Jesus being eternal, one great high 
priest of one God who is also Father, prays for men 
and encourages men: “‘ Give ear, ye myriad peoples, ? The Word 
or rather, so many of mankind as are governed by Sate een 
reason, both barbarians and Greeks; the whole race come 
of men I call, I who was their Creator by the Father's 
will. Come to me, that ye may be marshalled under 
one God and the one Word of God; and do not 
surpass the irrational creatures in reason only, for 
to you alone of all mortal beings I offer the fruit He offers 

% ¥ immortality 
’ Homer, Jliad xvii. 220, 



cap, THWoacGar didwyw. eOéAW yap, €BéAw Kal Tavrys 
XII bpiv peradodvau THS yapitos, oAdKAnpov Xopnyav 
THY evepyeaiay, adGapoiay: Kal Aoyov XapiCopac 
div, THY yraow Tob Jeob TéXeLov €auTov xapt- 
Couac. TOUTO ete eyo, To0To BovAerar 6 Deds, 
ToOTO ovppovia € €oTi, TOUTO appovia TaTpos, TOUTO 
vids, TOUTO Xpuords, TOUTO O Aoyos Tob Geod, 
Bpaxiwv Kupiou, Ovvapus TOV oAwy, TO O€Anpa Tod 
matpos. w mada pev etKOves, ov macau d€ eude- 
pets, Svophacacbar & buds mpos To apxéruTrov Bovdo- 
pear, iva fou Kal GpLoLoL yernobe. Xplow buds TO 
mloTews dretupare, du’ od TH Plopav dnoBdMere, 
Kal yupvov dtxatoavyys emidetEw TO oyHua, du’ od 
mpos Tov Beov avaBaivete. “‘ dedte mpds pe TaAVTES 
ol KomL@VTES Kal TEhopTiopevol, KaYW avaTravcw 
buds: dpare tov Cvydv pov ed’ buds Kat pdbere 
am’ €u00, OTL Tpais ele Kal TaTTELWOS TH Kapdia, 
Kal EvpTcETE dvdTavow Tais poxais tuadv: o yap 
Cuyos Lov Xpnoros Kal TO poptiov ov edadpov 
€oTw.” oTeVouper, papapev, @ OeodidAh Kal 
QeoeikeAa Tot Adyou [avOpwr7rot | ; aydApara: omev- 
owpev, Spduwpyev, dpwuev tov Cvyov avtob, tzo- 
AdBwpev adGapaiav,? Kaddov nvioyov avOpwimwyv Tov 
ploTov ayaryjownev Tov Ta@dAov trolvy.ov yyaye 
ovv T@ TaAa@: Kal TOV avOpwmwy THY ovvwpida 
Katalevéas, eis abavaciav KatiOver TO apa, omev- 
dwy mpos Tov Geov mAnpdoa evapyds 6 jvikaro, 
mpotepov prev els “lepovoadrp, viv dé eiceAavvwv 
1 @ Wilamowitz. dy mss. 
2 [&vOpwroa]| Heyse. 

3 broddBwuev dpOapolav Mayor. vtroBddwuev dpOapoia Mss. 
émiBddwuev apOapciag Wilamowitz (whom Stihlin follows). 



of immortality. I desire, yea, I desire to impart cap, 
to you even this gracious favour, supplying in its *1 
fulness the good gift of incorruption. And I freely 

give you divine reason, the knowledge of God ; I give 

you Myself in perfection. For this is Myself, this is 

God’s desire, this is the concord, this the harmony 

of the Father: this is the Son, this is Christ, this 

is the Word of God, the arm of the Lord, the might 

of the universe, the Father’s will. O ye who of old He win 
were images, but do not all resemble your model, I poate 
desire to conform you to the archetype, that you of Himseif 
may become even as I am. I will anoint you with 

the ointment of faith, whereby you cast away cor- 
ruption; and I will display unveiled the figure of 
righteousness, whereby you ascend to God. ‘Come 

unto Me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, He win 
and I will give you rest. Take My yoke upon Sve rest 
you and learn of Me; for I am meek and lowly in 

heart, and ye shall find rest unto your souls. For 

My yoke is easy and My burden is light.””% Let us 

hasten, let us run, we who are images of the Word, 
beloved of God and made in His likeness. Let us 

hasten, let us run; let us take up His yoke; let us 

take upon ourselves incorruption ; let us love Christ, 

the noble charioteer of men. He led the foal and its He drives 
parent under the same yoke,’ and now having yoked {7¢ team of 
together the team of mankind, He shapes the course into heaven 
of His chariot for the goal of immortality. He 
hastens to God that He may fulfil clearly what before 

He darkly hinted at; for He drove at the first 

into Jerusalem, but now into heaven, a most noble 

@ St. Matthew xi. 28-30. 
> See St. Matthew xxi. 1-7, 


/ ~ 
CAP. otpavovs, KdAAvotov Oéaya 7 Tatpi vids atd.os 

94 P. 

/ / \ \ \ \ 
" wknddpos. piAdtysor tolvyy mpds Ta Kada Kal 
Deogurets avOpwrrot yevwpeba, KaL TOV ayabav a Ta 
péytota, Peov Kat Cony, KTnowpeBa. dpuryos de 6 
Adyos Dappaev avrTa Kal [L}) TOTE HULGs TOGODTOS 
dpyvpov Kal | xpvaod, pin dd€ns ezreAPn mobos, 
Goos avTov Tob Tis dAnBeias Aoyou. ovee yap 
ovde TO Ved atta apeartov, et Hyets TA wev TAELaTOU 
BA K \ 2 Lu aL / > / 3 \ \ 
a&ia mepi® eAaxiorov tovovpeba, ayvoias?® dé Kat 
> / \ ¢ / \ > / hd 
apwabias Kat pabuyias Kat eldwAodAatpeias vBpets 
mepipavets Kal THY EaxaTyny dSvaoceBevav TEpl TA«lo- 
vos atpovpcba. 
b) \ > \ / / a / 

Od yap amo tpdmov dirocddwv matdes tavTa 
60a mpdtTovow of avdontot, avoovoupyety Kal 
aceBetv vouilovow Kat adrijy ye [étu]° THv adyvovav 

/ =) ¢ / 3 \ + “\ / 
pravias eldos Umoypadovtes oddev aAAo 7) pEeunvevat 

A \ e ~ > \ > > / 
Tovs ToAAovs Opodroyotow. ov 81) odv audiBadrAew 
atpet® 6 Adyos, OmdTEpov avrotv dewov, awhpovetv 
7 peunvevar- éexouevous b€ amplE THs adnbeias 
mavTt ofever Erecbar xp7) TH eB owdpovobvras 
Kal T7avTa av’Tod vopilew, womep EoTL, mpos dé 
Tas ovTas avrod, opas avTous eTTUTpeTTEW TO bed, 
ayanG@vras pu tov Bedv Kal TobTo Trap’ 5dov 
TOV Biov Epyov Tyoupevous. Bb iGeET a: Kowa Ta 
pilov,”’ Deogdrs d€ 6 avO perros (Kat yap ovv Piros 

TO bed,’ [LEOLTEVOVTOS TOU Aoyov), yiveTat 7). ovv 

1 d@yadav Stéhlin. daddy mss. 2 rept Cobet. izép mss. 

3 ayvoias Markland. dyvolas mss. 
4 alpovuea Stihlin. aipineda MSS. 
® [ér-] Wilamowitz. 8 aipe? Cobet. épet ms 
7 rw Gem after dios Wilamowitz, after dv@pwmos Mss. eb 
Ge] Cobet. 



spectacle for the Father, the eternal Son bringing cmap. 
victory! Let us be zealous, therefore, for what is 
noble, and become men beloved of God; and let us 
get possession of the greatest of good things, God 
and life. ‘The Word is our helper; let us have con- 
fidence in Him, and let no longing after silver and 
gold, or after glory, ever come upon us so strongly 
as the longing after the Word of truth Himself. 
For surely it cannot be pleasing to God Himself 
if we hold in least esteem those things which are 
of the greatest moment, while we choose as of 
higher worth the manifest excesses and the utter 
impiety of ignorance, stupidity, indifference and 

The sons of the philosophers not inaptly consider Phitoso- 
that all the works of foolish men are unholy and ne es 
impious, and by describing ignorance itself as a form a sort of 
of madness they acknowledge that the mass of men are ees 
nothing else but mad.“ Now reason does not allow 
us to doubt which of the two is better, to be sane or 
to be mad. Holding fast the truth with all our might But we 
we must follow God in soundness of mind, and con- Must pola 
sider all things to be His, as indeed they are; and bratte land: 
further we must recognize that we are the noblest of "°° "" 
His possessions and entrust ourselves to Him, loving 
the Lord God, and looking upon that as our work 
throughout the whole of life. And if “the goods of If we 
friends are common,” ® and man is beloved of God panel 
(for he is indeed dear to God through the mediation poet 

of the Word), then all things become man’s, because eae 

4 The philosophers referred to are the Stoics; cp. Cicero, 
Paradoxon iv. and Tusc. disp. iii. 5. 
> Greek proverb. See Plato, Phaedrus 279 c, 



95 P. 


TO mavro. Tob dvOparrov, ¢ OTt Ta, mdvra tod Geod, 
Kal Kowa appoty Totv pihow Ta mavra., Tob Oeot 
kal avOpwrov. pa obv Hiv p.ovov TOV beooeBi 
[Xproreavor ] etrrety tAovatov TE Kal oadpova Kal 
edyevi) Kal TAUTY etkova Tob feob pO? Opovmoews, 
Kat Aéyew Kal mortevew “ dikatov Kal OaLov pera 
Ppovycews © YEVvoLevov b70 Xprorob Inoob Kal els 
Toaobrov OjLoLov 7100 Kal 0e@. ovK dmoxpUmrerat 
yoov 6 mpodyrns Thy xdpw Aéyww, ve eyo elrov 
ore Deol € €OTE Kal viol dypiorov TAYTES nas yap, 
7Las elomemoinra Kal nua Vere joven KexAfjobau 
| TaTnp, ov Tov ameovvTwy. Kat yap obv doe 
Ts Exel TO. Tperepa Trav Xprorod oTradav: ola 
pev at BovdAat, Totou Kal ot Adyor, orrotoe dé ot 
Adyot, rouaide Kal at mpagets, Kal O7rota Ta Epya, 
To.otTos 6 Bios: ypynotos 6 avpTas avOpwmmwv Bios 
Tav Xpiotov éyvwKoTwv. 

“Adis olwau tav Noywr, ef Kal joaxpotepw ™po- 
AAGov b70 pravOpwrrias O Tt TEP elyov é€K Deod 
exXEewr, Ws av él TO peyvorov TOV ayabar, TH 
owTypiay, TapaKahay mTept yap To. THs TavAav 
ovdapyn ovdauds éexovons Cwijs ov« €lédovow 
ovd ot Aoyou mavoacbai ore lepopavrobyres. 
tytv dé ere TobTo meptretrreTau mépas To Avowte- 
Aodv Edéaban, 7 Kpiow 7 Xap ws eywye ove due- 
BaAAew 2a TOTEpOV duewov avtotv: ovde nv 
ovyKpivecbar Béuis Cw amwdeia. 

1 [Xpicriavdv] Wilamowitz. 

@ The Stoics said all this of their ** wise man,” as Clement 
tells us elsewhere (ii. Strom. 19. 4): ** The Stoic philosophers 
hold this doctrine, that kingship, priesthood, prophecy, 
legislation, wealth, true beauty, noble birth and freedom 



all things belong to God and are common to both cap. 
friends, God and man. It is time then for us to *" 
affirm that only the God-fearing man is rich and of 

sound mind and well-born,“ and therefore the image, 
together with the likeness,? of God; and to say and 

believe that when he has been made by Christ Jesus 

“just and holy with understanding,” ¢ he also becomes He whom 
in the same degree already like to God. So the Crist holy 
prophet openly reveals this gracious favour when he Becomes 
says, “I said, ye are gods, and ye are all sons of the ~~ * 
Most High.”4 Now we, I say, we are they whom 

God has adopted, and of us alone He is willing to be 

called Father, not of the disobedient. For indeed 

this is the position of us who are Christ’s attendants®: The _ 
as are the counsels, so are the words; as are the Chustian 
words, so are the actions; and as are the deeds, such 

is the life. The entire life of men who have come 

to know Christ is good. 

Enough, I think, of words. It may be that, moved The reader 
by love of man, I have run on too long in pouring i$ “horted 
out what I have received from God, as is natural his choice 
when one is inviting men to the greatest of good Pearce 
things—salvation. For of a truth, the very words life. 
are unwilling ever to cease revealing the mysteries 
of that life which knows no manner of ending. But 
with you still rests the final act, namely this, to 
choose which is the more profitable, judgment or 
grace. For my own part, I claim that there is no 
shadow of doubt which of the two is better; nay, it is 
sinful even to compare life with destruction. 

belong to the wise man alone. But even they admit that he 
is exceedingly hard to find.” > See Genesis i. 26. 
¢ Plato, Theaetetus 176 B. @ Psalm Ixxxii. 6. 
¢ This phrase is an allusion to Plato, Phaedrus 252 c: 
“the attendants of Zeus ” (rév Ards éradav). 


8 OF | | te ae ioe somllsaot 
off saur ai set ‘on ey sais Senta. 
Bela Haat inp Fa: aie hide, Hon bits ih 54 i 

: i ka ‘ 
ie AS ide: Fr 7 - i Li 
a ae Ge hal’ ee nob hk seats Sy 1eoet Sinha, Sih at og 


iv nod WHOVAT 2lbioty ehhh oed7S1 YlSG6 Podge 
a ag TG a if ets : Faas’ om hte i! Rai i Si = 
Sarvcnilenet: geri pes Smee canis A gtEE seed 

- eee gh nedlive eivalivonoliaan tahun iho teyesug oe Be 

bershasi. Teh. ‘decid dike “yet to dou Pos fs iat Baling 

eh aia 2eheuibees 4 A ajeitdo. oie Gaw? bin br adittemnpons aipidd 

ee _pitinetiy sikh OF BBE, abrow, act dite, 62) loanaga " ie OA BR 
| Sate" | a ehaaby: bsac.ecotjas ot saa, on aby 
ARS: Bian one moc. Wy ott: i >,.0fh Bo pei, od ai 
me . AMOR 2b-. toPut) wi fas. 
a "ovo Jadt Aire t gird 4 oh Pisah We ait | i Maver “ 
ici "a! gant Oot mo iss (at Lf Maat 16 sa70! vd 

ae Nitec et ae Dark trait Fy 378997 | ave 1 Froey ‘Yua 3 
vari bay fo3 Feat it by , of Si Gabi fist et B48 rt ae 

MESH IGnt® Viev iti "dest p To ae? Ate he te vate. ail 

wr nl) Shae Seth yeti abv “Btgoo: OF 15 79" Syl Ae =m 

ay ud Ogg obbines?? lo Wsetmnt on, oO desiediog? ert te! 

0 AggaBRt sfcenets do." allt eckkuetere IIE: ‘were vate a 

oon dadartint oielagy Rartegy amore exits ph goin Ruarect: 

anil Pai osshidadiombde Edampawdr aie toe: of 
* one al di pear res tad, ak tweet to, doldew Aduob e's «phale 

. » ftolowes sof, dtiw, Stik axeqeaoy of novo fitetie 

nk ¥ 


ta eS od findd the e eon tte “enrolty ara a ee 
mts tt ee eared a ai at er bese S Detar 
et La Ai tada: aa eee: ale: eh yor as, eh ‘a OTT vast wales 
) a soo an en "ae at tateielta- ee ats 
mA 1 as ia wisi 



Tue Rich Man’s Salvation, or, to give the work its 
literal title, “Who is the rich man that is being 
saved?”’ is the only complete example left us of 
Clement’s popular teaching. Although composed in 
the form of a sermon, it would seem too long to 
have been delivered orally on any single occasion. 
Possibly it may be the expansion and elaboration of 
an actual sermon; but, whether this is so or not, we 
may be sure that the teaching it contains formed 
the subject of many a discourse addressed by 
Clement to the rich Christians of Alexandria. In 
all probability the Church came into close touch 
with the cultured and well-to-do classes earlier at 
Alexandria than elsewhere. Consequently, the 
problem of reconciling Christianity with the posses- 
sion of worldly wealth would be likely to have 
become acute there in the second century. It was 
not an easy problem to solve. The rich man who 
was well-disposed towards the new religion had to 
consider many things which, as Clement in this 
treatise admits, often drove him to the conclusion 
that the Church had no place for him. There was 



the poor and simple life of Christ Himself and of His 
apostles ; there were the numerous gospel warnings 
about the dangers of wealth; there was the severe 
command to the rich man to sell all that he had; 
there was the communism of the first Christians ; 
there was the undoubted fact that the Church had 
spread among poor people and had always been 
chiefly composed of them. All these considerations, 
augmented and strengthened by the conviction that 
a gospel of the eternal life had but little to do with 
comfort in this world, made it difficult both for the 
rich to enter the Church and for the poor to receive 
them there without jealousy or suspicion. Clement’s 
extensive learning, for the acquisition of which 
money and leisure were certainly necessary, and his 
familiarity with the customs of refined society, show 
that he was himself a man of at least some wealth 
and position. He was therefore personally interested 
in the question which he sets out to answer in the 
work now before us. 

He takes as a basis for his inquiry the passage 
about the rich man in St. Mark x. 17-31. Here was 
the hardest stumbling-block of all to the rich who 
wanted to become Christians, and Clement removes 
it in characteristic fashion by denying that Christ’s 
words mean what they seem to say. Apparently it 
never occurred to him that, on the theory of “ diver- 
sities of gifts,’ one man might be ordered to give up 
his wealth and another to keep it for wise and 
generous use. He knew that even in pre-Christian 
days some men had felt that their highest work 
could only be done at the cost of sacrificing their 
possessions; but he was unwilling to allow that 
Anaxagoras, Democritus and Crates had, to the 



best of their ability, fulfilled the very ideal that 
Christ had placed before the rich man. It must be 
something fundamentally different from this that 
Christ meant, so Clement says. What then was His 
meaning? The wealth He bade His questioner 
renounce must be taken in a spiritual sense; it was 
a wealth of passions, a brood of sins in the soul; 
not money itself, but the love of money. The rich 
man might have kept his wealth, and by following 
Jesus have learned to use it rightly. All that rich 
men in general have to do, therefore, is to eradicate 
selfishness and to spend their money liberally for 
the relief of their poorer brethren, who by inter- 
ceding with God for such benefactors will return an 
abundant recompense. 

As a result of this exegesis we are robbed of one 
of the most striking appeals to a man’s heroism and 
contempt of consequences that even the gospels 
contain. There can be no question that the Christian 
Church has suffered much, and is still suffering, from 
that avoidance of the plain meaning of historical 
records which is characteristic of the Alexandrine 
system of spiritual or allegorical interpretation. It 
would, however, be unfair, as well as ungracious, to lay 
the whole blame of this upon Clement. He was but 
the exponent of a system for which the age in which 
he lived was responsible. Nor must we forget 
the positive advantages that were gained by this 
interpretation. The mission of Clement and the 
Alexandrine Church was to give Christianity a firm 
footing in the world, and to allow it to assimilate all 
that was good of human thought and culture. In 
Clement’s day the belief in a speedy return of Christ 
was passing away, and consciously or unconsciously 

K 267 


the Church was preparing for its own continuance as 
a permanent institution in human society ; a citizen- 
ship on earth was being claimed alongside of St. 
Paul’s “citizenship in heaven.” When once this is 
admitted, neither philosophy, nor science, nor art, 
nor even the leisure and refinement that are associ- 
ated with wealth, can be utterly excluded from the 
Church. In the Stromateis we see Clement boldly 
claiming for Greek philosophy a place in the life of 
Christian people ; in the “ Rich Man’s Salvation ” we 
see him making the same bold claim on behalf of 
wealth. There is no virtue, he says, in beggary ; 
there are certain good things which wealth alone 
ean bring; and if the rich man will but learn to 
spend his riches in the alleviation of suffering and 
the brightening and comforting of other lives, he 
need not despair of a place among the followers of 

The present translation of “The Rich Man,” like 
that of the “ Exhortation to the Greeks,’ has been 
made from Stihlin’s edition of Clement, and the text 
printed here is in the main Stihlin’s text. Any 
deviations of importance from the reading of the chief 
manuscript are noted at the foot of each page. This 
manuscript is the one in the Escurial library, known 
as S. A page is missing from the end of S, and also 
from the Vatican manuscript which was copied from 
it. This page, however, consisting of the story of St. 
John and the robber, is almost completely recoverable 
from Eusebius who quotes it (H.E. iii. 23), and from 
the Scholia of Maximus Confessor on Dionysius the 
Areopagite. About twenty lines are still lost. A 
few words that are missing from the first three 


paragraphs have been inserted in the following text 
according to what seemed the best conjectures 
available. Before Stihlin’s edition was issued the 
text of S had been carefully edited and the 
manuscript described by P. M. Barnard (Teats and 
Studies, edited by J. Armitage Robinson, D.D., vol. v. 
No. 2), who has also published a separate translation 
(5: P.CK.). 


935 P. 

936 P. 


> - 
1. Of pév tods eyKwutactiKods Adyous Tots 
mAovalots Swpodopodbytes od povov KoAakeEs Kal av- 
/ a 
eAevlepor Sixaiws av emouye Kpiveobar Soxotev, ws 
emt TOAA® TrpoaTrovovpevot yapicacbat Ta aydpiota, 
> \ We > A \ > / > ~ / 4 
GAAd Kal aoeBets Kal émiBovrow- daoeBets pév, ort 
mapevtes aivety kal do€alew Tov povov TéAELov Kal 
> \ / ’ e \ / A > e \ / \ 
ayabov Oedv, €€ ob Ta TavTa Kal bv ob Ta TAVTA Kal 
avOpwzrous €v ao <OTW KQL BopBopwddeu be Biw KuAw- 
dovpevors <Kal>® ro Kedadraov troKepevois * TH 
~ ~ > U ~ ~ 
Kplioet TOO Beod: emiBovdou dé, Ste Kai adtis Tis 
> e ~ ~ 
meptovatas Kal” abtiv ixavns ovons yavv@oa Tas 
~ A \ 
wvyas TOV KeKTNLEVWHY Kal SiadGetpar Kal arro- 
~ ~ ~ > bd] ~ 
oTHoat Ths O00, du’ Hs emuTvyetvy EoTL Gwrypias, 
A ~ 
olde mpocexTAjcoovat Tas yvwpas THY TAOVGIwY 
A aA ~ > / 
~ uj wh ~ 
Kabdmaé THv OAwY mpayudtwv tAnVv Tob mAOUTOV, 
du ov Oavpdlovrar, | tapacKevalovtes brrepdpoveiv, 
TO 67) TOD Adyou Tip Emi Top weToXeTEVOVTES, TUPW 
1 ro<vrou> Lindner: Stiahlin. (The bracketed words. and 
letters are to fill blank spaces in the ms.) 
2 do<wrw kai BopBopwdey> Lindner: Stahlin. 

3 <xkal> Segaar. 
4 jroxeyuévots Combefis. wtzroxelwevoy Ms. 

@ Romans xi. 36. 


1. Men who offer Jaudatory speeches as presents to The sin of 
the rich may rightly be classed, in my opinion, not [22s 
only as flatterers and servile, since in the hope of a 
large return they make a show of granting favours 
that are really no favours, but also as impious and 
insidious. ‘They are impious, because, while neglect- 
ing to praise and glorify the only perfect and good 
God, from whom are all things and through whom 
are all things and to whom are all things,” they invest 
with His prerogative men who are wallowing in a 
riotous and filthy life and, in short, are lying under 
the judgment of God. They are insidious, because, 
although mere abundance is by itself quite enough 
to puff up the souls of its possessors, and to corrupt 
them, and to turn them aside from the way by which 
salvation can be reached, these men bring fresh 
delusion to the minds of the rich by exciting them 
with the pleasures that come from their immoderate 
praises, and by rendering them contemptuous of 
absolutely everything in the world except the wealth 
which is the cause of their being admired. In the 
words of the proverb, they carry fire to fire,?> when 
> A common Greek proverb, equivalent to our ‘‘ Carrying 
coals to Newcastle.” See Plato, Laws 666 a. The verb 
translated ‘‘carry” means literally ‘‘to conduct water 
through pipes.” 


todov émavtAobytes Kal OyKov mtAo’Tw Tpocava- 
rievres Bapet dice: doptiov Bapvtepov, ob waAdov 
exphv dapaipety Kal TEPLKOTITEW, os odadepod vo- 
OnaTos Kal Bavarnpdopov: T@ yap dpoupevy Kal 
peyadvvopeva 7 Taparremyev avriorpogos 7 1) T™POS TO 
Tamewov jLeTaBoAr Kal TT@ats, Ws 0 Detos SiddoKet 
Adyos. Epuol dé daiverar pakp® diAavOpwrortepov 
elvar Tod Depamevew <avehevbepws >* Tovs tAov- 
Tobvras <Kal emaweiy >° emt KaK@ TO ovvaipecbat 
<TH Cony Kal>* rv owrTnpiav avrots <Katepyace- 
aba. > dmavra TOV duvaTov TpoTov, ToOTO pev 
efartovjpevous mapa Oeob Tod BeBaiws Kai 7d€ws 
Tols €avToo TEKVOLS TA TOLAvTA mpotepevov, ToOTo 
dé Adyw ® dua THS XApiTOs TOD owTipos twpevous Tas 
puxas avTav, putilovras Kal mpoodyovras emt THV 
ths aAnbetas KTHOW, Hs 6 TUXMV Kal Epyous dyabois 
é\Aaptpuvopevos pLovos TO? BpaBetov THs alwviov 
Coons dvarpycerar. detra dé Kal 7 edx7) poxiis 
eUpw@orov Kal Avrapods ax pe TiS, eoxarys nLepas 
Tob Biov OULILE LET pH LEVIS Kal <n>! * wodureta dva- 
bécews xpnoris Kal pLovijov Kal mdaoals Tats 
evtoAais Tob GwThpos émEKTELWOMErNS. 

2. Kurduvever d€ ody amAoby tT elvat TO aiTLov TOO 
THY owrnplav XaAetrnr€pav tots trAovtobat dSoKetv 
7 Tots axpnudrous TOV avOpurtrev, aia moukiAov. 
ot pev yap avTobev kal TpoXElpwrs dxovoarres THS 
Tob Kupiov dwvis, 6 ore pdaov dynos Oud TPHLATOS 
papidos SvexdvoeT ar 7 movovos ets THY Baotdciav 
TOV ovpavav, atoyvovtes EauTovs Ws od} Biwadpevot, 

1 raparérnyev from Antonii Melissa: missing from ms. 

2 <avenevdépws> Fell. 3 kal érawety> Barnard. 
4 <riv fwhv Kal> Stahlin. 5 <xarepydterba> Fell. 



they shower pride upon pride, and heap on wealth, 
heavy by its own nature, the heavier burden of 
arrogance. Rather they ought to have diminished 
and curtailed wealth, as a perilous and deadly disease ; 
for the man who exalts and magnifies himself is in 
danger of a complete reversal of fortune, namely, the 
change and fall into low estate, as the divine word 
teaches.* It seems to me an act far kinder than ser- The 
vile attention to the rich and praise that does them juyic” 
harm, if we share the burden of their life and work out rehner te 
salvation for them by every possible means; first by the rich 
begging them from God, who unfailingly and gladly 
accords such gifts to His own children, and then by 
healing their souls with reason, through the Saviour’s 
grace, enlightening them and leading them on to the 
possession of the truth. For only he who has reached 
the truth and is distinguished in good works shall 
carry off the prize of eternal life. But prayer requires 
a soul that runs its course strong and persevering 
until the last day of life, and the Christian citizenship 
requires a disposition that is good and steadfast and 
that strains to fulfil? all the Saviour’s commandments. 

2. Now the reason why salvation seems to be Reasons 
more difficult for the rich than for men without WY 

wealth is probably not a simple one, but complex. seems diffi 
: - : cu 't for 
For some, after merely listening in an off-hand way fich men 
to the Lord’s saying, that a camel shall more easily 
creep through a needle’s eye than a rich man into 

the kingdom of heaven,’ despair of themselves, 

2 4.e. St. Matthew xxiii. 12. 
> Literally, ‘stretches out towards.” The same word is 
used by St. Paul in Philippians iii. 13. e-Sti Mark’. 95. 

8 \éyw Segaar. Adyw Ms. 7 76 Stéhlin. ob7os ms. 
8 <)> inserted by Barnard. 


937 P. 


TO Kom mavra xapilopevor Kal THs evtabdba Cwijs 
ws Horns €avTots drodevmopevns exkpeacbevtes 
améornoav méov Tijs eKEL 0608, LLNKeTL moAuT pay 
povnoavres pyre Tivas Tovs mAovatous Oo deomro7Ns 
kal duddoxahos mpooayopevel LTE OTTWS TO advVa- 
Tov ev dvOpasrous * Suvarov yiverau. aAAou dé TobTo 
pev ouvnKay opbas kal TpoonkoVvTws, TOV SE Eepywv 
TOV Eis THV owrnpiav avadhepovTwv dAuywpnaavres 
ov TAapEeaKEeVaoaVTO THY d€ovcav TapacKevTy ets TO 
TOV eAmuCopevey TUXElV. Aéyer* de Tatra éExaTepa 
mept® TOV mAovaiwy TOV Kal Tis duvapews Tod 
owThpos Kal THs emupavods cwrnpias nabynpevwr, 
Ta&v b€ a cpu Tov THs adn Betas oXLyov jou perec. 

3. Xp toivuv Tovs piradntos Kal piradeAgurs 
<Siaxeyrevous >* Kal [7TE Karabpacvvopevous av- 
Oddws tav mAovciwy KAnTa@V pte ad maAWw v70- 
mimrovTas avTots dua oikelay Piroxepderay, m™p@Tov 
pev avTa@v efaipety T® NOyw Thy Kevyn? a amdoyvaow 
Kal Sn Aoby pLeTa Tijs Seovons e€nynoews TOV Aoyiwv 
Tob Kupiov | dudTt oVK aTroKeKoTITAL TEAEOV avrots 7) 
KAnpovop.ia Tijs Baotdelas Tov ovpavay €av om 
akovowot Tats evrohais: el? omdtav padbwow ws 
adees dediacr d€os Kal ore Bovdopevous avrovs 6 
oWwTIp dopevws d€xeTat, TOTE Kal Tpoderkvovat Kal 
pvotaywyety Orrws av Kal du’ olwy epywv Te Kal 
dvablecewy e7avpawTo Tis eAmri8os, ws ovr’ aun - 
xavov ajc adtots oUTe TovvayTiov -€iKy 

1 dvOpHros Barnard. dvOpwry 7 Ms. 

2 Xéyw Ghisler. éywy Ms. ? wept Barnard. dep émi Ms. 
4 <dcaKxeuévous> Fell. 5 xevyvy Combefis. xKawhy Ms. 

« Literally, ‘the rich who are called” ; cp. 1 Corinthians 
i. 24, and Jude ver. 1. 



feeling that they are not destined to obtain life. 
So, complying with the world in everything, and 
clinging to this present life as the only one left to 
them, they depart further from the heavenward way, 
taking no more trouble to ask who are the rich men 
that the Master and Teacher is addressing nor how 
that which is impossible with men becomes possible. 
Others however understand the saying rightly and 
properly, but, because they make light of the works 
which bear upon salvation, do not provide the neces- 
sary preparation for the satisfaction of their hopes. 
In both cases I am speaking of the rich who have 
learnt of the Saviour’s power and His splendid salva- 
tion; with those who are uninitiated in the truth I 
have little concern. 

3. It is the duty, therefore, of those whose minds 
are set on love of truth and love of the brethren, 
and who neither behave with insolent rudeness 
towards the rich members of the church,” nor yet 
cringe to them through personal love of gain, first, by 
means of the word of scripture,’ to banish from them 
their unfounded despair and to show, with the neces- 
sary exposition of the Lord’s oracles, that the inherit- 
ance of the kingdom of heaven is not completely cut 
off from them, if they obey the commandments ; and 
afterwards, when they have learnt that their fears 
are groundless, and that the Saviour gladly receives 
them if they desire, to point out and instruct them 
how and through what kind of works and re- 
solves they can enjoy the object of their hope, 
which is neither beyond their reach nor, on the 
contrary, to be obtained without settled purpose. 

> Or perhaps, ‘‘ by means of reason.” See p. 20, n. a. 
K2 275 

must show 
them that 
is not 


TE pLYWOLLEV)S. add’ ovTmep: Tpotrov exer TO TOV 
abAn7Ov, wa puKpa Kat emiKnpa. peyddous Kal 
adOdprois mapaBdAwpev, Touti Kal ef’ éavtod+ 6 
Kata KoojLov TAovTaV Aoyiléobw. Kal yap éxeivwn 
6 pev OTe Suvijcerar viKav Kal oTrepavwv Tuyxavew 
americas ovo” OAws emt THV ab Anow ameyparparo, 
6 b€ ravTny pev eBaAdpevos TH yreopn THY eArida, 
movous 6€ Kal yupvaola Kat Tpodas [41) TpOGve}Levos 
mpoodhdpous, aoredavwrtos Steyévero Kat Sijpapre 
Tov éAridbwy. ovTwWs TIS Kal TH emiyelov TAUTNY 
meptBeBAnwevos meptBoAry pare THY apn eauTov 
@v Kal TO peyadetov auvopay Ths Tob Oeod pur- 
avOpwrias, pare pny aves dvdoxntos Kal av- 
ayesveaTos peivas GKOVUTL KaVLOpwrl* TOV orepaveny 
ths apbapaias €Amlérw petahaBetv- GAN’ atbrov 
bmoBarera pepwv yupvaorTh pmev TO Aoye, aywvo- 
Oérn 5é€ TO Xpror@: Tpogy) d€ atT® Kal moToV 
yeveodu TET EVOV 1) KOU?) Seabhien tod Kupiou, 
yupvaova d€ at evtodat, edoxToovry) d€ Kal 
KOopoS at KaAat duabecers, ayarn, mloTis, eArris, 
yv@ats adnbeias, <émeixeta, >8 TpaoTyns, evoTrAayy - 
via, oepvoTns, Ww’, oTav <7 >* eaydtn adAmy€é b70- 
onenvn <To TéAos>°® Tod Spdpsov Kal THY evTebbev 
e€odov® Kabdmep €k atadtov Tob Biov, wet ayabod 
Tob avveddtos TH abdAobérn Tapacrh vixynddpos, 
wuodoynmevos THs avw matpidos agwos, els Hv 
1 €avrod Mayor. éauvre Ms. 
2 dxovirl kdvidpwri Ghisler. dxwvetra xdv ldpOre Ms. 
3 <Cmrelesia Fell (lacuna in s.). 
4 <> inserted by Schwartz. 

agro TéXos> inserted by Stahlin (cp. 2 Timothy iv. 7). 
8 rv... Godoy Stahlin. rhs... e&ddou Ms. 



Well then, as is the case with athletes—if we may But effort 
compare things small and perishable with things Pecsyy 
great and incorruptible—so let him who is rich in athletes 
this world consider it to be with himself. For the 
athlete who has no hope of being able to win and to 
obtain crowns does not even enrol himself for the 
contest ; while the one who at heart entertains this 

hope, but does not submit to hard training and 
exercises and suitable food, comes out uncrowned 

and entirely misses the fulfilment of his hopes. In 

the same way let not one who is clothed with this 
earthly covering” proclaim himself barred at the start 

from the Saviour’s prizes, if, that is, he is faithful 

and surveys the magnificence of God’s love to men; 

nor, once again, let him hope, by remaining un- 
disciplined and unused to conflict, to partake of the 
crowns of incorruption without dust and sweat. But 

let him come and subject himself to reason? as 
trainer and to Christ as master of the contests. Let 

his appointed food and drink be the Lord’s new 
covenant,° his exercise the commandments, his grace 

and adornment the fair virtues of love, faith, hope,4 
knowledge of the truth, goodness, gentleness, com- 
passion, gravity; in order that, when the _ last 
trumpet’ signals the end of the race and his departure 

from the present life as from a course, he may with 

a good conscience stand before the judge a victor, 
admitted to be worthy of the fatherland above, into 

@ i.e. riches. 

> Again we have the comprehensiveness in the meaning 
of logos. Seep. 20,n.a. In Clement’s thought the different 
meanings tend to mingle with one another. 

¢ See 1 Corinthians xi. 25. 

4 See 1 Corinthians xiii. 13. 

¢ See 1 Corinthians xv. 52. 


938 P. 


wera. oTepavey Kal KnpvypLdtav ayyeNKav eravép- 

4. Aoin rowvv jp 6 owrinp evtedbev dpSapevors 
tov Aoyou Tan Oy Kal TA TMpemovTa Kat Ta OWT PLa 
ovpBareobar Tots adeAdots mpos TE THY €Arrida 
T™p@Tov avriy Kat SevVTEPOV TpOos T1V THs. eArridos 
mpocaywyrv. © be xapilerar deopevois Kal airobv- 
Tas OvddoKet Kal vet THY dyvouay Kal THY a7 - 
yvwow dmoceleTau, TOUS avrovs maw jelodyov 
Adyous mepl TOV motel, EauT@v Epunveas ywo- 
pevous Kat efnyntas daparets. ovdev yap olov 
atTav avis aKodoat Tav pnTav, amep yuds ev 
Tots evayyeAlous axpe viv SveTdpacoev dBacavicrws 
Kat Sunpaprnpevws bro vyTudTHTOS akpowpEvous. 

+ "Exzropevopevov avtod! eis odor mpooeOev TLS 
eyovumreret Aéyev: duddaKkade ayabe, Tl TOWMNoa, 
iva | Cony aiwviov KAnpovopjow; oO € “Inoods 
Aéyen: Ti pe dyaBov Aéyets ; ovdels dyabos el yer) 
eis 0 Oeds. Tas evtoAds oldas: Ly) jorxevons, pa 
povevons, p Tay Krebs, bo Hy) pevd omapTupyans, Tia. 
TOV TATE pa. gov Kal THY pntépa. o de amoxpilets 
déyeu adr@: qTavTa TadTa eptdata <ex veoTnTOs 
pov>*. 6 de ‘Inoods euPrerbas nyamynoev adTov 
Kal elrrev" €v cou botepet: et OéAeus Téevos elvat, 
mwAnoov oO doa exets Kal d.d8os mTwyots, Kal e€es 
Onoavpov ev ovpave, kat Sebpo dKxodovber por. 6 
be oTuyvdcas emt TO Adyw amiAde AvTrovpevos: Hv 

yap exwv ypywata ToAAd Kal aypovs. mepiPAeba- 

1 airod Barnard. av’r@ Ms. 
2 <éx vedtnrés wou> inserted by Segaar ; see pp. 286, 290. 



which with angelic crowns and proclamations he 
now ascends. 

4, May the Saviour grant us power, then, as we 
begin our address at this point, to impart to the 
brethren true and fitting and salutary thoughts, first 
with regard to the hope itself, and secondly with 
regard to the means of reaching it. He gives freely 
to those who need, and teaches them when they ask, 
and disperses their ignorance, and shakes off their 
despair, by bringing up again the self-same words 
about the rich and showing them to be their own sure 
interpreters and expositors. For there is nothing 
like hearing once more the actual sayings which, 
because in our childishness we listened to them un- 
critically and mistakenly, have continued until now 
to trouble us in the gospels. 

As He was going forth into the way, one came and 
kneeled before Him, saying, Good Master, what shall I 
do that I may inherit eternal life. And Jesus says, Why 
callest thou me good? None is good save one, even God. 
Thou knowest the commandments; do not commit 
adultery, do not kill, do not steal, do not bear false 
witness, honour thy father and mother. And he answer- 
ing says to Him, All these things have I observed from my 
youth. And Jesus looking upon him loved him, and said, 
One thing thou lackest. If thou wilt be perfect, sell 
whatsoever thou hast and distribute to the poor, and thou 
shalt have treasure in heaven; and come, follow Me. 
But his countenance fell at the saying, and he went away 
sorrowful ; for he was one that had great riches and lands. 

@ The imagery in this fine passage is taken from the 
Greek games, which St. Paul also had used as an illustration 
of the spiritual conflict. See 1 Corinthians ix. 25. 


A prayer 
for the 

The gospel] 
about the 
rich man 


\ ¢e > ~ / ~ A > ~ 
pevos S€ 6 “Inaots éyer Tots pabntais adrod: 
mas SvaKoAws of TA XpHpaTa ExovTeEs EloeAcYaovTat 

> \ / ~ ~ ¢ \ \ > 
eis Thv Baotrctav Tob Geod. ot de pabnrat efap- 
Bobvto emt Tots Adyors adtob. mddAw be 6 *Inaods 
amoxptlels Aéyer adtots: TéKva, THs SvVaKoAdv €aTt 
Tovs metroloTas emt ypypacw eis THY BactAretav Tob 
~ >] an >} / A fond ~ ~ , 
Oeot eiaceAPetv: cdKddws dia THS TPYLAALGs THs BeAd- 
vns Kdndos ciceAcvoeTar 7 TAOvaLOS els THY Bact- 
Aelav Tob Geob. of 5é mepicaods e€emAjaoovTo Kal 
” / > / ~ ¢ A ’ / 
EXeyov: tis obv SUvatar cwhjvar; 0 de euBAdpas 
avrois elzev' 6 Te Tapa avOpwrots advvaTov, Tapa 
~ / ” ¢ / / b) ~ OA 
be@ Svvarev. jp€ato o Ilérpos A€yew adTa@: ie 
A \ 
Huets adynKapev mavta Kal HKoAovbijcapév cot. 
> \ \ Re? A / > \ Cin / 
amoxpileis d€ 6 “Inaots Aéyer’ apy tuiv A€yw, 
a“ “ > ~ \ ” \ A A > \ \ 
6s av adh ta tdta Kat yovets Kat adeAdods Kai 
xXpywata evexev e“od Kat evexev TOD edayyediov, 
amoAnpeTrar éxatovtartAaciova. viv ev TH Kapa 
ToUTW aypovs Kal ypnuaTa Kal oikias Kal adeApods 
€yew peTa Swwypa@v eis 70d;* ev d€ TH Epyouevw 
Cn? éorw aidvos: [ev de]* Ecovrar ot mparor 
~ 3° 
~ ~ / 
5. Tatra pev ev t@ Kata Mapxov evayyedAtw 
/ A \ > ~ LAA de ~ A >4 
yéypantat: Kal ev Tois aAdows de maou < Tots 
avwpLodoynuevots dAiyov ev tows ExacTaxod TaV 
pnudarwv evaddAdooe, mdvta Se THY adTHV Tihs 
youns ovpdwviav emideixvuTa. det dé adds 
> / ¢ ? \ > / ¢ / > \ wr S, 
elooTas ws ovdev avOpwrivws 6 GwTrp, aAAa TavTa 
Geia codia Kal pvotikh SiddcKer Tods EavTod, 17 
~ ~ > \ \ > 
capKivws axpodoba ta&v Aeyouéevwr, adAa Tov ev 
1 els rod; Stahlin. els rou Ms. elpyou Barnard. 
2 tw Ghisler. {wy Ms. 8 [év dé] Ghisler. 

4 <rois> inserted by Wilamowitz. 


And Jesus looked round about, and says to His disciples, 
How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the 
kingdom of God! And the disciples were amazed at His 
words. But Jesus answering again says to them, 
Children, how hard is it for them that trust in riches to 
enter into the kingdom of God! A camel shall more 
easily enter through the eye of the needle, than a rich 
man into the kingdom of God. And they were exceed- 
ingly astonished and said, Who then can be saved? But 
He looking upon them said, That which is impossible with 
men is possible with God. Peter began to say to him, Lo, 
we have left all and followed thee. And Jesus answer- 
ing says, Verily I say to you, whoever leaves his home 
and parents and brothers and riches for My sake and for 
the gospel’s sake, shall receive back a hundredfold. To 
what end is it that in this present time we have lands and 
riches and houses and brothers with persecutions? But 
in the time to come is life eternal. ‘The first shall be 
last and the last first.¢ 

5. This is written in the gospel according to Mark, 
and in all the other accepted? gospels the passage 
as a whole shows the same general sense, though 
perhaps here and there a little of the wording 
changes. And as we are clearly aware that the 
Saviour teaches His people nothing in a merely 
human way, but everything by a divine and mystical 
wisdom, we must not understand His words literally,° 

« St. Mark x. 17-31. It will be noticed that the text of 
St. Mark’s gospel used by Clement differed in a number of 
small points from that with which we are familiar. 

> Clement distinguishes the four gospels from others 
which he knew, and occasionally uses, but to which he did 
not attribute the same authority. 

e The Greek word is ‘‘fleshly” or ‘“‘carnally”; the 
fleshly meaning was the one that lay on the surface, as con- 
trasted with the hidden or spiritual meaning. ‘‘ Literally ” 
seems the nearest equivalent in modern English. 


The passage 
must not be 
in a merely 
literal sense 

939 P. 


avrots KEK PULLLEVOV voov pera, Ths a&las Cytioews 
Kal ouvécews epevvay Kal KatapavOdvew. Kat yap 
Ta Um avtob Tob Kuptov SoxodvTa nmrAadobae Tpos 
Tous pabntas Tav myeypevens Urrerpnevenv ovdev 
WTTOVvOS aAAa mA€iovos ere Kal viv THS emLaTdcews 
EUplOKETAL Sedpeva. dua THY vmepBadAovoav Tis 
ppovicews ev adrois drrepPoAnv. Orrov de Kal Ta 
vourlopeva Um adtobd diotyOar Tots €ow Kal avtots 
tots ths Bacwvelas Téxvois br’ adTod Kadovpévois 
eve xpnler Ppovtidos mAcElovos, 7 mov ye Ta Sogavta 
bev arA@s e€evnvexbar Kat dia TobTo pwnde Sinpw- 
THEVA TpPOS TMV aKovoavTwr, | eis GAov Se TO 
Tédos ado THs awrypias Siadepovta, éoxevacpéva 
d¢ Javpaor® Kai brepoupaviw diavolas Baber, odK 
émuToAaiws dexeobar. Tats dKoais TpoonKer, aAXa 
kablevras TOV vobv em avro TO TVEdLA TOD GwWTHpos 

Kal TO THS yreopns amdppyTov. 
6. “Hpcdirnra bev yap ndéws oO KUpLOS, HL@vV Kat 
owTnp epornpa katadAnAdraroy | ad7T@, 7 Cw) mrepl 
wis, 0 owTI/p TEpl GwTnplas, o Ripaneiee mrepl 
Kepadatiov Tay dudacKopevewv Soypdruy, <7>* 
aA Deva mrepl THS adn Buys aBavacias, 6 6 Adyos Tmept 
Tou | THAT pyvov Adyov, 6 > Téhevos Trepl Ths TeXelas ava- 
TAvTEWS, 6 adGapros mept THs BeBaias adbapoias. 
TpoTnrat mrepl TOUTWV drep cy Kal Karedndvdev, 
a mawever, & SiddoKer, a Tapéxer, Wa delEn THYv 
Tod evayyediov brdbeow, ott ddats eaTiv atwviou 
Cais. mpoowe de ws Beds Kal a péeArAe diEpw- 
TnOjcecbar Kat & péAAe Tis adT@ amoxpivecbar. 
1 Giagépovta, éoxemacuéva Stahlin. duadepdytwr, éoxerracpé. 

Vwy MS. 

2 <m> inserted by Barnard. 


but with due inquiry and intelligence we must 
search out and master their hidden meaning. For 
the sayings which appear to have been simplified 
by the Lord Himself to His disciples are found even 
now, on account of the extraordinary degree of 
wisdom in them, to need not less but more attention 
than His dark and suggestive utterances. And 
when the sayings which are thought to have been 
fully explained by Him to the inner circle of dis- 
ciples, to the very men who are called by Him 
the children of the kingdom,” still require further 
reflexion, surely those that had the appearance of 
being delivered in simple form and for that reason 
were not questioned by the hearers, but which are 
of importance for the whole end of salvation, and 
are enveloped in a wonderful and _ super-celestial 
depth of thought, should not be taken as they strike 
the careless ear, but with an effort of mind to reach 
the very spirit of the Saviour and His secret meaning. 

6. For our Lord and Saviour is pleased to be asked 
a question most appropriate to Him ; the Life is asked 

about life, the Saviour about salvation, the Teacher : 

about the chief of the doctrines He was teaching, 
the Truth about the true immortality, the Word 
about the Father’s word, the perfect one about the 
perfect rest, the incorruptible about the sure incor- 
ruption. He is asked about the things for which He 
has even come to earth, and which are the objects 
of His training, His teaching, His bounty ; in order 
that He may reveal the purpose of the gospel, that 
it is a gift of eternal life. As God He knows before- 
hand both what questions He will be asked and 

@ St. Matt. xiii. 38, 

The rich 
man’s quese 
tion was 
o our Lord 


ris yap Kal padov 3 7 0 mpopyrns mpodynTav Kat 
KUploS 7raVvTOS TpopaTiKod TVEVHLATOS ; KAn Bets 
dé ayabos, am’ adbtot mpwrov Tob prparos TOUTOU 
To evddaysov AaBav evredOev Kat THS SidacKaXlas 
apxeTat, emuotpépwv Tov pabytiv emi tov Oedv 
tov ayalov Kat mp@tov Kat povov Cwihs aiwviov 
Taplav, nv oO vlos didwow nuivy map éKeivov 

7. Odxotv 76 péytorov Kai Kopudatoratov THY 
mpos THV Cony Leas amo Ths apyhs evOds 
eycarabeoBar TH poxh 8 et, yv@va TOV Geov TOV 
atesveov Kat Soripa alwviwv Kat m™p@Tov Kal UiTépTa~ 
Tov Kal eva Kal ayaboy Beov. <dv>1 ori kryjcacbat 
bua YVOOEWS Kal Katadripes: avuTn yap arpenros 
Kal dodAevtos apx7) Kal Kpymis Cujs, eTUOT TLL 
feod Tod OvTWS OVTOS Kal Ta, evra, TOUTEOTL TA 
aiwvia, Swpovjevov, €€ ob Kal TO elvat Tots GAAoLS 
bmdpye Kat TO pretvar AaBetv. 1 wev yap TovTov 
ayvoia Odvatds €oTw, 7 S€é émiyvwots adTod Kal 
olKELWaLs KaL 7) TpOSs avTOV ayaTn Kal e€ojLolwots 
prov” Cw7. 

8. Todrov otv mpatov éemuyvOvat TO Cnoopévw 
Thy ovtTws Cwihv mapakeAevetat, dv ““ oddeis emuyt- 
VWOKEL EL [L7) 6 VLOS Kal @ av 6 vLds amroKaddysy’”’: 
emeita TO péyelos Tob awrThpos pet exetvov Kal 

1 <6y> inserted by Wilamowitz. 

« The word used here (tamias) is applied in Homer 
(Iliad iv. 84) and Plato (Rep. 379 £) to Zeus, and Clement 
is doubtless alluding to these passages. 

’ See St. John v. 26; xvii. 2. 

© See St. John xvii. 3. 



what answers will be given Him. For who should 
know this more than the prophet of prophets and 
the Lord of every prophetic spirit? And when He 
is called good, He takes His key-note from this very 
first word and makes it the starting-point of His 
teaching, turning the disciple to God who is good, 
and first of all, and alone dispenser of eternal life, 
which the Son gives to us after receiving it 
from Him.? 

7. We must therefore store up in the soul right The first 
from the beginning the greatest and chiefest of the (ey nos 
doctrines that refer to life, namely, to know the om 
eternal God as both giver of eternal gifts and first 
and supreme and one and a good God.¢ And we 
can get possession of God through knowledge and 
apprehension; for this is a firm and unshakable 
beginning and foundation of life,—the knowledge of 
God who truly exists and who is the bestower of 
things that exist, that is, of eternal things, from 
whom it is that the rest of things take both their 
existence and their continuance. Ignorance of Him 
is death, but full knowledge of Him, and close 
friendship, and love to Him, and growth in His 
likeness,? is alone life. 

8. He therefore that aims at living the true life Then to 
is bidden first to know Him whom “no man knows g70* the 
except the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son 
reveals Him’”’*: and then to understand the Saviour’s 
greatness, next to Him, and the newness of His 
grace ; because, according to the apostle, “the law 

4 The thought of ‘‘ becoming like God” is taken from 
Plato, 7 heaetetus 176 B, a passage to which Clement often 

e St. Matthew xi. 27. 


940 P. 


dmoaToAov “6 vOjLos dua Mwoéws e609n, n xdpis 
Kat 7) adAnjGeva dua ‘Inood Xprorod" a Kal ovK toa 7a 
dua dovdAov mLaTOO Sddpreva Tots bo [rod] 1 viob 
yenatou Swpovpievors. el yoov iKavos Wy | 6 Mwoéws 
vopos Conv atesveov Tapacxerv, pearny pev 6 OwTIp 
avros TapayiveTat KOL TAGKXEL OL HLGS Amro yevecews 
pEXpL TOU onpetou THY dvOpwmornra Svar pexwy, 
paray d€ 6 macas TETOUNKOS “eK VEOTNTOS Tas 
vopipous | evtoAas Tapa GAXov aitet? -yovuTteT @v 
afavaciav. ovoe yap meTAjpwKe [LOvov TOV VOLOV, 
adAd Kal evOds amo TPWTNS WAuctas dp&djevos* 
Emel KQL TL peya 7 odmépAaptpov yijpas dyovov 
aducnwatav av vemBupiian TIKTOUVOL veaviKat 7 
opy7) féovea 7 Epws XpneaTov 5 GAN” el tis ev 
OKIPTHUATL veoTHGiw Kal TO Kavowve THs WAuctas 
TapecxnTar ppovnpa. * TeTrAVvOV Kal apeaBurepov Too 
xpovou, Bavpacros oUTOS dywovearns | Kal Svamrpem7js 
Kal THY yveopny moAuds®., aAd’¢ “Ops obTos 6 TOLOUTOS 
dicpiBas TémeloTal, SLOTL avT@ mpos pev diKato- 
ovvny ovdev evoel, Swijs de ddws mpoodet* 610 
adrny airet Tropa TOO Sobvat p.ovov Suvapevov: Kal 
Tos pev. TOV vO jLov dye mappnoiav, Tod Geotd de 
TOV ULOV ixerevel. “ék mloTEWS els mlioTW pea 
TAOGETAL’ WS opaepas ev vow catevwv Kal 
ETLKLVOUVWS vavdoyay | els TOV owripa peBoppilerar. 

8: yoov ‘noobs ovK €Aéyyet [ev avrov ws mavra 
Ta. €K vOmov pA) TEeTANPwKOTA, GAA Kal ayaTg Kal 

1 [rod] Stahlin. 

2 aire? J. A. Robinson. é7c Ms. 
8 rodids Stahlin. moduwrepos Ms. 

@ St. Johni. 17. 


was given through Moses, grace and truth through 
Jesus Christ,’ % and gifts given through a faithful 
slave® are not equal to those bestowed by a true 
son. At any rate, if the law of Moses was able to 
supply eternal life, it is in vain that the Saviour 
comes Himself to us and suffers on our account,° 
running His human course from birth to the cross 4; Mees mh 
in vain, too, that he who has kept “ from youth” all cive ie. 
the commandments of Moses’ law kneels and asks 
immortality from another. For not only has he 
fulfilled the law, but he began to do so right 
from his earliest years. For what is there great or 
especially distinguished about an old age free from 
the brood of sins that are born of youthful lusts or 
boiling anger or passion for riches? But if a man 
in the heyday and heat of youth displays a ripe 
spirit older than his years, he is a wonderful and 
illustrious champion and hoary in judgment. Never- 
theless the young man in question is positively con- 
vinced that while, as regards righteousness, nothing 
is lacking to him, life is lacking altogether. So he 
asks it from Him who alone is able to give it. As 
regards the law, too, he speaks with boldness, but to 
the Son of God he makes supplication. He passes 
over “from faith to faith.”° As he tosses perilously 
in the dangerous roadstead of the law he is brought 
to a safe anchorage with the Saviour. 

9. Certainly Jesus does not convict him of not 
having fulfilled all the demands of the law. No, He 

> The reference is to Moses in Hebrews iii. 5. 

¢ See Galatians ii. 21. 

@ Literally, the ‘‘ sign,” a term often used to denote the 
cross ; cp. Ep. Barnabas xii. 5. 

¢ Romans i. 17. 



dmepaomalera THs ev ols Eeuabev edrreeias, ateAT 
dé elval dnow ws mpos TiVv aledviov CwnHv, ws ov 
TéAeva meTIANpWKOTA, KaL VosLov pev epyaTny, 
apyov dé Cwis adn Ouvis. KaAa prev odv KaKEiva 
(ris 8° ov pyow ; 1 yap “évroAn ayia’) axpe 
Tradayurylas Twos peta ddBov Kal mpotradeias 
emt THY TOO “Incot vomobeciay Thy aKpav Kal yap 
Tpoxwpodvra, Ar pwua de “ VOmov Xpuotos ets 
ucavoovvny TavTl TH muaTEvovTt, ” ody d€ SovAous 
motmv wes doddos, dAAa Kal viods Kat adeAdhovs Kal 
ovykAnpovopous Tovs emtedobvtas TO BéAnua Tob 

10. “Ei éXets tédctos yevéobar.”’ odK dpa mw 
Tédertos Hv: ovdev yap TEeAciov TeAELOTEpoV. Kal 
Beiws ro “ei DeAeus TO atvte£ovciov THS mpoo- 
dvaheyouevns adr@ poxis edn Awoer. em TO 
avOpurrray yap HV uy) alpeats ws eAevPépw, emt G6 
dé 7) ddats Ws KUpiw. didwor 5é BovdAopévois Kat 
Umepeotovdakdoar Kal Seopevois, tv’ ovTws td.ov 
avTav 7 owTnpla yevntat. ov yap dvayKdler 6 
Oeds, Bia yap exOpov bed, ard Tots Cntobau 
mropicer Kal ois aiTovat Tapexet Kal Tots Kpovovow 
avolyer. et Bédets otv, et OvTws OBédeLs Kal 7) 
€autov efamatds, KTHjoat To evddov. “Ev cot 
Neier,” TO Ev, TO ESV, TO ayabdv, TO HSH Brrep 
vosov, OmEep vouos od Sidwow, OmEp vopos ov 

@ Romans vii. 12. >’ See Galatians iii. 24. 
¢ Romans x. 4, and xiii. 10. 
4 i.e. Moses; cp. Hebrews iii. 5-6. 
e See St. Matthew xii. 50, and Romans viii. 14-17. 
S St. Matthew xix. 21. 
9 See St. Matthew vii. 7, and St. Luke xi. 9. 



loves him and warmly welcomes him for his ready 
obedience in what he has learnt. Yet He calls him The rich 
imperfect as regards eternal life, on the ground that {hiretore 
he has fulfilled deeds that are not perfect, and that still im- 
though he is a worker of the law, he is idle in respect i og 
of true life. Now the works of the law are good— 
who will deny it? for “the commandment is holy,’ @ 
—but only to the extent of being a kind of training, 
accompanied by fear and preparatory instruction, 
leading on to the supreme law-giving and grace of 
Jesus.2. On the other hand “Christ is the fulfil- 
ment of the law unto righteousness to every one 
that believes,’ * and those who perfectly observe the 
Father’s will He makes not slaves, in the manner 
of a slave,? but sons and brothers and joint-heirs.° 

10. “If thou wilt become perfect.” 4 So he was 
not yet perfect; for there are no degrees of perfec- 
tion. And the “if thou wilt” was a divine declara- The rich 
tion of the free-will of the soul that was talking ;20,0° 
with Him. For the choice lay with the man as a choose life 
free being, though the gift was with God as Lord. 
And He gives to those who desire and are in deep 
earnest and beg, that in this way salvation may 
become their very own. For God does not compel, 
since force is hateful to God, but He provides for 
those who seek, He supplies to those who ask, and 
He opens to those who knock.g If thou wilt, then, 
if thou really wilt and art not deceiving thyself, get 
possession of that which is wanting. ‘One thing 
thou lackest,’” the one thing, that which is Mine, 
the good, that which is already above law, which 
law does not give, which law does not contain, which 

» St. Mark x. 21; St. Luke xviii. 22. 

941 P. 


xwpet, 0 Trav Cwvtwv ididv eotw. apédeu 6 TavTa 
Ta TOO vopov TAnpwaas “ex vedtynTOs” Kal TA 
UmepoyKa ppvakduevos TO Ev ToOTO Tpoabetvat Tots 
dAots ov dedvvnTaL, TO TOD GwTipos eEaiperov, iva 
AdBy Cwrv aidvov, jv mobet- | ddAa Svoxepavas 
annrGev, axbecbeis TH mapayyéAuate tis Cwis, 
Umep 7s txéTevev. ov yap aAnbas Cwiv 7OeXdev, ws 
epackev, adda dd~av mpoaipécews ayabjs pdvnv 
mrepteBaAAeTOo, Kal TEpi TOAAG pEv olds TE HV aoyo- 
Aetabar, To 5é Ev, 70 THS Cwhs Epyov, advvatos Kal 
ampoOvpos Kat aobevns éxredeiv: Omotdv Te Kal 
T™pos THY Madpéav cizev 6 owtip daoxodovpéevny 
<mept>* moda Kat mepreAKopevnv Kal Tapaccope- 
vyv™ dvaxovikds, THY dé adeAdiy aitiwpevyv, drt 
TO Umnpeteiv amoAToboa Tots TooW adrob mapa- 
KaOntat pabyticnvy dyovca ayodnv: “ad epi 
moAAa tapdcon, Mapia dé tiv ayabiy pepida é€- 
edeEaro, Kat ovk adapeOjoera adrijs.” ovttws 
Kat TodTOV Exédeve THS ToAVTpaypoovyys ad€euwevov 
évt TpooreTnKevar Kal mpookablélecba, TH yaprte 
Tod Cwnv aiwviov mpooribevtos. 

11. Ti roivuv iv to mpotpedpwevov adbrov eis 
guyiv Kat Tovjoay amavTopoAnoas Tob SiSacKkdAov, 
THs tkerelas, THs eAmidos, THs Cwis, TeV Tpo- 
TeTrovnevav; ““awAnoov Ta UTapyovTa cov.” Ti 
dé tobrd e€oTw; ody 6 mpoxeltpws SéxovTal TwWes, 
Tv dTdpxovaay ovolay arroppisar mpooTdacet Kal 
anoorhvar TOv xpnudtwr, adda ta Sdéypata Ta 
TEpL XpnudTwv eLopicar THs uyfs, THY mpos adra 

1 <repl> inserted by Segaar. 

tapacoouevny Ghisler. wapataccouévyy MS. mwaparapac- 
couévny Barnard. 



is peculiar to those who live. Yet indeed he who 
has fulfilled every demand of the law “from youth” 
and has made extravagant boasts, is unable to add to 
the tale this one thing singled out by the Saviour, 
in order to obtain the eternal life which he longs 
for. He went away displeased, being annoyed at 
the precept concerning the life for which he was 
making supplication. For he did not truly wish for 
life, as he said, but aimed solely at a reputation for 
good intentions. He could be busy about many 
things, but the one thing, the work that brings life, But he 
he was neither able nor eager nor strong enough to Sow net 
accomplish. And just as the Saviour said to Martha one thing 
when she was busy about many things, distracted alii 
and troubled by serving, and chiding her sister 
because she had left the household work and was 
seated at His feet spending her time in learning: 
“Thou art troubled about many things, but Mary 
hath chosen the good part, and it shall not be 
taken away from her,’ *—so also He bade this man 
cease from his manifold activities and cling to and 
sit beside one thing, the grace of Him who adds 
eternal life. 

11. What then was it that impelled him to flight, The mean- 
and made him desert his teacher, his supplication, "8 of the 

his hope, his life, his previous labours? “Sell what reBell what 
belongs to thee.”® And what is this? It is not pov” 
what some hastily take it to be, a command to fling 
away the substance thas belongs to him and to part 
with his riches, but to banish from the soul its 

opinions about riches, its attachment to them, its 

4 See St. Luke x. 38-42. 
5 St. Matthew xix. 21; St. Mark x. 21. 



cuuraberav, THY drepayav emOuutav, THY TEpL 
avTa TTOLAaV Kal VoGoOV, Tas pEpipuvas, Tas akavOas 
Tob Biov, at TO omeppa Ths Cwis oupmviyovow. 
OUTE yap peya. kal ondwrov TO Tyvddhws daropetv 
Xpnwar ev jy) ovK emt Aoyw Cwis (obrw pev y av 
you ot pn dev EXOVTES pnoayy, aAAa Epnwot Kal 
petairar Tay ep’ Tpepay ol KaTa Tas d8ovs 
Eppyupevou mtwxol, ““ayvootvres’’ Se Oeov Kat 

“ Sucavoovvny Geob,” KaT avTO [ovov TO aKpws 
Gmopety Kal aunyavety Biov Kal tav €Aaxiotwv 
onmavilew pakapwwrato. Kat OeodiAeotato. Kat 
povor Cwiv éxovtes aiwviov) ovTe KaLwov TO 
anmeinacba: mAotrov Kal yapioacbar mTwxots 7 
maTpiow, ) moot Tpo Tis TOO cwThpos xaflodou 
TETIOUTI KAW, ot per Ths «ls Adyous oxoAfjs Kal 
vexpas aodias évexev, of be dyyns Kevfs Kal 
Kevodokias, “Avagaydopar Kat Anudoxpitor Kat 

12. Ti ody ws KaLvOV Kal LOLoV Geob Tapayyerrer 
Kal [LOvoOV Cworrovoby, 6 0 Tovs TpoTépous ouK ETuoEV ; 
el de eEaiperov Tt ‘Kavi KTiots,’’ 6 Vids TOD Be 
pnvver kal duddoKxer, od TO dawopmevor, Omrep aAAou 

« The allusion is to the parable of the Sower. See St. 
Mark iv. 19 and parallel passages. 
>» Romans x. 3. 
¢ Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, 500-428 B.c., gave up his 
property in order to have more leisure for philosophy. 
Democritus of Abdera (about 460-361 B.c.) is said to “have 
spent a large fortune on travels undertaken in search of 
knowledge. Crates, the Cynic philosopher (about 320 B.c.) 
gave his wealth to his native city Thebes. 
@ When Clement speaks of the ‘‘new creation” (the 
hrase comes from Galatians vi. 15 and 2 Corinthians v. 17), 
e is thinking in the first place of the great transformation 



excessive desire, its morbid excitement over them, 

its anxious cares, the thorns of our earthly existence 

which choke the seed of the true life. For it is no 

great or enviable thing to be simply without riches, 

apart from the purpose of obtaining life. Why, if 

this were so, those men who have nothing at all, 

but are destitute and beg for their daily bread, who 

lie along the roads in abject poverty, would, though 
“jonorant” of God and “ God’s righteousness,’ be 

most blessed and beloved of God and the only 
possessors of eternal life, by the sole fact of their 

being utterly without ways and means of livelihood 

and in want of the smallest necessities. Nor again 

is it a new thing to renounce wealth and give it 

freely to the poor, or to one’s fatherland, which 

many have done before the Saviour’s coming, some 

to obtain leisure for letters and for dead wisdom, 
others for empty fame and vainglory—such men as 
Anaxagoras, Democritus and Crates.° 

12. What then is it that He enjoins as new and The 

peculiar to God and alone life-giving, which did not Command: 
save men of former days? If the “new creation,” @ SunD the 
the Son of God, reveals and teaches something passions 
unique, then His command does not refer to the 

which has resulted from the presence and work of Jesus 
Christ on earth: the fear of death has given place to an 
assurance of union with God and immortality. The life thus 
opened out to man is eloquently described in the Hxhorta- 
tion to the Greeks, 88-89 P. (see pp. 243-7 of this volume). 
But Clement can also apply the term ‘‘ new creation” to 
Christ Himself, the result of Christ’s work being gathered 
up, as it were, into the person of its author. This is what 
he seems to do here. Yet the main thought is still that 
the old world has been so entirely left behind that Christ’s 
teaching must in every detail go far beyond anything taught 
or practised before. 



TETOLNKACL, Tapeyyvd, GAN’ erepov TU dua TOvUTOV 
On) LOLWoJLEvov petCov Kal Devdrepov Kal Tehewrepov, 
TO THY puyny adryy Kat THY Oud Beow yupv@oar TOV 
drrovTe mabav Kal mpoppila Ta aMorpva THS 
yroopns exTE wey kal exBadetv. todTo yap LOLOV 
pev Tod moTOU TO pabnpa, a€tov S5€ Tod awTihpos 
TO didaypa. ot yap Tou TpOTEpoL, KaTappovncavres 

. TOV eKTOS, TQ [LEV KTNMLATO | apnray KaL i mapamaAre- 

cav, Ta bé 7a0y TOV vy@v oiwar OTe Kal TpooeTré- 
Tewav" ev vrepoisia yap éyevovTo Kat aAaloveia 
Kal Kevooogia Kal TEpLppov7yjaet TOV ddwv dvOpes- 
Tw, ws avrot TU Orep dvOpwrrov epyacdpevor. 
TOS dv obv 6 owTnp Tapyvee Tots els a del Brmcope- 
vous ta BAaovra Kat Avpavotpeva Tos Thy Cary, 
nv emayyéAreTor; Kal yap at KaKetvo €oTt" dvvarat 
Tus dmopoptiadpevos THV KTHOW ovdev aTTov ETL 
THY emBupiav Kal Thy opeEw TOV Xpnpedrav exew 
evTEeTHKULaV Kal ovlacav Kal THY pev Xphow aro - 
BeBAnkévar, amopav de Gua Kal mobav direp 
eomrdbyae SumAj Avretoban, Kal TH THs UaNpectas 
dmovola Kal TH TAs peTavolas ovvovoia. _avEpUKTOV 
yap Kal dunyavov dedpevov TOV mpos TO Brorevew 
dvayKaioy [7) ov kataxddobae THY yvounv Kal 
olevoby rabra TEL PCOLEVOV exmropilew. 

13. Kai méow XpHoYLwWTEpov TO évavTiov, ikava 
KEKTNLEVOV adbtov Te TEpl THV KTHow ay kaxoTradet wy 
Kal ots KabfKev emucoupely ; Tis yap ay Kowwvia 
KataXetroito mapa avOpwrrois, ef wndels Exot NdEv; 
"4 Strictly, service rendered by rowers on a ship, in 

relation to the work of sailors and pilot; hence, services 
rendered by wealth, etc., for the support and comfort of life. 



visible act, the very thing that others have done, but 
to something else greater, more divine and more 
perfect, which is signified through this; namely, to 
strip the soul itself and the will of their lurking 
passions and utterly to root out and cast away all 
alien thoughts from the mind. For this is a lesson 
peculiar to the believer and a doctrine worthy of the 
Saviour. The men of former days, indeed, in their 
contempt for outward things, parted with and sacri- 
ficed their possessions, but as for the passions of the 
soul, I think they even intensified them. For they 
became supercilious, boastful, conceited and disdainful 
of the rest of mankind, as if they themselves had 
wrought something superhuman. How then could 
the Saviour have recommended to those who were to 
live for ever things that would be harmful and in- 
jurious for the life He promises? And there is this 
other point. It is possible for a man, after having un- 
burdened himself of his property, to be none the less 
continually absorbed and occupied in the desire and 
longing for it. He has given up the use of wealth, 
but now being in difficulties and at the same time 
yearning after what he threw away, he endures a 
double annoyance, the absence of means of support @ 
and the presence of regret. For when a man lacks 
the necessities of life he cannot possibly fail to be 
broken in spirit and to neglect the higher things, as 
he strives to procure these necessities by any means 
and from any source. 

13. And how much more useful is the opposite 
condition, when by possessing a sufficiency a man is 
himself in no distress about money-making and also 
helps those he ought? For what sharing would be 
left among men, if nobody had anything? And how 


Those only 
who have 

money can 
obey other 
of the Lord 


Tas 8 dy TOTO TO Soypa moMois ddAous Kal Kahots 
Tob Kuplouv Soypacw jovxt davep@s evavTiovprevov 
eUpioKoTo Kal [ax OpLevor ; “TOU TATE €avTots 
didous €k TOO papwvd THs adiKias, wv orav exAi7n, 
d€Ewvrar buds ets Tas aicwvious oKyvds.” $ “KT 1/00 
ofe Onoavpods ev ovpava, OTOU [LITE ons pare 
Bpadows apaviler [LITE Krénrae dtopvacovo.. 7s 
av Tus TEWOVTA Tpepor Kal SupGvra morilot Kal 
yupvov oxemalor Kal doteyov auvdyo., & Tots [7 
Tomoaow daetdet mop Kal oKOTOS TO eSwrepov, El 
mavToy avros exaotos Pldvor tovTwY voTEpay; 
adr pny avTos Te emu€evotrat Laxxaty Kal Aevet* 
Kal Marfaiw Tots movators Kal TEeAWVaLs, Kal TO. 
pev xpipata atvrovs ov Kehevet pcOetvar, THv Sé 
duKatav xpiow* emBets Kal TH aducov apehaw 
Kkatayyedeu i o7)epov owrnpia T@ OlKQ) ‘TOUTH). 
ovTW THY xpetav avTav erawvel, wore Kai peta THs 
TOV Supavra., aptov diddvar TO TEWOVTL, brodexe- 
obat TOV doreyov dudvevvdvar TOV YUpVvoV. el be 
Tas xpelas ovx oldv TE exmAnpodv TAUTAS [L7) azo 
Xpnpatov, TaV O€  XpHaT ev agioracGar kehevet, Ti 
av ETE pov €ln TTOL@V O KUpLos «n> 8 ra avra diddvae 
TE Kal p17) Siddvat Tapawwav, Tpedew Kal 7) Tpepety, 
drrodexeobau Kal dmroxNeterv, KoWwwvetvy KaL {L2) 
Kowwvetlv, Omep aTdvTwv adoywratov ; 
1 «al Aevel J. A. Robinson. xedever Ms, 

2 xpjow Olshausen. xpicw ms. 
3 <> inserted by Ghisler. 

a St. Luke xvi. 9. > St. Matthew vi. 20. 
¢ See St. Matthew xxv. 41-43, 
@ See St. Luke xix. 5 



could this doctrine be found other than _ plainly 
contradictory to and at war with many other noble 
doctrines of the Lord? “ Make to yourselves friends 
from the mammon of unrighteousness, that when it 
shall fail they may receive you into the eternal 
habitations.”* “ Acquire treasures in heaven, where 
neither moth nor rust doth consume, nor thieves 
break through.” ® How could we feed the hungry 
and give drink to the thirsty, cover the naked and 
entertain the homeless, with regard to which deeds 
He threatens fire and the outer darkness to those 
who have not done them,’ if each of us were himself 
already in want of all these things? But further, 
the Lord Himself is a guest with Zacchaeus @ and 
Levi and Matthew,’ wealthy men and tax-gatherers, 
and He does not bid them give up their riches. On 
the contrary, having enjoined the just and set aside 
the unjust employment of them, He proclaims, “ To- 
day is salvation come to this house.” / It is on this 
condition that He praises their use, and with this 
stipulation,—that He commands them to be shared, 
to give drink to the thirsty and bread to the hungry, 
to receive the homeless, to clothe the naked. And if 
it is not possible to satisfy these needs except with 
riches, and He were bidding us stand aloof from 
riches, what else would the Lord be doing than 
exhorting us to give and also not to give the same 
things, to feed and not to feed, to receive and to 
shut out, to share and not to share? But this would 
be the height of unreason. 

¢ See St. Mark ii. 15 and parallel passages. The reading 
‘* Levi” is obtained by a slight change in the ms. Clement 
regards Levi and Matthew as two different persons. 

J St. Luke xix. 9. 



14. Ov. dpa daroppumTéov Ta Kal TOUS méAas wde- 
Aobyra Xpnpeara: KTNMATA yap €OTL KTNTA OVTA, 
943 P. KL xXpnpwara XpHoywa ovra Kal ets lxphow av Opera 
b70 TOO Oeob mapeckevacpeva, a& 81) TapaKerTaL Kat 
bmroBeBAntrar Kabamep vAn Tis Kal Opyava pos 
xXphow ayabryy tots etOdar. TO opyavov, eav xen 
TEXVLKOS, TEXVUKOV €oTw* ev dorepis Ths TEXVNS: 
amroAaver THs ons apovotas," dv avaitiov. TOLodTOV 
Kat 0 mAotros dOpyavov é€ort. Svvacar xpHobar 
duxaiws atvT@: mpos dixavoovvyv Kabumnpetet: 
adixus Tis aUT@ Xpirac: madw dampers dductas 
evploKeTau mépuKe yap vmnpeteiy, add’ ouK apyew. 
ov xPn TOLWUV TO ef € eavToo pen ZXOV LATE TO ayabov 
LLYTE TO Kaxor, avaiTvov ov, aitiacbar, ahha TO 
Ouvdyrevov Kat Kadds TovroLs xpjoae Kal KaKOS, 
ad’ av av edna, KaT avTo <TovTO aitvov ov>*, 
todto 8 €ati vots avOpwmov, Kal KpiTjprov éAcvbe- 
pov €ywv év €avt@ Kal TO avte€ovo.ov THs peTa- 
Yelploews THV Soblevrwv: WOTE pa) TO KT Nard Tes 
apavilera padov 7 Ta man Tis pux7s: Ta tay) 
ovyxwpobvra TIHV apelvw xphow TOV dTrapxovTwr, 
iva, Kados Kal ayalos yevopmevos Kal TovTos Tots 
KTHMLACL xpHodar du 9A Kahds. TO OvV dmordga.- 
aba maou Tots dTdpxovor Kal TwAnoat mavro. 7a 
TOV puxucav mabey SverpyyLevov. 
15. "Ey yotv kaxeivo djoaip’ av: émevd7) Ta wev 

1 dpovatas Segaar. dmovolas Ms. 
2 <roiro aitov dy> inserted by Stahlin. 

« An attempt is here made to reproduce Clement’s play 
upon the words xpyjuara . . . Xpiouma. . . Xphow. 



14. We must not then fling away the riches that 
are of benefit to our neighbours as well as ourselves. 
For they are called possessions because they are 
things possessed, and wealth “ because they are to be 
welcomed and because they have been prepared by 
God for the welfare of men. Indeed, they lie at 
hand and are put at our disposal as a sort of material 
and as instruments to be well used by those who 
know. An instrument, if you use it with artistic 
skill, is a thing of art; but if you are lacking in 
skill, it reaps the benefit of your unmusical nature, 
though not itself responsible. Wealth too is an in- 
strument of the same kind. You can use it rightly ; 
it ministers to righteousness. But if one use it 
wrongly, it is found to be a minister of wrong. For 
its nature is to minister, not to rule. We must not 
therefore put the responsibility on that which, having 
in itself neither good nor evil, is not responsible, but 
on that which has the power of using things either 
well or badly, as a result of choice; for this is 
responsible just for that reason. And this is the 
mind of man, which has in itself both free judgment 
and full liberty to deal with what is given to it. So 
let a man do away, not with his possessions, but rather 
with the passions of his soul, which do not consent 
to the better use of what he has; in order that, by 
becoming noble and good, he may be able to use 
these possessions also in a noble manner. “Saying 
good-bye to all we have,’® and “selling all we 
have,’ © must therefore be understood in this way, as 
spoken with reference to the soul’s passions. 

15. | for my part would put the matter thus, 

& See St. Luke xiv. 33. ¢ See St. Matthew xix. 21. 
L 299 

Riches are 
to be used 
for the gocd 
of others 

944 P. 


> , b] ~ ~ A be re , a“ \ e \ 
evtds eoTe Ths buys, TA Sé ExTOs, Kav prev 7H puyy 
XpATaL Karas, Kaha Kal Tatra SoKet, eav be 
Tovnpa@s, movnpa, 6 Kedrctwv dara.\\or probv Ta 
bmdpyYovTa TOTEpov Tadra mapateirar Wy avatpe- 
Oévrwy ete Ta ma Bn pever, 7 exeiva padov av 
dvarpeDevraw Kal Ta KTNLOTOL Xpnoura yiveTau; 
6 Toivuy atroBadayv TV KOO[LKTV Teptovatay ert 
dvvarae mAdoutetv TOV Tabdv, Kal THs vAns py 
Tapovons n yap To duaeors TO abrijs evepyet 
Kat tov Aoyropov ayxer Kal méCler Kal preypaiver 
Tais avvtpodots emifupiars: ovdév odv mpovpyou 
yéyovev avT@ TTwyevew ypnpatwv mAovTobrTL TOV 
~ >? \ \ > / > / > \ \ 
malay. ov yap Ta amdPAnta améBadev, adda Ta 
adiadhopa, Kal TOV prev UmNpEeTLK@V EavTov TEpt- 
/ >? / \ \ Ad ~ / \ 
exorsev, efexavoe de THY vagy Tijs KaKtas 77Y 
eupurov Th T@v €KTOs arropia. dor aKTEOV obv 
tots Umdpxovor Tots BAraBepois, ovyt Tots e€av 
emloTnTal Tis THY opOryv xphow Kat ovvenheheiv 
duvajevots* ageret d€ Ta peta dpovricews Kal 
cwhpootvvns Kal evoeBeias olkovomovpeva. arr- 
/ \ A > / N ade) \ > / 
wortéa dé Ta emlypra, TA Sé ExTOs ov PAdmTEL. 
Ottws otv 6 KUpios Kal tiv TOV exTos xpelav 
~! / / > / > \ / > A 
elodyer, KeAevwv amtrobécba | od ta Biwrixa, adda 
Ta TOUTOLS KAKa@S ypwueva: Tadra de Hv TA THS 
puyis dppwornpatra kai 7d0yn. 16. 6 rovTwv TAod- 
Tos Tapwv pev aac. Oavatnddpos, amoAdmevos 
d€ cwTnpios* ov det! Kafapevovoay, TouTéaTL TTW- 
/ \ \ \ / 
yevovoav Kal yupriy thy WvyTV Tapacxopevov 
1 Se? Ghisler. 67 Ms. 

« A Stoic term denoting things that are in themselves 
neither good nor evil. Clement’s reasoning in this passage 
is strongly influenced by Stoicism. 



Since possessions of one kind are within the soul, outwara 
and those of another kind outside it, and these latter jhinss are 
appear to be good if the soul uses them well, but 
bad if they are badly used, which of the two is it 
that He, who orders us to get rid of what we 
have, asks us to renounce? Is it those after whose 
removal the passions still remain, or rather those 
after whose removal even outward possessions become 
useful? He who has cast away his worldly abund- 
ance can still be rich in passions even though his 
substance is gone. For his disposition continues its 
own activity, choking and stifling the power of 
reasoning and inflaming him with its inbred desires. 
It has proved no great gain then for him to be poor 
in possessions when he is rich in passions. For he 
has cast away not the worthless things but the 
indifferent,“ and while depriving himself of what is 
serviceable he has set on fire the innate material of 
evil by the lack of outward things. A man must 
say good-bye, then, to the injurious things he has, 
not to those that can actually contribute to his 
advantage if he knows the right use of them; and 
advantage comes from those that are managed 
with wisdom, moderation and piety. We must 
reject what is hurtful; but outward things are not 

In this way then the Lord admits the use of out- Poverty ot 
ward things, bidding us put away, not the means of Pegqa° 
living, but the things that use these badly; and 
these are, as we have seen, the infirmities and passions 
of the soul. 16. Wealth of these brings death when- 
ever it is present, but salvation when it is destroyed. 

Of this wealth a man must render his soul pure, 
that is, poor and bare, and then only must he listen 



oUtws 76n TOO awTipos axoboa A€yovtos: “‘ deipo 
axoArovier por.’ od0s yap atbros 76n TO KabapaA 
Tiv Kapdiav yiverar, eis 5é axdlaprov wuynv Oeob 
ydpis od Tapadverar: axdlaptos dé 4 mAovToObca 
tov émiOvpidv Kat wdivovoa moddois Epwou Kal 
Kal apyupov kal otklas ws Oeod dwpeds, [Kat ]+ 7A Te 
didovte Ded ettouvpyHv am adrav eis avOpatwv 
GWTnpiav, Kal ElOws OTL TaDTA KEKTHTAL dia TOvS 
adeAdhods padAdov 7) E€avTov, Kal KpEeiTTWY BTAapYwV 
THs KTHOEWS abT@v, 17) SodAos < av >? dv KEKTITAL, 

punde ev TH pvxn TadTa mrepupepuv, pivé € €v TOUTOLS 
opilaw Kal mrepvypaduv THY. eavTob Cwny, adAd TL 
Kal KaXov Epyov Kal Getov del OLaTTOVa@V, KV aTro- 
orepnOjva bn MOTE TOUTWY, Suvdpcvos: iAew 7TH 
youn Kal THY amahhayny avr av eveyKety é€ icov 
Kabamep Kat TH Teprovaiay, ovTOsS eoTw 6 poarape- 
Copevos bm TOO Kupiov Kal TTWXOS TH TVvEvpaTL 
KaAdovpevos, KAnpovojos ETOyLos otpavod Bacwreias, 
ov mAovovos Choar p17) Ouvdjrevos- 17. 6 O€ & TH 
boxh Tov TAobTov pépur, Kal art Deod TVEUPLATOS 
€v TH Kapodia Xpuaov Pepov 7) 7 dypov, Kal THY KTHOW 
djLeT pov Gel mrouav, Kal EKGOTOTE TO mAetov Brێrrwv, 
KaTW vevevKwS Kal Tots TOU Kdapov UFxypaTpots 
TETEONMLEVOS, YH WV Kal els yhv ameAevadpevos, 
mo0ev dStvatar Baowrelas ovpavOv éemibvujoar Kat 
dpovticat, avOpwros o8 Kapdiav adda aypov 7 
peéeradrov dopav, év tovrois evpeOnadpevos ez- 

1 [kat] Schwartz. 
2 <y> inserted by Mayor. 

@ St. Mark x, 21. 



to the Saviour when He says, “ Come, follow Me.”’ @ 

For He Himself now becomes a way to the pure in 

heart ;2 but into an impure soul God’s grace does 

not steal. An impure soul is that which is rich in 

lusts and in travail with many worldly affections. 

For he who holds possessions and gold and silver Wealth 
and houses as gifts of God, and from them ministers Psitly used 
to the salvation of men for God the giver, and knows man blessed 
that he possesses them for his brothers’ sakes rather 

than his own, and lives superior to the possession of 

them; who is not the slave of his possessions, and 

does not carry them about in his soul, nor limit and 
circumscribe his own life in them, but is ever striving 

to do some noble and divine deed ; and who, if he is 

fated ever to be deprived of them, is able to bear 

their loss with a cheerful mind exactly as he bore 

their abundance—this is the man who is blessed by 

the Lord and called poor in spirit,’ a ready inheritor 

of the kingdom of heaven, not a rich man who cannot 

obtain life. 17. But he who carries his wealth in his weaith in 
soul, and in place of God’s spirit carries in his heart tpe sou | 
gold or an estate, who is always extending his pos- from heaven 
session without limit, and is continually on the look- 

out for more, whose eyes are turned downwards and 

who is fettered by the snares of the world, who is 

earth and destined to return to earth?—how 

can he desire and meditate on the kingdom of 

heaven? A man that bears about not a heart, but 

an estate or a mine, will he not perforce be found 

among these things on which he fixed his choice? 

b See St. John xiv. 6; St. Matthew v. 8. 
¢ St. Matthew v. 3. 
@ See Genesis iii. 19. 


945 P. 


/ 1 > 2 t tA CS pass / \ ¢ ~ 
avaykes* [ev|* ols etAero; “ dmov yap 6 voids 
Tov avOpurrov, éxet Kat 6 Oncaupos adrod.”’ 
Onaavpovs 5é ye 6 KUptos olde SitTOvs, TOV peEV 
> / 66 18 <9 \ c@r3 \ A > ~ 
ayallov, ““o yap ayablos avOpwmos ex Tob 
ayabob Onoavpod TAS: Kapdias mpopéper TO ayabov,”’ 
Tov d€ mrovnpov, ““o yap Kaos €k TOU axod 
Onoavpot mpodéper TO KaKOV, OTL Ek TEpLadEV[LATOS 
~ A oy A 
THs Kapdlas TO oTOpa AaXet.”” cazrep odv Bnoavpos 
ody els Tap avT@ Kalo Kal Tap Hutv, 6 TO aipvid.ov 
/ / > if c he / > \ \ / 
peya Képdos ev edprjae did0vs, aAAA Kal SevTEpos, 
eS \ Ao \ / Re te / 
6 akepdys Kat alnAos Kat dvoKTHTOS Kat Emr LOS, 
ovTws Kat mAodTOS 6 pév Tis ayabdv, 6 b€ Kakav, 
A > 
El ye TOV TrAODTOV Kal TOV OnoavpoV OvK amTnpTYLE- 
vous topev GAArjAWY TH PUoet. Kai o pév Tis TAODTOS 
\ \ 
KTNTOS av ein Kat TrEpiPAnTOS, O S€ AKTNTOS Kal 
A \ / 
amoBAnros: Tov avrov | dé | Tpomrov Kal TTWYELA 
poaraprorn) pev 7) TVEVHOTURT. 610 Kal mpooebnker 
6 Maréaios: “ waxdpioc of mtwyol’’ mas; “TO 
33 ~ 
mvevpatt. Kal maAw: “ waKdplot of TEW@VvTEs Kal 
~ \ / ~ ma)? ? ~ ” 
Supavres TV Oucaroovyny Too Deod- ovKobv ab Avot 
Ol evavTio’ TTWXOL, Oeod pLev dyLolpor, GJLOLPOTEPOL 
de Ths avOpwrivns KTHGews, ayevotor de diKato- 
avvns Geod. 
A > 
18. “Qore tovs mAovaiovs pabnpatiK@s akov- 
1 érdvaykes Stahlin. én’ davdyxas Ms. 

2 [ev] Stahlin. 

a See St. Matthew vi. 21; St. Luke xii. 34. Clement 
quotes this saying elsewhere in the same form (vii. Stromateis 
71, 6). 
> St. Luke vi. 45. 

¢ St. Matthew v. 3. In this and the following quotation, 
the qualifying words ‘‘in spirit” and ‘* after righteousness ”’ 
are omitted from St. Luke’s account. St. Matthew’s form 



“For where the mind of a man is, there is his 
treasure also.”’ # 

Now as for treasures, the Lord knows them to be 
of two kinds, one good, for “the good man out of 
the good treasure of the heart brings forth that 
which is good”; and the other bad, for “the evil 
man out of his evil treasure brings forth that which 
is evil, because out of the abundance of the heart 
the mouth speaks.” ® As therefore treasure is, with 
Him as with us, not single only, there being that 
kind which brings great and immediate gain in the 
finding, but a second kind also that is without gain, 
unenviable, undesirable and harmful, so also there 
is one wealth of good things, another of evil; since 
we know that wealth and treasure are not by nature 
separate from each other. And the one kind of 
wealth would be desirable and worth getting; the 
other undesirable and worthless. In the same manner 
also poverty is blessed, that is, the spiritual kind. 
Therefore Matthew added to “Blessed are the 
poor’; how? “in spirit.’* And again, “ Blessed 
are they that hunger and thirst after God’s righteous- 
ness.’% Those then who are poor in the opposite 
sense° are miserable, being destitute of God, more 
destitute still of human possessions, and unac- 
quainted with God’s righteousness. 

18. So with regard to the rich, who shall hardly 

probably represents the meaning of the original sayings. 
The word ‘‘ poor” was applied in an ethical sense among the 
Jews to those humble souls who waited in patient trust for 
the coming of the Kingdom. 

4 St. Matthew v. 6. 

¢ i.e. those who possess no money, and do not hunger 
after righteousness. 


speaks of 
two kinds 
of treasure 

Two kinds 
of wealth 
and poverty 


oTéov, Tovs dvoKdAws etoehevoopevous els THY Bao- 
Actav, Py okalds nde a dypoikws pn de capKivws: ov 
yap ovTws Achexrau. ovoe Errl Tots exTos 7) owTnpia, 
ove El i TONKA OUTE et i oXiya TadTa 7 pKpa 7 peydAa 
7 evdoka 7) ddoka 7 edvddKy.a 7) GddKysa, GAN’ ézi 
TH THS Wuyfs apetH, miorer Kal eAmide Kal aydrn 
Kal didadeAdia kal yvwoer Kal mpadTyTL Kal atudia 
Kat dAnbeia, dv GOAov 7) owrtypia. oddé yap da 
KaAXos odpatos Cyoetai Tis 7) Tovvavtiov atroAetrat: 
GAN’ 6 pev TH SoOevTe odpate ayvOs Kal Kata Beov 
xpwpevos Cycerar, 6 de Pleipwv tov vaov Geob 
PUapnoerar. Svvarar d5é Tis Kal aloxpos daaed- 
yaivew Kat Kata KdAXos awdpovetv: odé iayds 
Kat péyebos owpatos Cworovel, ovoe TAY pedav 
ovdevia amoAAver, aAn’ y) Tovrous yvyx7) Xpwevy) THY 
airiav ef’ ExaTepa TApeXETAL. bmogepe your, prot, 
TOLOMEVOS. TO Mpoowmov, Orrep vara Kal layupos 
TLS ev Kal evexT@v drraxodoa Kal maAuw aobevixds 
Tes av aKxpacta yvoomns TapaBivac. | ovTws Kal 
dmopos Tis MV Kab a Bros evpelein mor av peDdav 
Tais emOupiais, Kal xpyjacr TAOvaLos vidwr Kal 
KeKkoAagpevos. €l TolvuV éaTl TO C700 }Levov pahora 
Kal 7p@Tov 7 pox, KQL TEpL TAUTHV GpET?) jLEV 
pvojevy owler, Karta de Bavaroi, djjAov 718 sagpas 
OTL avTN Kal arwyevouca av av Tis v70 movrov - 
duadGetpntar® owlera, Kal mAovTobca TovTWY GV 

1 w\o’rou Combefis. rovrov Ms. 
2 diapbelpnrac Segaar. diadGelpec Ms. 

@ See ps Ost, in: 1. 


enter into the kingdom, we must understand the word Spiritual 
in the spirit of disciples, and not clumsily, rudely, or Meanings, 
literally ;% for it is not spoken thus. Salvation does and “poor " 
not depend upon outward things, whether they are 
many or few, small or great, splendid or lowly, 
glorious or mean, but upon the soul’s virtue, upon 
faith, hope, love, brotherliness, knowledge, gentle- 
ness, humility and truth, of which salvation is the 
prize. For a man will not obtain life on account of 
bodily beauty, nor perish for want of it; but he 
who uses holily and according to God’s will the 
body that was given him shall obtain life, and he 
who destroys the temple of God shall be destroyed.? 
It is possible for a man, though ugly, to be licen- 
tious, and in beauty to be chaste. Strength and 
greatness of body do not give life, nor does insig- 
nificance of the limbs destroy, but the soul by its use 
of these provides the cause that leads to either result. 
Accordingly the scripture says, “When thou art 
struck, offer thy face,’ ¢ which a man can obey even 
though he is strong and in good health; whereas one 
who is weakly can transgress through an uncontrolled 
temper. Thus a man without means of livelihood 
might perchance be found drunk with lusts, and one 
rich in possessions sober and poor as regards pleasures, 
believing, prudent, pure, disciplined. If then it is 
first and foremost the soul which is destined to live, 
and virtue growing in the soul saves it while evil 
kills, it is at once abundantly clear that the soul 
is being saved when it is poor in those things by 
wealth of which a man is destroyed, and that it is 
being killed when it is rich in those things a wealth 
» See 1 Corinthians iii. 17. 
2 See St. Matthew v. 39; St. Luke vi. 29. 
L2 307 

946 P. 

> 4 r ~ ~ a] \ / lal 
emuTpiper tAobTos Oavatobraut Kat unKete CnTOpev 
adAayod tiv aitiav Tob téAovs mA ev TH Tis 
puxns Kataotdce Kai diabécer mpos TE b7aKorV 
Geod Kai KabapotnTa mpds Te TapdPaow evTorAdv 
Kat Kaklas ovAdoynv. 

19. ‘O pév dpa adnb&s Kai Kadr@s <mdAovords >? 
Oalws Kal muoTa@s Suvdpevos, 6 5é€ vdlos mAovatos 
0 KaTa CdpKa mAovTay Kal THY Conny els <THV > €£w 
KTOW PETEVIVOXMS THY Tapepxopevyv Kal POetpo- 
pevyv Kat GAAoTe aAAov ywopevny Kal ev TO Tenet 
pen devos noah. |. madw av KaTa TOV avTOoV TpoTrov 
Kal ‘yVv7joLos TT WXOS Kal vo0o0s aAdos TTWNOS Kal 
pevdwvupos, 6 ev KATA TVEDULA TTWYOS, TO LOLOV, 
¢ \ \ / \ > / ~ \ \ 
0 6€ KaTa Kdopov, TO GAAdTpiov. TH 57) KuTa 
KOopoVv <od>* mrwy@ Kal TAOVoiw KaTa TA 7AON 6 
Kata mvedpa [ov |» TTWXOS KOU Kara Oeov mAovowos 
CS ed / A >> / 6 ce 

AaTOOTHUL, < pyat >°, TOV bTapxYovTwy ev TH Ga) 
Gov eTqpdrov aNozpiew, iva xafapos TH Kapoia 
yevomevos tons Tov Bedv, omrep Kal du’ Erépas dwvijs 
cot eloeOeiv eis tiv Baoireiav THv ovpavarv. 
Kal THs avT@v amoorhs; mwAjoas. Ti ovv; 

1 @avarodra: Dindorf. @avodra: Ms. 
* <adovavds> inserted by Wendland. 
3 <riv> inserted by Ghisler. 

4 <od> inserted by Jiilicher. 

5 [ov] Segaar. Stéhlin retains this. 
6 <pyoi> inserted by Ghisler. 

“ Clement's involved antitheses are often difficult to follow, 
and this passage has given much trouble to commentators. 
I take his meaning to be this: there is a truly rich man and 
a truly poor man in the spiritual sense, independently of 
outward possessions. On the other hand there is a spurious 



of which brings ruin. So let us no longer seek 
for the cause of our end anywhere else except in 
the character and disposition of the soul with regard 
to its obedience to God and its purity, to its trans- 
gression of commandments and accumulation of evil. 

19. The man who is truly and nobly rich, then, is How the 
he who is rich in virtues and able to use every fortune han 
in a holy and faithful manner; but the spurious rich his pos- 
man is he who is rich according to the flesh, and has ©" 
changed his life into outward possessions which are 
passing away and perishing, belonging now to one, 
now to another, and in the end to no one at all. 
Again, in the same way there is a genuine poor man 
and also a spurious and falsely-named poor man, the 
one poor in spirit, the inner personal poverty, and 
the other poor in worldly goods, the outward alien 
poverty. Now to him who is not poor in worldly 
goods and is rich in passions the man who is poor in 
spirit and is rich towards God says,* “ Detach your- 
self from the alien possessions that dwell in your 
soul, in order that you may become pure in heart and 
may see God,? which in other words means to enter 
into the kingdom of heaven. And how are you to 
detach yourself from them? By selling them. What 

rich (i.e. a moneyed man), and a spurious poor man (i.e. a 
beggar). The appeal that follows is addressed by the one 
who has the right sort of poverty and the right sort of riches 
to him who has neither of these, 7.e. a rich man who lives for 
his riches. These riches which occupy his soul must be 
exchanged, not for money, but for the true spiritual wealth. 
That the ‘‘alien possessions” dwelling in the soul are out- 
ward wealth and not mere covetous desires is shown by 
iv. Strom. 29. 1, where Clement points out that these latter 
could hardly be ‘‘ given to the poor.” See notes on text. 
6 St. Matthew v. 8. 



XpHwara avtTt kTnudtwv AdBys; avrTidoow tAovToU 
mpos tAobTov Tromnadevos, eEapyupioas THY pavepav 
ovolav; ovdauds: aAAa avri TOV mpdTEpov evuTrTap- 
yovtwy TH buyh, Hv coat Troets, avrevaayopevos 
érepov mrAotrov Peorro.ov Kat Cwis xopyyov aiwviou, 
Tas KaTa THY EvTOARY TOD Deod dSiabcers, av’ dv cou 
mepréotar puobos Kal TyLH, Sunvek7}s GwTnpia Kal 
aiwvios adBapaia. ovtTws Kadds mwActs Ta brdp- 
yovra, Ta ToAAa Kal TeEptcoa Kal amoKAElovTa aot 
Tovs ovpavovs, avTiKaTarAAacadpLEVvos aVTAV TAGHocar 
duvdjeva. exetva exyéTwoav ol odpKWwot TTWxOL 
Kal TOUTWY dedpevor, ov dé TOV TVEULATLKOV mAodrov 
avtTiAaBav € EXoUs av 7107 Onoavupov ev ovpavois. 

20. Tatra fi) Guviets KATA Tpomrov 6 mohuxp - 
patos Kal evvouos avOpwrros, nde O7wWs 6 avTos 
Kal TTWYOs OUvaTat elvar Kal TAOVOLOS Kal EXEL TE 
Xpnpara Kal pn eXEW Kal xpjobae TO KOOLW Kal 
7) xypnobar, amnAbe oTvyvos Kal Karndrs, Aura 
THY rag THs Cwis, F 7s emuOujety jeovor, adr’ odyt 
Kal tvyetv WSUvaTo, TO SVaKoAov Toujcas advvaTov 
avTos €avT@. SvoKxodov yap Hv pr mepidyecOa 
pndé Kataotpantrecar Thy wvynv bro THV Tpoo- 
dvtwy aBpdv T& mpodiAw mAovtTw Kat avOnpav 
yonTevLaTwv, ovK adUvvaTov d€ TO Kal ev TOUTW 
AaBéobar owrypias, el Tis EavToV a0 TOD aicbyTob 
mAovTov él Tov voynTov Kal BeodidaKTov peTaydyot 
Kat dbo Tots adiaddpots t ypHobar KaAds Kal iSiws 
Kal ws av els Cwrv atwviov opuyncar*®. kal ot 
pabnrat d€ TO mpa@tov pev Kal avrot mrepideets Kal 

1 Gdiaddpos Ghisler. dtaddpws Ms. 
2 dpujcac Wilamowitz. dpudadoa MS. 

@ St. Mark x. 21. 



then? Are you to take riches for possessions, to make 
an exchange of one wealth for another by turning 
real estate intomoney? Not atall. But in place of 
that which formerly dwelt in the soul you long to 
save, bring in another kind of wealth that makes 
you divine and provides eternal life, namely, resolves 
that are fixed in accord with God’s commandment ; 
and in return for these you shall have abundant 
reward and honour, perpetual salvation and eternal 
incorruption. In this way you make a good sale of 
what you have, of the many things that are super- 
fluous and that shut heaven against you, while you 
receive in exchange for them the things that have 
power to save. As for the first, let the fleshly poor 
who need them have them; but you, having received 
in their stead the spiritual wealth, will now have 
treasure in heaven.” @ 

20. The very rich and law-abiding man, not under- The rich 
standing these things aright, nor how the same man 20 mis. 
can be both poor and wealthy, can have riches Christ's 
and not have them, can use the world and not use it, °°'™™*"" 
went away gloomy and downcast. He abandoned 
the rank of that life which he could desire indeed, 
but could not attain to; since what was hard he 
himself had made impossible. For it was hard to 
prevent the soul being led away and dazzled by the 
luxuries and splendid allurements that are associated 
with visible wealth, yet it was not impossible even 
amid this to lay hold of salvation, if one would but 
transfer himself from the sensible wealth to that 
which belongs to the mind and is taught by God, and 
would learn to make good and proper use of things in- 
different and how to set out for eternal life. Even 
the disciples themselves are at first filled with fear 


947 P. 


KatamAyes yeyovacw. aKxovoavtes ti djmote; apd 
ye OTL xpypwata Kat adtol éxéxtyvTo TOAAd; GAA 
Kat adta Tatra Ta Sixtvdua Kal ayKioTpa Kal TA 
dmnpetixa oxadioua apjKkav mdAa, amep hv adrots 
pova. Tt ov dobybevtes r€éyovar: “tis S¥varat 
owlnva;’ Kadr@s jKovoay Kal ws pabyntai tod 
TapaBpoAiKas Kat acaddst exyOevtos ind Tod 
Kuplov Kat yabovto Tob Babous Tav Adywv. evera 
fev ovv xXpyuatwy aKTynpoodyns edéAmdes Hoa 
mpos awrTnpiav: émeidi) dé ouvidecay éavtots 
pnmw 7a 7a0n Téd€ov arroTeHepevors ® (4prysrabets 
yap yoav Kal vewoti mpos Tod awrhpos 7jvSpo- 
Aoynpevor), “ meproods e&erAjocoovto”’ Kat an- 
eyivwokov éavTovs ovdéy tL Hrrov éxeivov Tod 
moAuxpnuatov Kat SewHs THs KTHoEws TEpLExo- 
pLevov, Hv ye TpoeKpwev Cwis aiwviov. ad£vov odv Fv 
tots palnrais PoBov mdvtws,® ei Kal 6 ypruara 
Kal avTol, maparAnciws ameAacOjoovrar obpavdv: 
anabay yap Kat Kabapav puyav éotw % owrnpia. 

21. “O d€ KUptos aroxpiverat Side ‘76 ev avopa- 
mous advvatov duvatov Oe@.”’ madw Kat TobTo peyd- 
Ans cofias peotov éorw, 67 Kal’ adrov péev aoxOv 
Kat duamrovovpevos amdbevay <6>* dvOpwros obdév 
avver, eav S€ yevntar dhAos brepemibuudv tovTou 
Kal dueoTrovdaKws, TH mpocbyikn THs mapa Oeod 
duvduews Tepuyiverau’ BovAopevars fev yap Tats 
ysvyats 0 Beds auvemumvel, et 5€ amooTatev TiS 7po- 

1 dcapds Ghisler. cadds ms. 
amoreBemévors Mayor. dzoriBeudvors MS, 

8 rdvtws Wilamowitz. avrés Ms. 

* Sv Stahlin. dp ms. 
> <6> inserted by Wilamowitz. 




and amazement. For what reason think you? Was 
it because they too possessed great riches? Why, 
their very nets and hooks and fishing-boats they had 
left long ago, and these were all they had. Why then 
do they say in fear, “ Who can be saved?” ® It was 
because they understood well and as disciples should 
that which was spoken in dark parables by the 
Lord, and perceived the depth of His words. As 
far as lack of riches and possessions went they 
had good hopes for salvation, but since they were 
conscious that they had not yet completely put 
away their passions—for they were fresh disciples 
and but lately enlisted by the Saviour — “they 
were exceedingly amazed,” % and began to despair 
of themselves no less than did that very rich 
man who clung desperately to his possession, which 
indeed he preferred to eternal life. It was then 
for the disciples an altogether fit occasion for fear, 
if both the possessor of outward wealth and also he 
who carries a brood of passions—in which even 
they were rich—are equally to be banished from 
heaven. For salvation belongs to pure and passion- 
less souls. 

21. But the Lord answers: “that which is im- put Goa 
possible with men is possible for God.” ® This again b«!ps those 
is full of great wisdom, because when practising and earn:stly 
striving after the passionless state by himself man °°"? 4” 
achieves nothing, but if he makes it clear that he is 
eagerly pursuing this aim and is in deep earnest, he 
prevails by the addition of the power that comes from 
God. For God breathes His own power into souls 
when they desire, but if ever they desist from their 

@ St. Mark x. 26, 6 St. Mark x, 27. 


Oupias, Kat TO Sobev ex Beod mvetua ovveoradn: 
TO pev yap akovtas owlew €orl Bralopevov, TO 
de atpoupevous xapopevov. ovoe THV Kablevdov- 
TWY Kal Padacevovroy cot 7 Baovreta Too Qeod, 
aNd’ “ot Brasrat adpwalovow avriy "+ avTn yap 
pov” 1 Bia Kali, Oeov Bidcacbau Kat Tapa Geod Cony 
apTracat, 6 O€ yvovs Tovs Biaiws, waAAov dé BeBaiws 2 
avTexopevous [avveywpyaev |® ei€ev yaiper yap 6 
Oeds Ta TovatTa ATTwpevos. TovydpTo. TovTwY 
akovoas 0 prakaptos Ilézpos, 6 éxAeKTds, 6 e€aipe- 
TOS, 0 7p@Tos THV pabyta@v, trép ob} povov Kai 
€avTod Tov Popov 6 ow7np exTEr€l, TaXéws HpTacE 
Kal auveBade Tov Aoyov. Kat TL dynow; “ We 
jets dba oprev mdvro. Kal meodovdnaoapev gol. 
Ta dé ‘“ wavrTa’’ et pev TO KT LATO, Ta €avTod Ayer, 
téaoapas 6Bodovs taws,< 70 >4 Tob Adyou, Katadirav 
peyadtverar Kal TovTwy avtagiav amodaivwy av 
AdGor tiv Bacreiav 7THv odbpavav: «i dé, amep 
apt. viv Aéyouwev, TA TaAaLa vonTa KTHMATA Kal 
puyika voojpata amoppiisaytes EmovTar Kat Lyvos 
Tov dudacKdAov, Tobr’ av BVATTOETO | 757 Tots év 
oupavois eyypagnoouevors. Toro * yap axoAovbety 
ovTws TO owrippr, wapapTyatiay Kal tedeornTa 

KaTOTTpov KoopobvTA Kal puOuilovta tiv ypvyijy 
Kal mavtTa Ova mavTwV djoiws diatibévra. | 

1 uévn Stihlin (from Sacra Parallela of John of Damascus). 

pdvoy MS. 
* Bialws . . . BeBalws Stahlin (from Sac. Par.). BeBalws 
. Bratws MS, 3 [ouvexwpnoev| Stahlin. 
4 <7d> inserted by Segaar. 5 dort Schwartz, dpi Ms. 

6 dvamroto Mayor. dzroiro MS. 
“7 rodro Wilamowitz. otrws MS. 



eagerness, then too the spirit given from God is with- 
drawn ; for to save men against their will is an act 
of force, but to save them when they choose is an 
act of grace. Nor does the kingdom of God belong 
to sleepers and sluggards, but “the men of force 
seize it.’* This is the only good force, to force 
God and to seize life from God; and He, knowing 
those who forcibly, or rather persistently, cling to 
Him, yields; for God welcomes being worsted in 
such contests. Therefore on hearing these things 
the blessed Peter, the chosen, the pre-eminent, the 
first of the disciples, on behalf of whom alone and 
Himself the Saviour pays the tribute,’ quickly seized 
upon and understood the saying. And what does 
he say? “Lo, we have left all and followed Thee.” * what 
If by “all” he means his own possessions, he is po {te 
bragging of having forsaken four obols or so,? as the 
saying goes, and he would be unconsciously declar- 
ing the kingdom of heaven a suitable equivalent to 
these. But if, as we are just now saying, it is by 
flinging away the old possessions of the mind and 
diseases of the soul that they are following in the 
track of their teacher, Peter’s words would at once 
apply to those who are to be enrolled in heaven.° 
For this is the true following of the Saviour, when 
we seek after His sinlessness and perfection, adorning 
and regulating the soul before Him as before a mirror 
and arranging it in every detail after His likeness. 

a St. Matthew xi. 12. 
>» See St. Matthew xvii. 97. 
¢ St. Mark x. 28. 
4 As we should say, ‘‘a few pence.” The obol was a 
small Athenian coin. 
¢ See St. Luke x. 20; Hebrews xii. 23. 

948 P. 


¢ 2. \ XD ~ > \ Cha / 
Amoxpileis d€ “Inoots: ayny tyiv r€éyw, 
“a a“ > ~ Te A ~ eed \ \ / 
ds av adh Ta ida Kal yovets Kal adeAdovs Kal xp7)- 
para eveKev E“od Kal EveKev TOD evayyediov, amo- 
/ ¢ / ) > \ \ Ay? ¢ ~ 
Aniberat ExatovtamAaciova.” aAAa unde Tob’ HWas 
adMaxood Tats pwvats eSevvey|Levov “6s ob pucet 
TAT Epa. Kal payTepa Kal 7atdas, MpooeTe d€ Kal THY 
éavTod yux7v, eos pabyrns elvar od dvvarat.” 
od yap elonyetta, picos Kat dudAvow amo Tov 
/ ¢ ~ / LA 
pidratov 6 THs lps Jeds, 0 ye Kal Tovs exSpods 
ayamav Tapavav. EL be Tovs €xOpovs ayamnréov, 
dvddoyor am excelvenv dvidvre Kal Tovs eyyuTaTw 
yévous* 7) € puLaonTéov TOUS Tpos aljwaTtos, TroAv 
~ \ > \ / \ e / 
pGAAov tovs €xOpovs mpoBdAAecbat Katiwv 6 Adyos 
/ a > > / > ~ 2 / + | 
dvdaoKet, Wat adAdAjAovs avatpobyTes EA€yyowT av 
e / > > 9Q>3 ==> ~ IN... 9) / > \ \ 
ot Adyot. add’ 08d" avatpotow otd’ eyyus, amo yap 
Ths avdTns yuwpns Kat diabecews Kal emt TH adTa@ 
op TATEpA puucoin Tus av <Kal> expov ayarrun t 6 
pnre exOpov dpLvVO[LEVOS pure Tarépa Xporob 
aAéov aidovpevos. ev exeiv pev yap T@ doy 
ptoos EKKOTITEL Kal Kako7TroLiay, ev rovTW de 77) 
mpos Ta atytpoda Svowmiav, ef BAdaroe pds 
~ \ » ») 
cwrnpiav. et yodv aleos ein Twi TaTIp 7 ViOS 7 
adeAfos Kat KwAva THS TloTews yevoLTO Kal 
ep 00Lov THs ave Cons, ToUTW [L1) THs PRR 
pede o OpovoetTn, adda TV capKuKiy oiKketoTnTa Su 
THY TVEVLOTURTY ex9pav diadvodTw. 
23. Nopuocov evar TO mpGypa diaduKaciav. 6.pev 
maTyp aor SoKeitw mapeotws Aéyew ““éya ce 
” A ” > / \ , 
€omrerpa Kal €Opea, axoAovder pow Kat ovvadiKet 

l¢cald>,.. ayarwy Stéhlin. dyarGy Ms. 



22. And Jesus answered, “Verily I say to you, The mean- 
whoever leaves his home and parents and brothers G30"... 
and riches for My sake and for the gospel’s sake command 
shall receive back a hundredfold.”* Let not this seibets pa! 
saying however disturb us, nor yet the still harder kinsfolk 
one uttered elsewhere in the words, “ He that hates 
not father and mother and children, yes and his own 
life also, cannot be My disciple.” ® For the God of 
peace, who exhorts us to love even our enemies, does 
not propose that we should hate and part from our 
dearest ones. If a man must love his enemies, he 
must also by the same rule, reasoning upward from 
them, love his nearest of kin. Or if he must hate 
his blood relations, much more does reason, by a 
downward process, teach him to abhor his enemies ; 
so that the sayings would be proved to cancel one 
another. But they do not cancel one another, nor 
anything like it; for from the same mind and dis- 
position, and with the same end in view, a man may 
hate a father and love an enemy, if he neither takes 
vengeance on his enemy nor honours his father more 
than Christ. For in the one saying Christ cuts at 
the root of hatred and evil-doing, in the other of 
false respect for our kindred, if they do us harm as 
regards salvation. If, for instance, a man had a 
godless father or son or brother, who became a 
hindrance to his faith and an obstacle to the life 
above, let him not live in fellowship or agreement 
with him, but let him dissolve the fleshly relationship 
on account of the spiritual antagonism. 

23. Think of the matter as a lawsuit. Imagine The appeal 
your father standing by you and saying, “I begat ?i,a'a' 
you and brought you up, follow me, take part in my 

@ St. Mark x. 29, > St. Luke xiv. 26. 


949 P. 


A \ / ~ ~ / ” \ € / bal 
Kal un melGov TH Xprotob vow’ Kal omdca av 
” / x ” \ a \ ~ / 
elzor PAdodyjos avOpwros Kat vexpos TH Poet. 
erépwlev d€ dKove TOO GwrTipos: “eyv) ce ave- 
~ A 
yevvnoa, KaK@s v0 KdajLov pos Odvatov yeyev- 
vypevov, nAevbepwoa, iacdunv, <AuTpwodpny: eya 
co. TapeEw Cary aravotov, aiwviov, drepKoopwov: 
eyw aor detEw Oeoi matpds ayalod mpdowm7ov: 
~ \ ~ 
pin KaAEL ceauT@ watépa emt ys: ot vexpol Tovs 
\ / \ /, > / > / 
vexpovs Oamrétwoav, ad dé ror akoAdover: avaéw 
yap Ge els aGvamavow <Kal amodAavow> } appyTwv 
A 3 /, b) ~ “a / > \ Ss , 
kai adéktwv ayabdv, ad pyte odbaduos elde pure 
> > 
ots NKOVOE [LITE ETL KapoLav avOpurrrav dveBn, els 
a emBupobow dyyehou Tapakvwar Kal ety direp 
HTOLLAGEV O Geos Tots dyious ayaa Kat Tots 
diAotow atbrov téxvois. eyad cov tpodeds apTov 
euavTov S.00vs, 08 yevadmevos ovdels ETL TTEtpav 
id / \ / > € / b] * 
Oavarov AopPaver, Kal oma Kal ywépav evdidovs 
aBavacias: éyw diddcKados brepovpaviwy madev- 
pdtwv: vmép cod mpos Tov Odvatov dunywricdunv 
\ \ \ Ly alt 4 / a“ ” 0 ON A 
Kal Tov cov €€éTiaca Oavartov, dv wdetres emt Tots 
TMponpapTnuevors Kal TH mpos Oeov amortia.’ Tov- 
TWY TOV Aoywv exatépwbev dvaKovoas brrep ceavTou 
dtKacov Kal TIP undov a dveveyKe TH cavTod owrnpia 
Kay adehpos ¢ Opova déeyy Kav TEKVOV KAY yur) Kav 
doTLaoby, 7™po | wavrwy ev col XpioTos 6 viK@v €oTW* 
tmép ood yap aywvileTar. 
24. Avvacae Kal Tav XenuaTwv emrimpoobev elva; 
dpdcov Kal ovK amdyer oe Xpiotos THs KTHTEWS, 6 

1 ¢xal damédavowy> Stihlin. 

@ See 1 St. Peter i. 3. > See St. John xiv. 8-9. 
e¢ St. Matthew xxiii. 9. # St. Matthew viii. 22. 



wrong-doing and do not obey the law of Christ,” and 
whatever else a man who was a blasphemer and in 
nature dead might say. But from the other side The appeal 
hear the Saviour; “I gave you new birth, when by %°""** 
the world you were evilly born for death; I set you 
free, I healed you, I redeemed you. I will provide 
you with a life unending, eternal, above the world. 
I will show you the face of God the good Father.? 
‘Call no man your father upon earth.’* ‘Let the 
dead bury their dead, but do you follow Me.’@ For 
I will lead you up to a rest and to an enjoyment of 
unspeakable and indescribable good things ‘which 
eye has not seen nor ear heard, nor have they 
entered into the heart of man, which angels desire 
to look into and to see what good things God has 
prepared for His saints and for His children that 
love Him.’* I am your nurse, giving Myself for 
bread, which none who taste have any longer trial 
of death,’ and giving day by day drink of immor- 
tality. JIama teacher of heavenly instructions. On 
your behalf I wrestled with death and paid your 
penalty of death, which you owed for your former 
sins and your faithlessness towards God.’’ When 
you have listened to these appeals from each side 
pass judgment on your own behalf and cast the vote 
for your own salvation. Even though a brother says 
the like, or a child or wife or any one else, before 
all let it be Christ that conquers in you; since it is 
on your behalf He struggles. 

24. Can you also rise superior to your riches? Salvation 

: t 
Say so, and Christ does not draw you away from the jefore all. 

¢ See 1 Corinthians ii. 9; 1 St. Peter i. 12. 
F See St. John vi. 50-51; Hebrews xi. 36. 
9 See St. John iv. 14. 



KUpLos ov pOovet. an’ Opas oeavTov HTT pLEvov 
bm avTt@v Kat dvarpemTofLevov ; ades, ptibov, plon- 
cov, amoTakar, puye: “Kav O befios cov odfadpos 
GSS te oe, Taxews ExKorbov avrov" . atperwre- 
pov Erepopbddyuep Baotheta Beod 7 ohoKAnpy TO 7p" 
Kav Yelp Kav TOUS Kav 7 pox, putonjoov adriy av 
yap evtav0a aroAntat brep Xprotod, <exet owhrjae- 

25. Tavrys dé 6 opotws EXETAL THS yrepns kal TO 
€770}LEVOV" * viv dé € ev TO Kaup@ Toure) dypovs Kab 
xXpypwara Kal OLKias Kal ddeAdods & exew pea, Ouwy- 
pav els mob 3?” oUTE yap axXpnpdrous ovTe av- 
eaTtious ote avadéAdous emt Ty Cony Karel, evel KaL 
movotous KeKAner, GAN’ ov TpdToV TpoELpyKapeEV, 
Kal adeAgovs KaTO Tavrov * a@omep Ilerpov peTa. 
’Avdpéov Kat “TaxwBov pera. *"Iwavvov, Tovs LeBe- 
Saiov maidas, add’ dpovootytTas NAFAdLs TE Kal 
Xpiore. TO Oe “* weTa Suwypay ” Tabra EKAOTO 
exe drodoKxyudler Suewypos oe 6 pév Tus efwbev 
mepuyiveTau Tov avOpaTuwv 7 bu ex9pav H dia 
dldovov 7 Oud piroxepderav 7 H Kar’ evepyecav La- 
BoAuKyny Tovs TLOTOUS eAavvovTav: re) be Karem - 
Tatos evoobév eo duwypos, €€ avris éxdoTw THs 
uvxis TPOTTEWTO[LEVOS Avpawoperns ¥ Sd embupdv 
abov Kal oov@v mrokidwy Kat pavrcwv eArridav 
Kal dlaptikady 4 dveipoTroAnudror, oTay, del Trav 
TAcrovenv opeyouer kal Avoodoa wt70 _ayplov 
epwtwv Kat dreyopevn, Kaldmep Kévtpois 7 pda 

1 <éxe? owOnoera> Segaar. 
2 eis rod; Stéhlin. «fs roums. See p. 280, n, 1. 
8 kara Tairov Segaar. Kat avrdov MS. 
4 pOaprikGv Mayor. @apray ms, 



possession of them; the Lord does not grudge. But 
do you see yourself being worsted and overthrown by 
them? Leave them, cast them off, hate them, say 
good-bye to them, flee from them. “And if thy 
right eye cause thee to stumble, quickly cut it out.” 
Better the kingdom of God with one eye, than the 
fire with both. And if it be a hand or a foot or thy 
life, hate it. For if here it perishes for Christ’s sake, 
there it shall be saved. 

25. This meaning attaches likewise to the passage The 
which follows. “To what end is it that in this "anne 
present time we have lands and riches and houses persecu- 
and brothers with persecutions?” For it is not "°"* 
simply men without riches or homes or brothers that 
He calls to life, since He has also called rich men 
(though in the sense we have before stated); and 
brothers likewise, as Peter with Andrew, and James 
with John, the sons of Zebedee, though these were 
brothers of one mind with each other and with 
Christ. But He disapproves of our having each of 
these things “ with persecutions.” Now one kind of 
persecution comes from without, when men, whether 
through hatred, or envy, or love of gain, or by the 
prompting of the devil,° harry the faithful. But the 
hardest persecution is that from within, proceeding 
from each man’s soul that is defiled by godless lusts 
and manifold pleasures, by low hopes and corrupting 
imaginations ; when, ever coveting more, and mad- 
dened and inflamed by fierce loves,’ it is stung by 

@ See St. Matthew v. 29-30; xviii. 8; and St. Mark ix. 
43-47. 6 St. Mark x. 30. 

¢ Or perhaps, ‘* by slanderous activity.” 

@ The phrase comes from Plato, Phaedrus 81a; cp. 
Republic 329 c, 


950 P. 

Tots mpookeyrevois) adrh maGeow eaydoonras 
m™pos amovodas pravecders Kal Suis amToyvwaw Kal 
Oeob Karappovnow. ovTos 6 diwyyos BapUtepos 
Kal yadetrwtepos, evdolev oppuwpevos, adel ouvey, 
ov ovd€ exduyeiy 6 dtwKopevos SvVaTaL’ TOV ‘yap 
exyOpov ev éavT@ mepidyer tavtaxod. ovTw Kal 
TUpwois 7» pev e€whev mpoomintovoa dSoxyaciav 
Katepyalerar, 7» dé €vdobev Oavatov Siamrpdocerat *. 
Kal _TOA€ [LOS 6 peev ETAKTOS padiws KaTaAveTaL, 6 
de ev TH puyH PEXpL Bavarov TapapeTpetran. peTa 
Suaypob TOLOUTOV mobrov edy EXns TOV atcbyrov 
Kav adeAdods Tovs mpos atwatos Kal Ta adda 
evéxupa, KaTaAime THY TOUTWY TAayKTHOlaY THY emt 
KaK®@, Elpyvnv cEeavT@ TApaayXes, erevdepwdyre 
duewyp08 pLaKpod, droarpddn bt mpos 70 edayye)vov 
Ons ovviyyopov Kal mapaKAnrov poxijs TOV THS 
a7relpou mpuravw Cus. “ra yap PdAemoueva 
mpookarpa., Ta O€ pL} Preropeva atavea” Kal 
év pe T® Trapovte | ypovw KUpLopa Kal aBeBaa, 

“ev d€ TH Epyouevw Cw] : €orw aiesv.os. 

26. “”Eoovrat of mparou EOYATOL KAL OL EaYaTOL 
mpO@tTo..’ totto moAvyouv péev éott KaTa THV 
bmovoray Kal TOV oadnviopov, ov nV ev ye TO 
mapovrTe THY CyTHoWw atraiTtet? od yap jovov peTret 

1 rpockemévos Segaar. mpoxemévors MS. 

2 diarpdooerac Barnard. diarapdocera MS. 
3 ¢w7 Ghisler. {wy Ms. 

# Clement seems to have in mind Romans v. 4 (*‘ worketh 
probation’) and 1 Corinthians iii. 13 (‘* the fire shall prove 
each man’s work”). The ‘‘inward burning which works 
death” may be a reminiscence of 1 Corinthians vii. 9. 



its attendant passions, as by goads or a gad-fly, into 
states of frenzied excitement, into despair of life and 
contempt of God. This persecution is heavier and 
harder, because it arises from within and is ever 
with us; nor can the victim escape from it, for he 
carries his enemy about within himself everywhere. 
So too with regard to burning; that which falls on 
us from without effects a testing, but that from 
within works death. And war also; that which is 
brought against us is easily ended, but war in the 
soul accompanies us till death. If joined with such 
persecution you have visible wealth and brothers 
by blood and all the other separable possessions,? 
abandon your sole enjoyment of these which leads 
to evil, grant to yourself peace, become free from a 
persecution that lasts, turn away from them to the 
gospel, choose before all the Saviour, the advocate 
and counsel’ for your soul, the president of the 
infinite life. “For the things that are seen are 
temporal, but the things that are not seen are 
eternal;’’% and in the present time things are 
fleeting and uncertain, but “in the world to come 
is life eternal.”’ ¢ 

26. “The first shall be last and the last first.” S 
This saying, though fruitful in its deeper meaning and 
interpretation, does not call for examination at the 
present time, for it applies not merely to those who 

> Or ‘‘pledges,” a term used in Attic law to denote 
movable property that could be offered as security for 
debt. In this passage it may mean ‘dear ones,” like the 
Latin pignora. 

¢ Literally, ‘‘ paraclete.” But the connexion with ‘‘ad- 
vocate”” shows that Clement is thinking of the word in its 
legal meaning. @ 2 Corinthians iv. 18. 

” Ue SH Mark x30: t- St: Mark x. Sh. 



\ \ A > Bo. i€ ~ \ 7 
mpos Tovs ToAUKTHLOVaS, GAN’ aTA@s pos amavTas 
avOpwmous tovs triotes Kabamrak€ EavTovs emdidov- 
Tas. woTe TovTo pev avakeiobw ta viv. To dé 
ye TpoKelpwevov Liv ofwar prndev TL evdeeaTepor 1 THs 
emayyeNas dedety Ban, ore Tovs Aovaious ovdeva 
TpoTroV © owTi/p Kar avrov ye TOV TAoDTOV Kal THY 
mepipoAny THs KTOEWS dmroKeKAcuKev ot avrots 
amoteTadpevKev THY GwTypiav, el ye SUvawTO Kal 
BovAowrTo brok’ntew Tod Geot tats evtodais Kal 
TOV Tpockalpwv TpoTYL@ev THV EavTa@v Cwrv Kal 
Brérrovev ™mpos Tov KUplov atevet TH PrEupati, 
xaldaep els ayaot KuBepynTov veda, Sedopkores, 
Ti BovAerat, Te TpooTaccel, TL onpaiver, ti didwot 
tots avtob vavrais [70]? avvOnua, 70d Kal 7obev 
Tov Opmov emayyéAAeTat. Ti yap abdiKet Tis, el 
Tpocéywv THY yvwapnv Kal Pevdduevos mpOoO THS 
miotews Biov tkavov avveAcEato; 7 Kal <TO >® TovTOU 
paAAov avéyKAntov, «tf edOds bro Tob Beob Tob THv 
Tuxnv 4 vejovros els olkov TovouTaY avOpwmuv €o- 
qpKiobn Kal yévos dpuprrages tots xpnuaow [iaydov ]® 
Kal TO movTw Kpatobv; el yap dua THY aKovarov 
ev mAovre yeveow amedAjAatar Cwis, adiKcetrar 
padArXov bo Tob yewapevov © Feod, mpooKaipov pév 
nduTrabelas KaTnEwwevos, avdiov dé Cwhs ameote- 
pynuevos. tid’ dAws mAobrov éexyphv ex yhs ava- 
teiAal mote, el xopyyos Kat mpd€evds é€ott Oavarov; 

1 évdeéarepov Ghisler. ddeéorepoy Ms. 
2 [rd] Stéhlin. 3 <rd> inserted by Ghisler. 
4 rixnv Segaar. wWuxhv MS. 5 [icxdov|] Wilamowitz. 
6 yewvauevov Ghisler. -yivouévou MS. 

* j,¢e, the gospel promise of salvation for all men. 


have great possessions, but generally to all men who 
once devote themselves to faith. So for the time 
being let it be reserved. But as to the question before 
us, I think it has been shown that the promise % does 
not fall short in any respect, because the Saviour 
has by no means shut out the rich, at any rate so far 
as their actual riches and investments? of property 
are concerned, nor has He trenched off salvation from 
them, provided they are able and willing to stoop 
beneath God’s commandments and that they value 
their own life above temporal things and look to the 
Lord with steadfast gaze, like sailors on the watch 
for the nod of a good pilot to see what are his 
wishes, his commands, his signals, what watchword 
he gives them, where and whence he proclaims the 
harbour. For what wrong does a man do, if by 
careful thought and frugality he has before his 
conversion gathered enough to live on; or, what is 
still less open to censure, if from the very first he 
was placed by God, the distributor of fortune, in a 
household of such men, in a family abounding in 
riches and powerful in wealth? For if he has 
been banished from life for being born, through no 
choice of his own, in wealth, it is rather he who is 
wronged by God who brought him into existence, 
seeing that he has been counted worthy of temporal 
comfort, but deprived of eternal life. Why need 
wealth ever have arisen at all out of earth, if it is 
the provider and agent® of death? But if a man 

> Literally, ‘* clothing” or ‘‘ covering,” as on p. 277, n. a. 

¢ The word is used in Greek politics of a man who 
was appointed to represent the citizens of another State 
than his own, and to act as their friend and protector when 

they visited his city. Hence it has the meaning of our 
Consul, or Agent. 


Salvation is 
possible for 
rich men if 
they will 
obey God 

It is not 
wrong to 
save money 

Nor to be 
born ina 
rich family 

951 P. 


GAN’ ei St¥vatat tis evdoTépw THv strapxyovTwv 
Kapntew THs e€ovoias Kal pétpia dpovetv Kat 
awdpovetv Kat Geov povov Cntetv Kai Deov avamvetv 
Kat Ge@ ovprrorrevecbar, TrWYOs ObTOS TrapeaTHKE 
Tats evToAats, eAcvOepos, ANATTHTOS, dvooos, ATpwTos 
bo ypnudtwv: et d€ pH, Oarrov Kdpndros S10 
Bedovns eiceAevoeTat 7) 6 ToLObTOS TrAOVOLOS ETL THY 
Baotrelav tod Beod mapeAevoeTar. onpaweTw ev 
oy Te Kal vismAdTEpoV 1 Kdpndos dua orevijs 6608 
Kal TeOAyypevns pOdvovoa Tov mAovatov, omrep ev 
TH Tept apxa@v Kal Beodoyias eSny iret pvaTnplov 
TOU GWTHpos dmdpyet pabety: 27. od pnv adda To 
ye hawopevov mp@tov Kat du’ 6 A€AeKTau THs Tapa- 
Bodfjs mapexéobw. SdidacKxéTw Tovs evTopodyTas 
ws ovK dyehntéov THs €avTav owrnpias ws 707 
TpoKaTeyvwopevous ovde KATOTOVTLOTEOV ad mad 
TOV mAobrov ovde KaTAdLKAOTEOV WS 7S Cwijs émt- 
BovAov kai mroA€guiov, aAAa pabyntéov tiva tpotrov 
Kal 7&s tAovTw ypnotéov Kal THY Cwnv KTNTEOV. 
eels) yap ovTe ex mavTos amdAduTal Tis, OTL 
mAouTet dediws, oUTE eK TravTOs owleTar Fappav 
Kal muoTevwY ws owbrjceTar, Pepe OKETTEOV HVTWA 
Thy eArida avtots 6 owTip broypade, Kal THs av 
TO pLev avéAmoTov exéyyvov yévotTo, TO Sé eATLcOeEV 
els KTHOW adiKolTo. 

# Literally, ‘*can bend within the power of his posses- 
sions,” probably a metaphor from the chariot-race, in which 
the driver was required to pass close to the turning-post, yet 
not to touch it. The rich man must not let his wealth run 
away with him. With Clement’s remark about the power 
of possessions Stéhlin compares Thucydides i. 38—‘‘ the 
insolence and power of wealth.” 

6 St. Mark x. 25. 



can keep within bounds the power that possessions 
bring, and can be modest in thought and self- 
controlled, seeking God alone, living in an atmo- 
sphere of God and as a fellow-citizen with God, here 
is one who approaches the commandments as a poor 
man, as free, unconquered, untouched by the diseases 
or wounds of riches. If not, a camel shall more 
quickly enter through a needle than shall such a 
rich man reach the kingdom of God.2 Now the 
camel, that passes through a strait and narrow way ¢ 
sooner than the rich man, must be understood to 
have some higher meaning, which, as a mystery of 
the Saviour, can be learnt in my Exposition concerning 
First Principles and Theology.4 27. Here, however, 
let me set forth the first and obvious meaning of the 
illustration,? and the reason why it was used. Let Therich 
it teach the well-to-do that their salvation must not or ae 
be neglected on the ground that they are already about their 
condemned beforehand, nor on the contrary must ”*% 
they throw their wealth overboard or give judgment 
against it as insidious and inimical to life, but they 
must learn how and in what manner wealth is to be 
used and life acquired. For since a man is neither 
absolutely being lost if he is rich but fearful, nor 
absolutely being saved because he is bold and con- 
fident that he will be saved, let us now go on to 
inquire what hope it is that the Saviour outlines for 
the rich, and how the unhoped for may become 
secure, and the hoped for pass into possession. 

¢ St. Matthew vii. 14. 

4 In iii. Stromateis 13. 1 and 21. 2, Clement mentions a 
projected work on ‘ First Principles”; but it has not come 
down to us. 

¢ Literally, eee ” ; but it is hardly a parable in our 
sense of the word. 



Mratv odv 6 SiddoKados, Tis 7 weylorn TH evTo- 
Adv TpwrTnpLevos: “dyarnoecs KUptov TOV Fedv cou 
e€ oAns Tis puxis gov Kal e€ odns Tis Suvdpews 
cov, Tavrns poet w pndepiav evroAny elvat, Kal 
para etkoTws. Kal yap Kal Tept Tob mposTou Kal 
mept Tod peyiorou mapijyyeArat, avToo Tob Deod 
TaTpos Hudv, du’ od Kal yéyove Kal € €oTl TA mdvra 
Kal els Ov Ta Gwlopeva TaAw eTravepXeTau. 710 
ToUTOU TOlVUV _TpoayannBevras Kal Too yevéobat 
TUXOVTAS ovx dovov aAXo Tt mpeoBvrepov dyew Kal 
TLLLWTEPOV, exTivovTas povny THY xapw Taurny 
pukpav emi peylotos, aAAo dé pndotioby exovTas 
avevdeet oe Teheiw be@ mos apLoupijv emuvonoat, 
are d€ TH+ ayarav tov matépa eis olketay toxv 
kat Svvayw adOapoiay 2 KopurCopevovs. Ooov yap 
ayama tis Gedv, TooovTw Kal mA€ov evdoTépw Tod 
Oeod mapadverau. 

28. Aeutépav dé Trager Kal ovdév TL pLLKpoTEepaV 
Tavrns elvat Ayer TO° “dyamnoes: TOV mAnotov 
gov ws ceautov:” ovKobv Tov Oeov bmep geavTov. 
muvOavopevov dé Tob mpoodiarcyouevov “rigs €oTw 
mAnotov ;’ ie OU TOV avrov tpotrov *lovdaious mpo- 
wpliaato TOV pos aiwaros ovde Tov moXitny ovde 
TOV mpoondutov ovde TOV dpoiws TE pUTET UT EVOV 
ovd€ TOV EVL Kal TAVT@ vou Xpupevov' adda 
avwUev kataBaivovra.® dro ‘TepovoaAnm ayet TO 
Aoyw Twa eis ‘Tepixe Kal Tobrov detkvuow bro 
AnoTav ovyKekevTnevov, eppyrpevov HuOvATa emt 

1 ait@ 6¢ r@ Ghisler. av’rd 5é 76 Ms. 
2 apbapciav Wilamowitz. apOapcias Ms. 
3 xataBaivovra Ghisler. kxataBaivwy ms. 

@ St. Mark xii. 30-31, 



When asked which is the greatest of the com- 
mandments the Teacher says, “ Thou shalt love the 
Lord thy God with all thy soul and with all thy 
power,’ and that there is no commandment greater 
than this*—and quite naturally. For indeed it is 
a precept concerning the first and the greatest 
existence, God Himself our Father, through whom 
all things have come into being and exist, and to 
whom the things that are being saved return again.? 
As therefore we were first loved by Him® and took 
our beginning from Him, it is not reverent to consider 
any other thing as more venerable or more honour- 
able. This is the only thanks we pay Him, a small 
return for the greatest blessings; and we are not 
able to think of the slighest thing else to serve as 
recompense for a God who is perfect and in need of 
nothing. But by the very act of loving the Father 
to the limit of our personal strength and power we 
gain incorruption. For in proportion as a man loves 
God, he enters more closely into God. 

28. Second in order, and in no way less important 
than this, is, He says, the commandment, ‘Thou 
- shalt love thy neighbour as thyself’ /—God therefore 
you must love more than yourself. And when His 
questioner inquires, “Who is a neighbour?”*’ He 
did not point, in the same way as the Jews did, to 
their blood-relation, or fellow-citizen, or proselyte, 
or to the man who like them was circumcised, or to 
a keeper of one and the same law, but He describes 
aman going down from Jerusalem to Jericho,’ show- 

ing him stabbed by robbers and flung half dead upon 

’ See Romans xi. 36 ¢ See 1 St. John iv. 19, 
@ St. Luke x. 27. e St. Luke x. 29. 
J See St. Luke x. 30-37. 


The first 
and greatest 

The second 
great com- 

952 P. 


THs 0608, 70 tepews Trapodevdp.evoy, tao Aevitov 
TOpopwfLevoy, tro S€ Tob Lapapeirov Tob eFwver- 
Ovopevou Kal agdwptopevov KareAcovpevov, ds odyxt 
Kata TUxnY ws exetvor TapHADev, adr’ FHKE avvec- 
Kevaaevos Ov 6 Kwédvvetwv edetTo, olvov, édAaLov, 
emlOcopous, KTHVos, piolov TH mavdoxel, TOV pev 
707) Siddpevov, Tov d€ mpoovmicyvovpevov. “‘Tis,” 
edn, ‘‘TovTwy yéyove TAnoiov T@ Ta Sewa mabovtt;”’ 
Tov d€ aToKpwapevou OTe “6 TOV EXeov pos adToV 
emoeiEdjzevos* Kal od Towvy mopevfeis ovTW 
woe,’ ws THs ayamns BAacravovons edrrotiav. 

29. ’Ev audorépats prev obv Tats évroAats aydmny 
elonyetrar, Ta€er O adrnv SujpyKe, Kal O7rov pev TA 
mpwreta THS ayanns avante. TH OED, S7ov Sé Ta 
devtepeta véwer TH TAyGiov. tis 5 av aAdos obTos 
ein mAnv avtos 6 owtip; 7 Tis padAXov Tuas 
erenoas | éxelvov, Tos vUTd THY KOopmoKpaTopwY 
Tov oKdTovs oAiyou Tefavatwpevous Tots troAAois 
Tpavpact, Poors, emuOvpiats, opyats, AVmats, amra- 
TOUS, 7Oovats ; ToUTw d€ THY TpavpLaTiov pLovos 
tapos ‘Inoods, é EKKOTTOV dpdqy Ta 7a0y mpdpptta, 
ovx womep 6 VOUS Aa Ta dmoreA€opara., Tovs 
Kap7ous TOY Trovnp@v puTav, aAAa thy a€ivynv TIP 
é€avTod mpos Tas pilas Ths KaKlas Tpoowyayuy. 
ovTos <6>* Tov olvor, TO atua THs apmréAov Ths Aafis, 
EKXeaS Hav el Tas TeTPWUEeVas YuxXds, <oDTOS oO 
To €Aaov,>? tov ék omAdyyvwv matpos €dcor, 
mpoceveyKwv Kal émdaruAcvdpevos, obTOS 6 TOUS 

1 év Ghisler. dy ms. * <6> inserted by Ghisler. 
8 <oiros> inserted by Wilamowitz: <676 €\aoy> by Lindner. 
@ See St. Luke x. 31. > Ephesians vi. 12. 

¢ See St. Matthew iii. 10; St. Luke iii, 9. 


the road. A priest passes him by ; a Levite disregards 
him; but he is pitied by the scorned and outcast 
Samaritan, who did not pass along by chance @ as the 
others, but had come fully equipped with what the 
man in danger needed, wine, oil, bandages, a beast, 
and payment for the innkeeper, some being given 
there and then and a further amount promised. 
“Which of these,’ He said, “proved neighbour to 
him who endured this outrage?” And when he 
answered, “ He that showed pity towards him,” the 
Lord added, “Go thou therefore and do likewise.”’ 
For love bursts forth into good works. 

29. In both commandments therefore He intro- Jesus | 
duces love, but He makes a distinction of order, in Cb™Stis 
one place attaching to God the highest exercise of neighbour 
love and in the other allotting its secondary exercise 
to our neighbour. And who else can this be but 
the Saviour himself? Or who more than He has 
pitied us, who have been almost done to death by 
the world-rulers of the darkness® with these many 
wounds—with fears, lusts, wraths, griefs, deceits and 
pleasures? Of these wounds Jesus is the only 
healer, by cutting out the passions absolutely and 
from the very root. He does not deal with the 
bare results, the fruits of bad plants, as the law 
did, but brings His axe to the roots of evil.¢ This is 
He who poured over our wounded souls the wine, 
the blood of David’s vine;¢@ this is He who has 
brought and is lavishing on us the oil, the oil of pity 

4 Cp. Teaching of the Twelve Apostles ix. 1-2, ‘* with 
regard to the giving of thanks (i.e. the Eucharist), in this 
way give thanks: first with regard to the cup; ‘ We give 
thanks to Thee, our Father, for the holy vine of David Thy 

Son, which Thou hast made known to us through Jesus 
Thy Son.’” 

M 331 


THs Uyelas Kal owTnypias Seajovs GAvTOUS emdelEas, 
ayamny, mot, €Amida, odTos 6 Siakovety ayyéAous 
Kal apxyas Kal e€ovoias Hiv émitdgas emi peydAw 
pcb, dudte Kat adrot éeAevepwhyoovrar amo Tis 
paraoTnTos | Tob KOopov Tapa THY dro dhurpu 
Tis dd&ns TOV Vidv Too feot. todrov otv cyam av 

toa. xp) TO Ded. dyamd be Xptorov Inooby 
Oo TO 6édnja attod tov Kat dvAdcowv adrod 
Tas evToAds. “‘od yap mds 6 Aéywyv pou KUpte 

KUpie elocAcvoeTa els THY Bactrciav THY odpavar, 
aA 6 moidv to OéAnua Tod TaTpds pov.” 
Kai: ““ri pe Adyere KUpte KUpLE Kal Ov ToLEtTE a 
Aéyw;”’ Kait “duets pakdpior of dp@vres Kat 
akovovTes G@ pnTte Sikaton pnTe Tmpodhrar,’ e€av 
moujte a A€yw. 

30. IIp@ros pev obv otrds eotw 6 Xprorov 
ayama@v, Sevtepos 5é 6 Tovs exelvw TETLOTEUKOTAS 
TYG Kal TEPLETTOV. 6 yap dv Tis eis panty 
epydonrat, TovTo «is éavTov 6 KUptos exdexXEeTAL Kal 
mav eavToo moveirar. ““debre, ot evAoynpéevor Tob 
TaTpOos pov, KAnpovouyncate ny Hroacpwevyy v bpiv 
Bactdetay amo KataBoAhs KOopou. emetvaca yap 
Kal €OwKaTe pou payer, Kal edivnoa Kal edwKare 
jou metv, Kal €vos nunv Kal ovvyyayere je, yupvos 
nny Kal evedvoaté pe, HoOdvyca Kal emecKkepacbE 
pe, ev durakh jpnv Kal yAUeTe mpds pe. TOTE 
amoxpiOncovrar avt@ ot Sikaor A€yovTes* KUpte, 

# | Corinthians xiii. 13. 

» See Hebrews i. 14; Ephesians iii. 10. 

° See Romans viii. 19-21. St. Paul speaks of ‘‘the 
whole creation’”’ being freed from corruption. The special 



from the Father’s heart; this is He who has shown 
us the unbreakable bands of health and salvation, 
love, faith and hope ;* this is He who has ordered 
angels and principalities and powers? to serve us for 
great reward, because they too shall be freed from 
the vanity of the world at the revelation of the glory 
of the sons of God. Him therefore we must love We must 
equally with God. And he loves Christ Jesus who pes ea 
does His will and keeps His commandments.? “ For with God 
not everyone that saith unto Me, Lord, Lord, shall 
enter into the kingdom of heaven, but he that 
doeth the will of My Father.”° And, “Why call 
ye Me, Lord, Lord, and do not the things that I 
say?’’S And “Blessed are ye that see and hear 
what neither righteous men nor prophets saw and 
heard,’ if ye do what I say.9 

30. He then is first who loves Christ, and the Next we 
second is he who honours and respects those who Gin” 
believe on Christ. For whatever service a man does brethren 
for a disciple the Lord accepts for Himself, and 
reckons it all His own. “Come, ye blessed of My 
Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from 
the foundation of the world. For I was hungry and 
ye gave Me to eat, and I was thirsty and ye gave Me 
to drink, and I was a stranger and ye took Me in, I 
was naked and ye clothed Me, I was sick and ye 
visited Me, I was in prison and ye came unto Me. 
Then shall the righteous answer Him saying, Lord, 
thought of the angelic powers as destined to share in this 
deliverance seems to be Clement’s own, though possibly it 
was in St. Paul’s mind when he wrote. 

@ See St. John xiv. 15. 

¢ St. Matthew vii. 21. 

’ St. Luke vi. 46. 
9 See St. Matthew xiii. 16-17; St. John xiii. 17, 


953 P. 


MOTE GE ElOopeEV TrELWaVTA Kai COpéeapev, 7 Subdvra 
Kal / ETOTLOGLED 5 more be eloopev o€ E€vov Kal ouv- 
nyayomev, 1H yupvov Kal mepteBahopev 5 7 MOTE GE 
elBopev acbevodvra Kal ereoxeyapeba ; 7 ev duiaxh 
Kat 7AGopuev mpos o€; amoxpileis 6 BaatAeds épet 
avtois: apy Aéyw tyuiv, ef’ daov eroujoate €vi 
TovTwy Tov adeAPdv pov Tav eAaxloTwv, euol 
emoijoate. mddw é€x THY evavtiwy Tods Tatra 
f7) Tapacyovtas avtots eis TO mop euBadAeu TO 
aivsviov, ws avTa pn) TApEesXKOTAS. Kal aAdaxob- 
ew bps dexdpevos € ee S€xeTal, 6 Buds pr Sexopue- 
vos ewe abetet.”’ 

31. Tovrous Kat téxva kai madia Kal vyiTia Kal 
didovs ovoydler Kat puuxpovs evOdde Ws mpos TO 
puéAXov diven _beyeBos avTtav, “ 7) KaTappovijanre, | 
dey, ““évos | TOV puKpav ToUTwv: TOUTWY yap ob 
ayyeAo. dia TAvTOS PArérovor TO Tpoowmov — Tob 
TaTpos pou Tob év ovpavois.” Kal erépwOu “Hy 
poBetobe, TO [LLKpoV TOlpLvLov duty yap 180K jGEV 6 0 
TaTnp Tapadobvat tiv Bacirelav’’ TH ovpavar. 
KaTa Ta avTa Kal TOU peyloTou év yevvyTois 
yuvatkav *Iwavvov tov éeAdxyiotov év tH Bactdreia 
TOV ovpavay, TovTéote TOV EavTod pabyrHy, elvar 
peilw Adyar. Kal mddw: “6 dexopevos Sixaov 
2 tmpodytnv eis Ovopa SiKalov 7 mpodytov Tov 
exetvev pabov Ajerar, 6 Sé€ wabyrnv moTioas eis 
ovop.a wabnrob ToT npLov puxpod vdaros TOV pcabov 
ovK amoXécet.”” ovKodv odtTos ovos 6 puLabds ovK 

@ St. Matthew xxv. 34-40. 

>’ See St. Matthew x. 40; St. Luke x. 16. 

¢ See St. Mark x. 24; St. John xxi. 5; St. Matthew xi. 
25; St. John xv. 15; St. Luke xii. 4. 



when saw we Thee hungry and fed Thee, or thirsty 
and gave Thee drink? When saw we Thee a stranger 
and took Thee in, or naked and clothed Thee? Or 
when saw we Thee sick and visited Thee? Or in 
prison and came unto Thee? The King shall answer 
and say unto them; Verily I say unto you, inasmuch 
as ye did it unto one of these My brethren, even 
these least, ye did it unto Me.”’* Again, on the other 
hand, those who did not provide these things for 
them He casts into the eternal fire, on the ground 
that they have not provided them for Him. And in 
another place: “He that receiveth you receiveth 
Me; he that receiveth you not rejecteth Me.” ® 

31. These who believe on Him He calls children Names ot 
and young children and babes and friends ;° also little 0v¢2"4 
ones here,“ in comparison with their future greatness aes 
above. “Despise not,’ He says, “one of these“? 
little ones, for their angels always behold the face 
of My Father who is in heaven.” * And elsewhere ; 
“Fear not, little flock, for it is the Father’s good 
pleasure to give you the kingdom’ of heaven. 
After the same manner He says that the least in the 
kingdom of heaven, that is, His own disciple, is 
greater than the greatest among them that are born 
of women, namely John.’ And again, “He that 
receiveth a righteous man or a prophet shall obtain 
the reward meet for these, and he that hath given 
a cup of cold water to a disciple in the name of a 
disciple shall not lose his reward.”* This then is 

@ See St. Matthew x. 42. 
e St. Matthew xviii. 10. 
f St. Luke xii. 32. 
9 See St. Matthew xi. 11; St. Luke vii. 28, 
a St. Matthew x. 41-42, 



> / / b] \ > ce / ¢ ~ 

aToAdvpevos €ott. Kai adlis: “‘mroujoate éavtots 
/ ~ ~ ~ 

didous ex TOD wapwva Tis ad.Kias, va oTav exAiry,| 
/ ~ 

deEwvrar Buds els Tas alwviovs oxnvds.”’ dvaer 

~ a > ~ 
Lev aTracav KTHOW, HV abTos Tis Ef EavTOD KEKTHTAL 
2O7/ A 

ws idiav otoav Kal otk els Kowov Tots deopévors 

KatatiOnow, adixov ovoav atodaivwy, €k d€ TavTyS 
~ > / lan 

THs adukias €vov Kal mpadypa dikatov epydoacbau 

\ ~ ~ 
Kal owTTpLov, dvaraboat Twa TOV exXOvTWY alaviov 
oKnVIY Tapa TO marpl. 

“Opa mp@rtov ev ws ovK dmavretobat GE kenédev- 
Kev ovde evoyxActobar mrepyseverv, GAAa adrov Cytetv 
Tovs €U TELGoueVvous akiovs TE OVTAS TOD GWTHpOS 
pabntrds. Kados pev otv Kat 6 TOD amoardXov 

/ coe \ \ / > om, ie / ”) / 
Aoyos: “‘ihapov yap SdéTyv ayaa o Beds,” xaipovra 
~ \ 
T@ Siddvar Kat 7) Pevdopévws * omeipovta, wa [7 
14 ~ , 
ovTws Kai Bepion, Sixa yoyyvouav Kati diaxpicews 
~ A 
Kat Avmns [Kat ]® Kowwvodbvra, OmEp EoTl evepyecia 
Kkalapa.* Kpeitrwv 8 é€oti TovTov 6 Tod Kupiov 
AcAeypévos ev ddAw xwpiw: “mavti TO aitobyrti 
/ ” ~ . w+ fi e 4, i Ul 
ae didov"’ Geot yap ovtws 7 Tovav’Tyn diAcdwpia. 
¢e \ be e A / ¢ \ 7 / > Q / de 
ovToat dé 6 Adyos Urép atacdv €ott HedTyTa, pyndE 
A > A 
aitetoBar mepysreverv, GAA’ adrov avalntety ootis 
» > ~ ~ / ~ 
a€tos ed mabety, ererta THALKODTOV uLaOov Opiaa THs 
b) ~ / 
Kowwvias, alwviov oKnvynVv. 32. W Kadfs EuToptas, 
\ / > ~ A La > / 
@ Oetas ayopads: wvetrar xpnudtwv tis adGapacar, 
1 éxd\lry Stahlin. éxAlaryrte ms. 
2 pevdouévws (from 2 Cor. ix. 6) Segaar. qevdduevoy Ms. 
3 [kai] Segaar. 
4 xkadapd Segaar. xKadd Ms. 

@ St. Luke xvi. 9. 
> The phrase comes from Acts iv. 32, 
¢ 2 Corinthians ix. 7. 



the only reward that cannot be lost. And once 
more: ‘Make to yourselves friends from the 
mammon of unrighteousness, that when it shall fail, 
they may receive you into the eternal habitations.’’ 4 
Thus He declares that all possessions are by nature 
unrighteous, when a man possesses them for personal 
advantage as being entirely his own,? and does not 
bring them into the common stock for those in need ; 
but that from this unrighteousness it is possible to 
perform a deed that is righteous and saving, namely, 
to give relief to one of those who have an eternal 
habitation with the Father. 

See, first, how His command is not that you should The great 
yield to a request or wait to be pestered, but that tov of 
you should personally seek out men whom you may Bee 
benefit, men who are worthy disciples of the Saviour. “"°?™ 
Now the Apostle’s saying also is good, “ God loveth 
a cheerful giver,” “ one who takes pleasure in giving 
and sows not sparingly, for fear he should reap 
sparingly,? but shares his goods without murmurings 
or dispute or annoyance. This is sincere kindness. 
Better than this is that which is said by the Lord 
in another place; “Give to everyone that asketh 
thee ;”* for such generosity is truly of God. But 
more divine than all is this saying, that we should 
not even wait to be asked,’ but should personally 
seek after whoever is worthy of help, and then fix 
the exceedingly great reward of our sharing, an 
eternal habitation. 32. What splendid trading! 

What divine business! You buy incorruption with 

@ See 2 Corinthians ix. 6. ¢ St. Luke vi. 30. 

‘ Clement interprets the saying, ‘‘ Make to yourselves 
friends ... ,” asa command to the rich man to give without 
being asked. 


954 P. 


kal dovds Ta SioAAvpeva TOG Kdopov poviy TovTwWY 
aiesviov év ovpavots avr7Aap Paver. mAcioov emt 
TAUTHV, av owppoviis, TV Tmavyyupy, @ movore, 
Kav d€n, Teplice yivi oAnv, p17 deion Kwovvev Kal 
Tovey, Ww evratla Baorrclav ovpdviov ayopaons. 
Tl GE Aor Svapavel is Kal i oudpaydor ToaobTov evdpat- 
vovat Kal otkia,” Tpopt) TUpos 7 Xpovov matlyviov 
7 celopod mapepyov 7) v propa TUpavvov; em 
Ovpnoov € ev ovpavots oiknoa Kat PaotAedoar pera 
Geob- = travtTnv cor THY Bactrelay avOpwros ducer 
Oeov amropywovpevos: evtadla pixpa AaBwv exet 
du OAwv aidvwv atvvoiKov GE TrOLHGETAL. iKéTevoov 
iva AaBn- omeboov, aywlviacov, doPyOnte 7) 
ge atiyidon: ov yap Kexehevorau AaBetv, aAAa 
ov Tapacxety. ov pay ove” elrrev 6 KUptos Sos, 
7 TApAoXEs, 7 evEepyeTnaoV, 7) 7) BonOnoov, didov 
de Toinoat: oO O€ piros ovK eK pas ddcews 
yiverat, GAN’ e€& dAns avatatvoews Kal ovvovoias 
paxpas: OUTE yap 0 TioTis OUTE H ayamn ovTE® 7 
Kaprepta pds 7LEpas, add’ ‘6 dropeivas eis TEXos, 
ovTOS owbnoerar.”’ 

33. lds otv 6 dvOpwros ratra Siéwow; ste dia 
didwo- “ddaw yap od povov Tots didrous, aAAa Kai 
tots didows tTa&v didwr.” Kal tis odtds e€oTW 6 
didos Tob Beob; oad pev x7) Kpive, Tis Atos Kal Tis 

1 yjv Combefis. hy ms. 

2 oixta Combefis. ofkela ms. 

3 ore . . . oUre. . . obre Stahlin. ovd€... obre... 
oUTe MS. 

« The word means ‘‘ assembly” and was applied to the 
great national and religious festivals of the Greeks at 



money. You give the perishing things of the world 
and receive in exchange for them an eternal abode 
in heaven. Set sail, rich man, for this market,@ if 
you are wise. Compass the whole earth if need be. 
Spare not dangers or toils, that here you may buy 
a heavenly kingdom. Why so delighted with 
glittering stones and emeralds, with a house that 
is fuel for fire or a plaything for time or sport for an 
earthquake or the object of a tyrant’s insolence ? 
Desire to live and reign in heaven with God. This 
kingdom a man, imitating God, shall give you. 
Having taken little from you here, he will make you 
through all the ages a fellow-inhabitant there. Beg 
him to take it. Hasten, strive earnestly, fear lest 
he reject you. For he has not been commanded 
to take, but you to provide. Furthermore, the Lord 
did not say, “give.” or “provide,” or “benefit,” or 
“help,” but “make a friend” ®; and a friend is 
made not from one gift, but from complete relief 
and long companionship. For neither faith nor love 
nor patience is the work of one day, but “he that 
endureth to the end, the same shall be saved.’’¢ 

33. How then does a man give these things? 
Why, the Lord gives them, on account of your 
esteem and favour and relationship with this man. 
“ For I will give not only to my friends, but also to 
the friends of my friends.’’* And who is this friend 
of God? Do not yourself decide who is worthy and 

Olympia and elsewhere. It is used of the Christian church 
in Hebrews xii. 23. As we should expect, these gatherings 
were made the occasion of fairs and markets (Strabo 486). 
It is this aspect of them which Clement seems to have most 
in mind here. 

> St. Luke xvi. 9. ¢ St. Matthew x. 22. 

@ This saying is not found in the gospels. 

MY 339 


avag.os* evoexeTau ae Ge Svapaprety Tept THY 
dogay" ws ev apprBory 6 € THS dyvotas djvewvov Kal 
Tovs avastous ed Troveiv id TOUS agious 7 7 pvdac- 
OOMEVOV TOUS Hooov ayabovs punde Tots oTrovdaiors 
Tepimecetv. eK pev yap TOO geideobar Kal T™poo- 
Trovetabae doxydleu Tovs evAdyws 7) p71) TevEo- 
pevous evdexeTat Ge Kal Deophay dpeAfjoat TWD, 
ov TO €miTijuLov KdAaoLS euTrUpOs aiwvLos: eK dé 
Too mpotecba maou eSijs Tots xpncovow avayKy 
TAVTWS evpey Twa Kal Tav odoat Tapa bed 
Ouvapevay. * au) Kpive’”’ roivuv, “iva py pias: 
@ peTpPW peTpets, TovUTw Kal dvryreTpnOncerat 
ooU" [eT pov KaAov, TETLEGLEVOV Kal cecadevpevor, 
UrrEPEKXUVO[LEVOV, dmodobjcerat gol. mdaow av- 
ofov Ta vomhdyxva tois Tob beod pabnrais a.7r0- 
YEYPAPMEVOLS, [1) Tpos CHa ammdwv UmrEpoTT ws, 
py) mpos nAuKiav apehas diareGets, pind’ el Tis aKTI- 
poo n Sucetpieoy H Svoedys 7 dobevis paiverat, 
Tpos TobTo TH wuxy dvoxeparys Kal atroaTtpadgijs. 
oxnja Toor éotw eEwlev Hiv mepibePAnpEevov THs 
Els KOGLOV mapddov mpodace,! WwW’ eis TO KOWOV 
TOUTO mrauBevT7/pLov eloeABetv Suv Fev" GAA” evdov 
KpuTTOos EVOLKEL 6? maT Ip kad ee) ToUTOU mats 6 vTEp 
Hav amofavev Kal we” H@v avaorTas. 

34. Tobro TO OoXRA TO Brezropevov efarrarG TOV 
Odvarov Kat tov diaBodrov: 6 yap evtos mAodros 
Kal TO KdMos avrots abéatos €oTu Kal paivovTat 
mept TO capkiov, ov Katappovovow ws dafevois, 

1 rpodace. Wilamowitz. mpddacts MS. 
2 6 before warip Stihlin: before xpumros ms. 



who unworthy, for you may happen to be quite mis- Do not 

. sans E . distinguish 
taken in your opinion ; so that when in doubt through jeer the 
ignorance it is better to do good even to the un- “worthy” 

worthy for the sake of the worthy than by being on aa eoag 
your guard against the less good not to light upon 

the virtuous at all. For by being niggardly and by 
pretending to test who will deserve the benefit and 

who will not, you may possibly neglect some who 

are beloved of God, the penalty for which is eternal 
punishment by fire. But by giving freely to all in 

turn who need, you are absolutely certain to find 

one of those men who have power to save you 

with God. Therefore, “judge not, that you may 

not be judged; with what measure you mete, it 

shall be measured to you again. Good measure, 
pressed down and shaken together, running over, 

shall be given back to you.’’* Open your heart to 

all who are enrolled as God’s disciples, not gazing 
scornfully on their body, nor being led to indifference 

by their age. And if one appear needy or ill-clad outward 
or ungainly or weak, do not in your soul take offence }PP™;rance 
at this and turn away. This is a form thrown round portant 
us from without for the purpose of our entrance into 

the world, that we may be able to take our place in 

this universal school; but hidden within dwells the 
Father, and His Son® who died for us and rose 

with us. 

34, This form that is seen deceives death and the The real 
devil; for the inward wealth and beauty are invisible ioe aut 
to them. And they rage round the bit of flesh, within 
which they despise as weak, while they are blind to 
the inner possessions, not knowing how great a 

@ See St. Matthew vii. 1; St. Luke vi. 38. 
’ See St. John xiv. 23. 


955 P. 


, A ce \ > > / 4 ” 
mnAlkov twa “Anoavpov ev ocoTpakiw@ oKevet 
Baoralopev, Suvaper Geobd matpos Kal aipare Beod 
mavdos Kat Spdow mvevpatos ayiov TepiteTetyic- 
pevov. adda av ye p17) e€arratyOfs, 0 yeyevpevos 
aAnbeias Kat KaTn€vwpevos THs peyaAns AvTpwoEws, 
aAAa TO evaytiov Tots dAXois avOpurots ceavT@ 
KaTdAe~ov atpatov aomrAov, amdXAepov, avaipiaKTov, 
ddpynrov, aylavtov, yépovras | GeoceBets, oppavovs 
Oeogireis, yypas mpadtyte wrAopéevas, avdpas 
ayamn KEeKoopnevous. TOLOVTOUS KTHGaL TH O@ 

4 \ ~ / \ ~ ~ / 
mrovTw Kal TH THpaTe Kal TH pox Sopuddpovs, 
dv otpatnyet Beds, du’ ods Kat vats Pamrilopevy 
Koudilerat povais ayiwy edyais KuBepvwpern, Kat 
vooos aKkpalovoa dapalerar xeipa@v emBodAais 

Pe \ \ ~ > / 
SiwKkopevn, Kat mpooBodA7 Anotav adomdAilerat 
edyais edoeBéor oxvAevopern, Kat Sarudvev Bra 
Opaverat mpooraypac. ovvTovors eAeyxopern. 

35. "Evepyol! otro. mavres [ot |* orpati@rat Kat 

/ / b] \ > / > \ > aA e 
dvrakes BéBaror, oddeis apyds, oddels axpetos. oO 
pev e€artnoacbal ce SUvatar mapa Geod, 6 dé mapa- 
pvbjcacbar Kdpvovta, 6 dé Sakpdcar Kai oreva€at 
cupTabas trép cot mpos Tov KUpiov T@V CAwY, Oo 
Sé Siuddéar te T@V pos THY GwTpiav xpynoijwwv, Oo 
S€ vovlerHoat peTa Tappyatias, 6 de cuuPovdAciaar 

> > / / \ a > ~ > Dp 

er evvolas, mavtes d€ gidciv adnBds, adddus, 
> / > / > / > / > 
addBws, avuToKpitws, akodaKevTws, amAdoTws. @ 
yruxeiat Oeparetar dirovytwy, @ jakdpior d.a- 
Koviat OappovvTwv, @ Tiatis €tAuKpw7s Beov povov 

/ > / > / \ a / 
SeSidtwv, & Adywv adAjPeva Tapa Tots pevoacbar 
1) Suvapevois, @ KdAAos Epywv mapa Tois Je@ 

1 évepyol Stahlin. év &pyocs Ms. 
2 [oi] Schwartz. 


“treasure” we carry “in an earthen vessel,’’@ fortified 

by the power of God the Father and the blood of 

God the Son and the dew of the Holy Spirit. Do 

not you be deceived, however, who have tasted of 

truth, and have been deemed worthy of the great 
redemption ; but, contrary to the rest of men, enlist 

on your behalf an army without weapons, without The great 
war, without bloodshed, without anger, without stain, 7 yc1, 
an army of God-fearing old men, of God-beloved saints 
orphans, of widows armed with gentleness, of men 
adorned with love. Obtain with your wealth, as 
guards for your body and your soul, such men as 

these, whose commander is God. Through them 

the sinking ship rises, steered by the prayers of saints 

alone; and sickness at its height is subdued, put to 

flight by the laying on of hands; the attack of 
robbers is made harmless, being stripped of its 
weapons by pious prayers; and the violence of 
daemons is shattered, reduced to impotence by 
confident commands. 

35. Effective soldiers are all these, and steadfast The many 
guardians, not one idle, not one useless. One is able penn 
to beg your life from God, another to hearten you render 
when sick, another to weep and lament in sympathy 
on your behalf before the Lord of all, another to 
teach some part of what is useful for salvation, another 
to give outspoken warning, another friendly counsel, 
and all to love you truly, without guile, fear, hypocrisy, 
flattery or pretence. What sweet services of loving 
friends! What blessed ministries of men of good 
cheer! What pure faith of those who fear God alone! 

What truth of speech among those who cannot lie! 
What beauty of deeds among those who are resolved 
@ 2 Corinthians iv. 7. 



Suaxovety memevopevors, TelDew Oedv, apéoxew Bea: 
od capKos THs ons antecOar SoKotcw, adda Tis 
éavtod uyfhs Exaotos, odK adeAP@ dadretv, adda 
7@ Baowe? TOv aidvwv €v cot KaToKobyTt. 

36. Ildvres obdv ot morot Kadoi Kat Geompemeis 
Kal Ths mpoonyopias afi, jv womep diadnpa 
mepikewTa. ov py add’ eiolv 7dn TwEs Kal 
trav ékrext@v éxXeKTdOTEpot, Kal TocovTW LGAAov 
<>) Arrov émlonjor, TpoTOV Twa Ek TOD KAVOwWVOS 
Tob Kéopov vewdAKobvTes EavTOvS Kat emavayovTes 
en’ daadadrés, ob Bovddcpevor Soxeiv dyvor, KaV E€l77y 
ris, alaxuvopevor, ev Baber yrons amoxpvTTovTeEs 
Ta avekAdAnra pvorTipia, Kal THY adTav evyéverav 
drepypavobvres ev Koop BAr€recbar, ods 6 Aoyos 
“das Tob Kdopov” Kal “ ddas Tijs yas’ Kadel. 
Toor éott TO o7réppa, EtKwV Kal dpoiwors Oeod, Kat 
réxvov abtob yvijavov Kal KAnpovdpov, Wamep emt 
twa evitetav evratOa meprropevov bo jeyadAns 
oixovopias Kal dvadoyias Tob matpds* du’ 6? Kai Ta 
dhavepa Kal Ta afpavy Tod KOGLLOV SednLLOvpynTat, 
7a pev ets Sovdciav, Ta dé eis doxyow, Ta OE Els 
ud0now aire, Kal mavra, péxpis av evtaiba to 
omépua evn, avvéxetar, Kal ovvaxbevtos avrod 
mavra® taxvoTa Avbjoerat. 

1 <m> inserted by Segaar. 
2 §” 6 Schwartz. 6: of Ms. 
3 advra Schwartz. Tat7a MS. 

@ | Timothy i. 17. > St. Matthew v. 13-14. 

c See Genesis i. 26; Romans viii. 17; 1 Timothy i. 2; 
Titus i. 4. 

@ The “seed” is a gnostic term for those higher souls 
who contain within themselves in a special degree the spark 
of divine life. They walk by knowledge, or direct intuition, 



to minister to God, to persuade God, to please God ! 
They seem to touch not your flesh but each his own 
soul, not to be talking with a brother but with the 
King of the ages* who dwells in you. 

36. All the faithful then are noble and godlike, and the highest 
worthy of their title, which they wear as a diadem. #245 ot 
Not but that there are already some who are even 
more elect than the elect, and more elect in propor- 
tion as they are less conspicuous. These are they 
who in a manner haul themselves up out of the 
surf of the world and retire to a place of safety, who 
do not wish to appear holy, and are ashamed if one 
calls them so, who hide in the depth of their mind 
the unutterable mysteries, and scorn to let their 
nobility of nature be seen in the world. These the 
Word calls “light of the world” and “salt of the 
earth.” ® This is the seed, God’s image and likeness, 
and His true child and heir,’ sent here, as it were, 
on a kind of foreign service by the Father’s high 
dispensation and suitable choice. For his sake both 
the visible and invisible things of the world have 
been created, some for his service, others for his 
training, others for his instruction; and all are held 
together so long as the seed remains on earth, and 
when it has been gathered in all will speedily be 

rather than by faith. Justin Martyr (2 Apology ch. 7) 
makes the same statement as Clement, viz. that the world 
is preserved solely on account of the ‘‘ seed”’; but he means 
by this term the whole body of Christians. Clement how- 
ever seems plainly to restrict it to those who are *‘ more 
elect than the elect.” For the ‘*‘ gathering in” of the elect 
see St. Matthew iii. 12 and xxiv. 31; Teaching of the Twelve 
Apostles ix, 4 and x. 5; Clement’s Extracts from Theodotus 
XXVi. 3, 


956 P. 


37. Ti yap ere det; Oe 7a Tis ayamns var pL, 
0 movoyerns Beds povos eEnyjoato. or Se Kal 
b] \ ¢ \ > / \ PS) > > 4 © ~ 2A 10 1 
avtos 0 Jeds ayamn Kat dv aydrnv jpiv ebedbn. 
~ ¢e ~ 
Kal TO bev appyTov abrob matip, To dé eis Huds 
> / e \ 
oupTabes yéyove pjtnp. ayanjnoas 6 Tati 
eOnAvvOn, Kat tovTov péya onpetov dv adrtos 
A \ 
eyevvnoey e€ abtob: Kal 6 Ttexbeis &€ aydans 
~ \ ~ 
Kapmos ayann. Sua Tobro Kal avtos KaT{Abe, Sid 
tovTo avOpwrov eévédv, dua TodTo Ta avOpwmrwv 
exav eTrabev, iva mpos TH ierépay acbéveray ods 
nyannoe meTpybels rds mpos tiv é€avTod Svivayw 
avTuLeTpnjon. Kal weAAwy orévdecbar Kat AdTpov 
EavTov emdidods Kawiy juiv Siabicny KaTadys- 
/ Geé 5 / Cea / \ > / ”) / / 
Taver’ — ayamnv vuty didwut THY eunv.” Tis dé 
/ A ~ 
€oTWw avtn Kal mon; rep Hudv éxdorov Katé- 
One? ray puxnv tiv avragiay trav dAwv: tadryy 
¢ A ¢€ \ > / > A >’ \ \ \ 
nds vmep adAjAwy avtamaite?. ef dé Tas puyas 
> / A > A \ , \ / 
opetAopev Tots adeAdois, Kat Tovadrny Thy cvvOnKnv 
\ \ ~ > ~ 
m™pos Tov owTipa avOwuodroyrnucba, ett Ta TOO 

KOOMLOV, TA TTWXA Kal aAAdTpPLA Kal TapappéorTa, 
/ / > fd > / 
KaGerpfopev Tapevduevor; aAArjAwv amoKAelooper, 

¢ \ ~ 
ad pera puxpov eer 70 TIp; Oeiws ye Kal emimvews 8 
* é6d0n (cp. v. Stromateis 16. 5) Lindner. €0pd67 ms. 

2 katréOnxe Segaar. ka0FKe MS. 
3 émimvéws Lindner. émurévws Ms. 

« St. John i. 18. This passage strongly supports the 
reading noted in the margin of the Revised Version. 
> See 1 St. John iv. 8, 16. 
¢ This thought of the Motherhood of God has a parallel 
in Synesius (Bishop of Ptolemais in Libya early in the fifth 
century), Hymn II. 63-4: 
Thou art Father, thou art Mother, 
Thou art male, and thou art female. 



37. What else is necessary? Behold the mysteries God is love 
of love, and then you will have a vision of the bosom 
of the Father, whom the only-begotten God alone 
declared. God in His very self is love,? and for 
love’s sake He became visible tous. And while the 
unspeakable part of Him is Father, the part that has 
sympathy with us is Mother.” By His loving the 
Father became of woman’s nature, a great proof of 
which is He whom He begat from Himself; and the 
fruit that is born of love is love. This is why the 
Son Himself came to earth, this is why He put on 
manhood, this is why He willingly endured man’s 
lot, that, having been measured to the weakness of us 
whom He loved, He might in return measure us to 
His own power. And when He is about to be 
offered @ and is giving Himself up as a ransom He 
leaves us a new testament: “I give you my love.’”¢ 
What love is this, and how great? On behalf of 
each of us He laid down the life that is equal in 
value to the whole world. In return He demands 
this sacrifice from us on behalf of one another. But God expects 
if we owe our lives to the brethren, and admit such }%,%° S2o¥ 
a reciprocal compact with the Saviour, shall we stil] to another 
husband and hoard up the things of the world, which 
are beggarly and alien to us and ever slipping away? 
Shall we shut out from one another that which in a 
short time the fire will have? Divine indeed and 

Gnostic speculation introduced a Mother as the cause of 
Creation (cp. Irenaeus i. 4), but- the present passage would 
seem to have no connexion at all with this. Clement is 
simply trying to account, in a mystical way, for the love of 
God as shown in the Incarnation. 

@ j.e, as a drink-offering—the same word that St. Paul 
uses of himself in 2 Timothy iv. 6. 

¢ See St. John xiii. 34; xiv. 27. 



6 “Iwavyns ““o a) prdav” pyar “rov adeAdov 
avOpwrroKrovos €oTl, oméepua Tob Kaw, Opéupra 
tod dtaBdAov: Geot omAdyxvov ovk exer, eAmida 
ovK €oTt KAHUA THs ae Cwons b7Epoupavias aTe- 
Aov, exkomteTal, TO Tp aOpovy avapever. 

38. Xd dé ude tH “< Kal? >} drrepBodny odor, 
ny Setkvuat Ilabros, emt owrnpiav™ “7 ayaa Ta 
eauThs ov Cntei,” add’ emi TOV adeApor € EKKEXUTAL* 
mept TovTov emTonTat, TEept TovTOY Gwdpovws 
paiverar. “aydamn KadvrrTer TARG0s dpapTidv: 7 
tedcia ayary exBdAree Tov poBov- ov TrepmrepeveTat, 
ov pvovobrat, ovK emUXatpeL TH aduKia, ovyxatper 
be TH aAnbeia: mavra oréyet, mavre TMLOTEVEL, 
mavra eAmiler, mavTa bropever. 1 ayarn genes 
mote exTimTel. TmpodyTetar katapyobvTat, yADooar 
mavovrat, idoets emt yas katadctrrovran. [ever dé 
Ta Tpla tabra, mors, eAmis, ayamn’ jetCeov dé € €v 
TovroLs 1 ayarn. Kat duKaiws. mioTis pev yap 
amépxetat, orav avtoia mecobGpev iddvres Oedv, 
kal €Amis adavilerat Tay eAmiobevtwy aTrodobévtwy, 
ayamn d€ els TAnpwua ovvepyeTat Kat paAdov 
avéeTar TOV TEdElwV mapabobevrav. €av TavTHY 
euPadnrat Tis TH pox), dUVaTaL, KAY EV GJLapTH LAW 
H yeyevvnéevos, Kav To\a, TOV KexwdAvjLevey 
elpyaopevos, avéjoas THY aydTnv Kal peTavo.ay 
kafapav AaBwv avapaxyéoacba. Ta emTaopeva. | 

1 ¢xa6’> inserted by Combefis from 1 Corinthians xii. 31. 

@ 1 St. John iii. 15. 
> See St. John xv. 5-6. 



inspired is the saying of John: “ He that loveth not 
his brother is a murderer,” “a seed of Cain, a nursling 
of the devil. He has no tender heart of God, no 
hope of better things. He is without seed and 
without offspring. He is no branch of the ever- 
living heavenly vine. He is cut off; he awaits the 
fire at once.? 

38. But do you learn the “ more excellent way ” © The great- 
to salvation, which Paul shows. “ Love seeketh not 8 °!°v8 
its own,’? but is lavished upon the brother. For 
him love flutters with excitement, for him it is 
chastely wild. ‘“ Love covereth a multitude of sins. 

Perfect love casteth out fear. Love vaunteth not 
itself, is not puffed up, rejoiceth not in unrighteous- 
ness, but rejoiceth with the truth ; beareth all things, 
believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all 
things. Love never faileth; prophecies are done 
away, tongues cease, healings are left behind on 
earth; but these three remain, faith, hope, love; 
and the greatest among these is love.”° And 
rightly ; for faith departs, when we believe through 
having seen God with our own eyes; and hope 
vanishes away when what we hoped for has been 
granted; but love goes with us into the fulness of 
God’s presence and increases the more when that 
which is perfect has been bestowed. Even though 
aman be born in sins, and have done many of the 
deeds that are forbidden, if he but implant love in Love with 
his soul he is able, by increasing the love and by #"° rae 

accepting pure repentance, to retrieve his failures. God’s for- 

¢ | Corinthians xii. 31. 
@ 1 Corinthians xiii. 5. 
e¢ See 1 St. Peter iv. 8; 1 St. John iv. 18; 1 Corinthians 
xii. 4-13. 


957 P. unde! yap TodTO eis amoyvwoiv Gor Kal amovovay 
/ >] \ § / / “7 
KataArercipOw, ef Kat Tov tAovovov pabors Oates 
early 6 xwpav ev obpavots ovK Exwv Kal Tiva TpoTOV 
rots obat xpwpevos (39) av Tis TO TE EmrippyTov ® Tob 
vA \ \ > \ 4 \ 4 
mAovrou Kat yaderov eis CwHv Siaddyou Kat dvvacto 
tav aiwviwy [rdv]* ayabav eravpacba, ein de 
TeTvXnKwS 7) Su ayvovay 7) Ov acbéverav 7) TEplaTact 
dKovovov peta TIVv odpayida Kat THY AvTpwow 
brevnvexOat TéAcov, < 6Tt>* odTOS Kateysnprorat Tav- 
~ ~ ~ > 
rdmacw v7 Tob Oeod. mavtTi yap T@ pet’ adnfeias 
° a ~ / > / A \ \ 
e€ SAns THs Kapdlas emuotpépavte mpos Tov Feov 
dvewyaow at Ovpat Kal déxeTar TpLadopevos TaAT1)p 
an ~ > 
vidv aAnbGs petavootvta: % 8 aAnOuw7 peTavora 
TO pnKeTe Tots avrois evoxov elvat, aAAd apdnv 
~ ~ a > ~ 
expil@oar THs wuyns ep ols éavrod KaTeyVw 
Odvatov duapripacw: TovTwy yap avaipeevtwv 
adlis eis o€ Oeds eicorxicOyceTar. peyaAnv yap 
dyno. kal avuTépBAntov elvar xapav Kal €opT7Vv ev 
ovpavois T@ marpt Kal Tots ayyeAots Evds dpapTwAod 
ématpeavtos Kal petavonaavtos. 810 Kal KéKpa- 
a aed / \ > / b) / \ 
yev: “‘éAcov OéAw Kal od Bvaiav: ob BovAopar Tov 
Advatov Tod dpaptwrod, adAa Tv peTdvovay’ Kav 
> e ~ ~ ” 
Gow ai dpapria tudv ws dowikody Epiov, ws 
yidva AevKav®, Kav peAdvrepov Tod OKOTOUS, WS 
€piov AevKov exvibas momjow.' Oe@ yap povw 
~ A 
Suvarov ddeow dapaptidv mapacyécbar Kal 7 
¢ aA 
Noyicacba TapamTwpata, O7ov ‘ye Kal nuiv Tmapa- 
1 unde Dindorf. pijrems. ? érippnrovSegaar. émippet rv Ms. 
rn ; ppnrov Seg pp 

3 aiwviwy [rév| Ghisler. aiavwy Tay MS. 

4 <5re> inserted by Stihlin. 
@ See St. Luke xv. 7, 10. 



For if you understand who is the rich man that has 
no place in heaven, and also in what manner a man 
may so use his substance (39) as to win his way 
to life through the censure and difficulties caused 
by wealth, and to be able to enjoy the eternal good 
things,—yes, even though he has happened either 
because of ignorance or of weakness or of circum- 
stances not of his own choice to fall after the 
baptismal seal and redemption into certain sins or 
transgressions so as to have become completely sub- 
ject to them,—let not this thought remain with you 
to lead to despair and despondency, namely, that 
such an one has been condemned outright by God. 
For to every one who turns to God in truth with his 
whole heart the doors are opened and a thrice-glad 
Father receives a truly penitent son. And genuine 
repentance is to be no longer guilty of the same 
offences, but utterly to root out of the soul the 
sins for which a man condemned himself to death; 
because when these have been destroyed God will 
once again enter in and dwell with you. For He 
says that there is great and unsurpassable joy and 
feasting in heaven for the Father and the angels 
when one sinner has turned and repented.* Accord- 
ingly He cries, “I wish for mercy and not sacrifice, 
I desire not the death of the sinner, but his repen- 
tance. Though your sins be as scarlet wool, I will 
whiten them as snow; though blacker than the 
darkness, I will wash them and make them as white 
wool.”® For God alone can grant remission of 
sins and not reckon trespasses,° though even we 

> See St. Matthew ix. 13; xii. 7 (from Hosea vi. 6); 
Ezekiel xviii. 23; Isaiah i. 18. 
¢ See St. Mark ii. 7; St. Luke v. 21; 2 Corinthians v. 19. 



KeAeveTar THS WwEepas éxdorNs 6 KUpLos adievat 
Tots ddeApois petavoodow. et de Teets Tovnpot 
ovres towev ayaba dopara d.d0vat, moow padov 
“6 maTnp TOV olKTUpLaV. 6 ayablos TATT)p * “qaons 
mapakAjoews, 0 tohbaTthayxvos Kal moAvéeos 
mepune pakpolupety: Tovs emotpepavras Trepl- 
pevee. ema pepa d€ €oTw ovTws dro TOV djuap- 
THT ov 7o tmravcoacba Kat pykéte Prewew ets 
Ta Orlow. 

40. Tav péev odv mpoyeyervnuevwv Geos diowow 
dpeow, Tov d€ émidvTwv avros EKAaOTOS EaUT@. 
Kal TOUT €oTL peTayv@var, TO KaTayv@vau Trav 
TAP@X LEVY Kal jairnoacbau TOUT apvnotiav 
Tapa TATpOs, os jovos TOV dmdvrwv olds Té €oTw 
dmpaKra Tounoae TO TETpPAy|LEVa erew TO Tap adToo 
Kal Spdow mvevparos dmranetipas Ta Tponpaprnpeva. 
“éd’ ois _yap av eUpw bas, dno, “emt Tovrous 
Kal Kpwa te Kal map " €KaOTO. Boa TO téAos EY Tne 
WOTE Kal T@ TA peyvora. EO TETOLNKOTL <Kara>* Tov 
Biov, éri Sé rod téhous efoxetAavre Tpos” Kakiav, 
avovynto.* mavtes of mpdabev movot, emt Ths KaTa- 
oTpopis Tod dSpdpatos e€dbAw yevowevw, T@ TE 

958 P. XeTpor | Kal emicecuppevws BuwoavTe TpOoTepov éorw 
UaTepov petavojcavt. toAAob xpdvov moAtTeLav 

1 <karad> inserted by Segaar (from Sac. Par.). 
2 avovnra Ghisler (from Sac. Par.).  dvdnro Ms. 

See St. Luke xvii. 3-4. 

St. Matthew vii. 11; St. Luke xi. 13. 

2 Corinthians i. 3. 4 St. James v. 11. 

St. Luke ix. 62. 

This saying, not found in our gospels, is mentioned in 
slightly different form by Justin Martyr (Dialogue with Trypho 
47) who expressly attributes it to our Lord. It has some 


e® ack ail 



are exhorted by the Lord each day to forgive our 
brothers when they repent.* And if we, being evil, 
know how to give good gifts,? how much more does 
“the Father of mercies.” The good Father “of all 
comfort,’ ¢ full of pity® and full of mercy, is by 
nature long-suffering. He waits for those who turn 
to Him. And to turn to Him truly is to cease from 
sins and no more to look back.° 

40. Of sins already committed, then, God gives 
remission, but of those that are to come each man 
procures his own remission. And this is repentance, 
to condemn the deeds that are past and to ask 
forgetfulness of them from the Father, who alone of 
all is able to make undone what has been done, by 
wiping out former sins with the mercy that comes 
from Him and with the dew of the Spirit. “ For in 
whatever things I find you,” He says, “in these will 
I also judge you;’’7 and at each step He proclaims 
the end of all things.’ So that even when a man has 
done the greatest works faithfully through life, but 
at the end has run on the rocks of evil, all his former 
labours bring him no profit, since at the turning- 
point * of the drama he has retired from the contest; 
whereas he who has at first led an indifferent and slip- 
shod life may, if afterwards he repents, utterly wipe 
out a wicked course of long continuance with the time 

resemblance to Ezekiel xxxiii. 20 (Sept.)—‘‘ I will judge you 
each one in his ways””—and in both Clement and Justin it 
occurs in connexion with teaching drawn from Ezekiel xxxiii. 
10-20, 9 See 1 St. Peter iv. 7. 

» The ‘* catastrophe ” or turning-point towards the end of 
a play when the issue stands definitely revealed. Used here, 
as elsewhere in Greek literature, for the conclusion of life, 
when a man might be expected to have settled down to a 
course either good or evil. 


means a 

of life 


movnpav eKviKnoat T@ pera THV jreTavovay xpovep 
axpipeias 0€ bet TroMAs 5 WOTTEP TOS PAkKpy, veow 
TeTrovnKoat TEAL duaiTys xpela Kal mpocoyAs 
mAclovos. o KAénrys, adeow BovAct AaBeiv; pnKére 
kiente: G Polxevoas, pnKeTL Tupovcbw: oO TOp- 
vevoas, AouiTOv dyveveTor 6 dprdoas, dmodidou KaL 
Tpoaatrod.eoU" pevdopdprus, adn Bevav aoKnoov: 
6 émlopKos: pnrere opyues KQL Ta dAdo maGn ouv- 
Teme, opynv emJupiav, Avy, poBov, iva evpeOhs 
emt ths ۤ050u mpos Tov avridicov evraila 
StareAvcbat PUdvwv. EaTw ev ody advvaToV tows 
abpows groKkowar 7a0n avvtpoda, adda peta Heod 
Suvdrews Kal dvOpwrretas ixeotas Kal adeAdpav 
Bonfeias Kal etAucpivods peTavoltas Kat auvexovs 
pueAérns KaTOp ogee 

Al. Arg S€¢ 7avTws oe TOV GoPapov Kal duvaTor 
Kal mAovarle’ emaTnaacbar €avT@ Twa avOpwror 
Qeod caban€P a elmTnV Kal KuBepvyTny. atoov Kav 
éva, poBobd Kav eva, ped€rnoov axovew KV évos Tap - 
pnovalopevo’ Kat oTupovTos eS Oeparrevovtos. 
ovde yap 74S opbadots ouppeper TOV Gel Xpovov 
GKoAdarous HEvew, GAAa Kat dakpiaar Kat dnxOAjvat 
more breép TNS dyetas Tis mActovos. ourw Kal buy 
Sunverods 1/°0VNs ovdev oAcBpuestepov" amorudaod- 
Tal yap a7? Tis 7IEews, €av axivyTos TH Tappy- 
ovalopev Svapeivy Aoyy. Tobrov Kal opyrobevra 
poBiOnr, Kat otevagavta Avm7Oy71,+ Kal opyiy 


idécOnTt, Kat KoAaat apa op 2 
wavovra cleeauytts) teal ico vy Tapartovupevov 

1 grevdtayTS AurnOnre Mayor. orevdtavta evr\aBHOnTL 
Segaar. Syo@THOnre Schwartz. Stahlin and Barnard mark 

the passage 25 corrupt. 

2 maparrovevor Segaar. mapa:rounévw MS, 



left after his repentance. But great care is needed, 
just as bodies that are labouring under a long disease 
require treatment and special attention. Thief, do 
you wish to receive forgiveness? steal no more.% 
Adulterer, no longer burn.’ Fornicator, keep pure 
in future. Extortioner, repay with interest. False 
witness, practise truth. Oath-breaker, swear no 
more. And repress the rest of the passions, anger, 
lust, grief, fear, in order that at your departure you 
may be found to have already become reconciled 
here on earth with your adversary.° Now it is per- 
haps impossible all at once to cut away passions that 
have grown with us, but with God’s power, human 
supplication, the help of brethren, sincere repentance 
and constant practice success is achieved. 

41. It is therefore an absolute necessity that you 
who are haughty and powerful and rich should ap- 
point for yourself some man of God as trainer and 
pilot. Let there be at all events one whom you 
respect, one whom you fear, one whom you accustom 
yourself to listen to when he is outspoken and severe, 
though all the while at your service. Why, it is not 
good for the eyes to remain all our life-time undis- 
ciplined ; they should sometimes weep and smart for 
the sake of better health. So, too, nothing is more 
destructive to the soul than incessant pleasure, the 
softening influence of which blinds it, if it continues 
obstinate against the outspoken word. Fear this 
man when he is angry, and be grieved when he 
groans; respect him when he stays his anger, and 
be before him in begging release from punishment. 

«@ See Ephesians iv. 28. 
’ See 1 Corinthians vii. 9. 
¢ See St. Matthew v. 25; St. Luke xii. 58, 


The rich 
need out- 
advice and 

959 P. 


dbdcov. odtos brép aod Todds vUKTas aypuTVy- 
odtw, mpecBevwv b7ep aod mpos Oeov Kat Avravetars 
ouviJect payevwy Tov tatépa: od yap avTéxet 
rots TéKVoLs aVTOD TA OTAdyyva Seopevols. dSerjceTa 
Sé kabapas b70 cod mpoTyLwpevos Ws ayyeAos TOD 
Ocot Kat pndev b76 God AvTOvpevos, GAA’ bTEp Gow: 
T0076 éoTt peravoua avuToKpitos. “Beds ov puKTH- 
pilerau”’ ovdé mpoodxer Kevois practi povos yap 
dvakpiver pvedods Kal veppods Kapdias Kal TOV ev 
mupl KaTakover Kal TOV ev KoLAig KITOUS tKETEVvOV- 
tw e€akover Kat maaw eyyts €ott Tois muaTEvVoUaL 
Kal méppw Tots abéo.s, av pn) peTavojowov. 

42. “Iva 8é émBappjons,t ottTw peTavorjaas 
dAnb&s, Ste col péver swrnplas €Amis a€ioxpews, 
dkovcov pod0ov od po0ov, adda ovra Adyov Tept 
*Iwdvvov Tob amoloTtoAov Tapadedopevov Kat wy 
mepvAaypevov. ézretd1) yap TOD Tupavvov TeAcvTH- 
cavtos amd ths Ildrpou ris vicov perAAGev emt 
riv "Edeoov, amjer tapaxadovpevos Kal emt Ta 
mAnowxwpa TOV eOv@v, Omov pev ETLAKOTIOUS KaTA~ 
oTnowv, omov de odas exkAnolas apuocwv, o7ou 
S¢ KAqpov Eva ye? twa KAnpdowv tdv b70 Tob 
mvevpatos onpawopevwy. eAdav obv Kat emt TWA 

1 émOappioys Barnard and Stahlin (from Maximus Con- 
fessor). éru Oappis Ms. 

2 4é Stihlin (from Eusebius and Maximus Confessor). 

a Galatians vi. 7. 

> Kor this sentence see Hebrews iv. 12; Jeremiah xvii. 10; 
Psalm vii. 9; Daniel iii. ; Jonah ii. ; Revelation ii. 23. 

¢ Domitian, by whom St. Johnis said to have been exiled, 
is generally thought to be referred to here. But he died in 
A.D. 96, and it is practically certain that St. John the 
apostle’s active ministry must have ended before this date, 



Let him spend many wakeful nights on your behalf, 
acting as your ambassador with God and moving the 
Father by the spell of constant supplications; for 
He does not withstand His children when they beg 
His mercies. And this man will beg them, if he is 
sincerely honoured by you as an angel of God and is 
in nothing grieved by you, but only for you. This 
is unfeigned repentance. ‘‘God is not mocked,” @ 
nor does He attend to empty phrases. For He alone 
discerns the marrow and reins of the heart; and 
hears those who are in the fire; and listens to those 
who in the whale’s belly entreat Him; and is near to all 
believers and far from the godless unless they repent.? 

42. And to give you confidence, when you have Story of 
thus truly repented, that there remains for you a S¢,/90" 
trustworthy hope of salvation, hear a story that is no robber 
mere story, but a true account of John the apostle 
that has been handed down and preserved in memory. 
When after the death of the tyrant’ he removed 
from the island of Patmos to Ephesus, he used to 
journey by request to the neighbouring districts of the 
Gentiles, in some places to appoint bishops, in others 
to regulate whole churches, in others to set among 
the clergy some one man, it may be, of those indicated 
by the Spirit. He came then to one of the cities 
Either his exile was earlier, 7.e. in Nero’s reign, or else there 
has been a confusion between the apostle and John the 
presbyter of Ephesus. 

4 The phrase x\npwowv kAfpov means literally ‘‘ to allot a 
lot.” KAzjpos was used to designate a ‘‘ lot” or ‘*‘ share” in 
the Christian ministry (cp. Acts i. 17) and its use was after- 
wards extended to the ministers themselves or ‘‘ clergy.” 
In this passage both meanings are suggested. Those ‘‘in- 
dicated by the Spirit” would be men whose spiritual gifts, 
such for instance as pastoral authority or teaching, marked 
them out as fit candidates for office in the Church, : 



T@v od pakpayv ToAEewv, As Kal Tovvo“a A€yovaw 
éviot, Kat Ta GAAa avarravoas Tods adeAdovs, emt 
mao TO kabeorare TmpooBrepas EMLOKOTID, veavi- 
oKoV icavov T@ oWpate Kal THY ow Gore tov kal 
Oeppov thy boyy (dav, “ rodTov’”’ edn “ gol 
TrapaKararidepar * _pera, ae omovdijs emt THs 
exkAnoias Kal tod Xpiotrod pdprupos.’ Tod de 
dexouevov Kai mavl’ tmicyvovpevov Kal maAw Ta 
avTa dueTetvato Kai Suewaptupato. elta 6 pev 
amhpev emt thv "Edecov, 6 dé mpeaBUrepos ava- 
AaBwv olkade tov mapadobevta veavioxov EeTpede, 
ouvetxey, eJadme, TO TeAevTatov edutice’ Kat pera 
TovTO dpiKe Tijs mA€lovos emuysedetas Kal Tmapa- 
dua laxijs, ws TO TéAELoV are pudarry prov e€7- 
oT Gas Thv odpaytda Tob Kupiov. TH dé avécews 
m™po wpas AaBopevep mpoodpletpovrat TWES TAukes 
dpyot Kal atreppwyotes, eOddes KaK@v" Kal mpa@rov 
prev Ov eoTidcewy TmohuteA@v avrov UmayovTat, eita 
TOU Kat VUKTOp emt Aw7rodvotav e€vovres ouveTdyov- 
TAL, eird Te Kal pretlov oupmparrew néiovv. 6 de 
Kar’ odtyov mpooebilero Kat dua peyebos picews 
€xoTas womep aoTomos Kal evpwoTos immos opOijs 

1 rapaxararideuar Stahlin (from Eus. and Max. Conf.). 
mapaTidewar MS. 

=Alt will be noticed that Clement here applies the terms 
‘* bishop” and ‘‘ presbyter” to the same person. This may 
be due to the fact that in this story he followed a written 
authority coming down from a time when the two terms 
were synonymous, as they are in the New Testament. On 
the other hand, it is possible that the sharp distinction 
between “bishop ” and ‘‘presbyter,” though well-known 
elsewhere, was not yet recognized at Alexandria. Jerome 



not far distant, the very name of which is told by 
some. After he had set the brethren at rest on 
other matters, last of all he looked at him who held 
the office of bishop, and, having noticed a strongly 
built youth of refined appearance and ardent spirit, 
he said: “This man I entrust to your care with 
all earnestness in the presence of the church and 
of Christ as witness.” When the bishop accepted 
the trust and made every promise, the apostle once 
again solemnly charged and adjured him in the 
same words. After that he departed to Ephesus; 
but the presbyter% took home the youth who had 
been handed over to him, and brought him up, made 
a companion of him, cherished him, and finally 
enlightened him by baptism. After this he relaxed 
his special care and guardianship, thinking that he 
had set over him the perfect guard, the seal of the 
Lord. But the youth had obtained liberty too soon. 
Certain idle and dissolute fellows, accustomed to evil 
deeds, form a ruinous companionship with him. At 
first they lead him on by means of costly banquets ; 
then perhaps on their nightly expeditions for robbery 
they take him with them; then they urge him to join 
in some even greater deed. He on his part gradually 
became used to their life; and, like a restive and 
powerful horse which starts aside from the right path 
and takes the bit between its teeth, he rushed all the 

(Epistle cxlvi.) says that until the times of Heraclas and 
Dionysius (a.p. 233) the presbyters at Alexandria always 
elected a bishop from among their own number. Clement 
in other places sometimes mentions two orders of the 
ministry, sometimes three; and it is not easy to discover 
his actual belief. For a short summary of Clement’s refer- 
ences to this subject see Tollinton, Clement of Alexandria, 
ii, 111-114, 


960 P. 


6000 Kal TOV xaAwov evdaKav preclovas Kara TOV 
Bapabpwv epepero. dmoyvous d€ TeAgws THV ev Ged 
owTnpiav ovdEev ETL [LKPOV duevoetro, aAAa péya Te 
mpaێas, emelOnTrEp drag dmoAdAet, toa Tots dAAous 
mabety 7&iov. avrovs 57) TouTous avaAaBav Kat 
Anotjpiov ovyKpotnoas, EeToy.os AjoTapxos ms 
Biavdraros, praupoveasTaros, xarerraros. xpovos 
ev pow, KaL TWOS emuTeaovons Xpetas dvaxadobat 
TOV ‘Twavyny. 0 06 Emel TO ada, cv xdpw HKEV 
KatTeoTnoaTo, “aye O17,” epn, * @ emloKoTe, THe 
mopabyreny amddos yt, ae eyo TE Kal O 
Xpwo7os ! col mapaxarebeueba € emt Tijs exkAnotas, 
HS mpoxabely, pedpTupos. 0 be TO pev Tp@Tov 
e€emrAdyn, xXpnpeata oldpevos, dime | ovK eAape, 
ovxopavretabar, Kal oUTE TmloTEvEW eiyev dep av 
ovK eixey ove dmuorety “Twdvyy’ ws dé “Tov 
veaviokov’ elmev “‘amaiT® Kal Thy vy Tob 
adeAgos, orevaéas karwbev 6 mpeoBurns Kal TL 

Kal emdaxpvoas, “exetvos” edn ‘“‘TéOvynke.’’ 
ce ~ ” ce ~ / » Ss 
TOS KAL Tia Oavarov ; be@ reOvn Kev elev" 

“ameBn yap movnpos kat é&dbdAns Kal TO Kkepddawov 
AnoTHs, Kat viv avTl THs exkAnatas TO Opos KaT- 
ctAnge pe?” Spotov oTpaTLWTiKoDd. KaTappn€djLevos 
TV eobijra. re) dmdaTohos Kal pera peya ns ot- 
poyas mAnEdrevos tiv Kedpadny, ““Kadov ye edn 

“ dvAaka Ths TAdEAGod puxfs Kat é)umov: aad’ ¢ immos 
7707 [LOL Taper Kal nyeuwv yevecbw jot as 
THIS 6600. Aavver, womrep cixev, adrobev a7r0 
Tis exxAnoias. €AOdv 5é els TO Ywpiov bro Tis 

1 Xpiords Eusebius. ocwrp Ms. 



more violently because of his great nature down 
towards the pit. Having quite given up hope 
of salvation in God he no longer meditated any 
slight offence, but, seeing he was lost once and 
for all, decided to do something great and to suffer 
the same penalty as the rest. So he took these 
very men, and organized a robber band, of which 
he was a ready chieftain, the most violent, the 
most blood-thirsty, the most cruel. Time went by, 
and some need having arisen the church again 
appeals to John, who, when he had set in order 
the matters for the sake of which he had come, 
said: “Now, bishop, return us the deposit which 
Christ and I together entrusted to your care in 
the presence and with the witness of the church 
over which you preside.”” The bishop was at first 
amazed, thinking he was being falsely accused about 
money which he had not received; and he could 
neither believe a charge that concerned what he did 
not possess nor could he disbelieve John. But when 
he said, “ It is the youth and the soul of our brother 
that I demand back,’ the old man groaned deeply 
and even shed tears. “That man,’ he said “is 
dead.”” “How and by what manner of death?” 
“He is dead to God” he replied; “for he turned 
out a wicked and depraved man, in short a robber, 
and now deserting the church he has taken to the 
hills in company with a troop of men like himself.” 
The apostle, rending his clothes and with a loud 
groan striking his head, said: “A fine guardian of 
our brother's soul it was that I left! But let a horse 
be brought me at once, and let me have someone as 
a guide for the way.” Just as he was he rode right 
from the very church; and when he came to the 



mpopvrakns Tv AnoTav daXioKerar, pte devywv 
LATE Tapatrovpevos, aAAa Body: “emt tobr’ €Aj- 
Avba, emt Tov apxovta tuadv aydyeré pe.’ Os 
Téws, Womep wrALoTO, avewevev’ ws 5é mpoaiovTa 
eyvwptoe Tov “Iwdvyyy, eis duyijv aidecbels erpd- 
TETO. O O€ CdlwKEV ava KpaTos, emtAaBopevos TIS 
nALKias THS €avTod, KeKpayws: ““Ti pe devyets, 
TéKVOV, TOV oavToU maTépa, TOV yupmVoV, TOV 
yépovta; eA€nadv pe, TéKvov, 7 hoPod: Exes ETL 
Cwis eAmidas: éyw Xpiot® Adyov Sac0w trép aod: 
av dén, Tov cov Odvatov Exav browevO, Ws 6 KUpLOS 
TOV UTEP HU@V* UTEep God THY uy avTLdWow TV 
eunv. orn, miorevoov, Xpioros pe amréatetAev.” 
6 d€ akovoas TpATov €oTn pev KdTw PAr€rwv, eita 
eppufe Ta oma, elra Tpéuwv exrAare TUKPH@s. Tpoo- 
eAGovra dé tov yépovra mrepiéAaBev, amroAoyovprevos 
Tais oiuwyais ws €dvvato Kal Tots Sdxpuor 
Bamriloprevos eK SeuTepov, peovny dmoKpUTT wv 
TV Sefudy. o de eyYU@pevos, ETOMVULLEVOS ws 
adeow avT@ Tapa TOO cwrThpos evpytar, Sedmevos, 
yovuTeTa@v, attnv thy SeEvav ws bro THs peTa- 
voias Kexabappevyy Katadpiurar, emi tiv exKAnoiav 
emavyyaye, Kat daiiAgor pev evyats e€aiTtovpe- 
vos, auvexéar Sé€ vynoteiats avvaywrildomevos, TroL- 
KiAats d€ oceippor Adywv KateTadwv adbrod THV 
yrwopnv, od mpotepov am7nAbev, ws dact, mpi adTov 

@ See Hebrews xiii. 17. 

>’ See St. Matthew xxvi. 75; St. Luke xxii. 62. 

° In the illustration which forms the frontispiece of the 
present volume, the artist has represented this scene as a 
baptism in the literal sense. 

“If we read admoxaréornce (with Barnard) or some 



place he is captured by the robbers’ sentry, not 
attempting to fly or to expostulate, but shouting, 
“T have come for this purpose; bring me to your 
leader.” For a time the leader, armed as he was, 
awaited them; but when he recognized John ap- 
proaching he turned to flight, smitten with shame. 
Forgetful of his years John followed after him with 
all his strength, crying out: “ Why do you fly from 
me, child, from your own father, from this old, un- 
armed man? Have pity on me, child, do not fear. 
You have still hopes of life, I myself will give 
account® to Christ for you. If need be, I will will- 
ingly undergo your penalty of death, as the Lord 
did for us. I will give my own life in payment for 
yours. Stand; believe; Christ has sent me.” On 
hearing this he at first stood still, looking down ; 
then threw away his weapons; then trembling began 
to weep bitterly.2 When the old man had come 
near the robber embraced him, making excuse as 
best he could by his groans, and being baptized a 
second time with his tears,’ hiding his right hand 
alone. But the apostle gave his pledge and solemn 
assurance that he had found pardon for him from 
the Saviour. Kneeling down and praying, and 
tenderly kissing the right hand itself as having been 
purified by his repentance, he then brought him back 
to the church. There he interceded for him with 
abundant prayers, helped his struggles by continual 
fasting, and by manifold siren-like words laid a 
soothing spell upon his mind. Nor did he depart, 
as they say, before he had set him over? the church, 

similar word, the translation will be ‘‘ restored him to the 
church.” But émorfoa is almost certainly right. See 
note on text, p. 364. 

N 363 

961 P. 


emoTHoat * TH exkAnaig, bidods péya Tapaoerypwa 
peTavolas adn Buvjs. Kal péya yrdpiopa tradvy- 
yeveclas, TpdTratov avaotacews PAemromevns. 
. . . hardpots yeynbores, vpwodvTes, dvouyvivres 
TOUS ovpavous. mpo oe mavTov avros re} owrip 
TpoaTravTa defrovpevos, Pars | | Opéyov aGKLOV, dmav- 
oTov, odnyav ets Tovs KOATrous TOO TATpOS, els THY 
aiwviov CwHv, eis tHv PBactAciay THv odpavar. 
muoteveTw TadTa Tis Kat Beod pabyrais Kat ey" 
yuntH Gea, mpopytetais, evayyediors, Adoyous d.mro ~ 
oroAuKots: TOUTOLS oulav Kal TA WTA dmexwv Kal 
Ta epya adoxa@v én atris THs €€dd0v To TéAos Kat 
Thy emldeEw TOV Soypatwv opeTar. o yap evtadla 
Tov ayyedov THs meTavolas Tpoctepmevos ov peTa- 
vonoel TOTE, HViKa av KaTaAdimyn TO Tama, ovdE 
avTob do€ns Kal otparids idwv: od déd:e TO Top: 
el S€ Tis atpetrar péevew emeEapaptavwv exaoroTe 
emt Tats nodovats Kal THY evtavla Tpugyy Tis 
alwriov Cwis mpoTysd Kat 6.ddvT0s Tob TwT pos 
adeow amootpéfetar, pte Tov Beov Ere pare TOV 
TAobrov pLnTE TO TMpoTecetv aitiaobw, THY de 
€avTOo puxny EKOUGLWS dmroAoupevny. T@ OE emt- 
BAéovre THY owTnpiay Kal mobobvre Kai peta 
avavoelas Kal Bias aitotvtTe mapeEer Thy didn Owiy 
Ka0apow Kat Thy atpertov CwHv 6 maTIp 6 ayabos 
6 €v tois otpavois. @& bia Tod mados *Inaod 
1 émiorijoat Stahlin, from some mss. of Eusebius. Other 
MSS, give dmeor7piéev, KaTéoTHOE, amoxarésrnoev, etc. Rufinus 

translates: ‘* Nec prius abstitit, quam eum in omnibus 
emendatum etiam ecclesiae praeficeret.” 



thus affording a great example of sincere repentance 
and a great token of regeneration, a trophy of a 
resurrection that can be seen. 

. with bright faces rejoicing, singing praises, 
opening the heavens. And before them all the 
Saviour Himself comes to meet him, greeting him 
with His right hand, offering shadowless, unceasing 
light, leading the way to the Father’s bosom, to the 
eternal life, to the kingdom of heaven. In this let 
a man trust to the authority of God’s disciples 
and of God their surety, to the authority of the 
prophecies, gospels and words of the apostles. If he 
dwells with these, giving ear to them and practising 
their works, he will see at the very moment of his 
departure hence the end and proof of the doctrines. 
For he who here on earth admits the angel of repen- 
tance will not then repent when he leaves the body ; 
nor will he be put to shame when he sees the 
Saviour approaching with His own glory and heavenly 
host. He does not dread the fire. If, however, a man 
chooses to remain in his pleasures, sinning time after 
time, and values earthly luxury above eternal life, 
and turns away from the Saviour when He offers 
forgiveness, let him no longer blame either God or 
wealth or his previous fall, but his own soul that will 
perish voluntarily. But he who looks for salvation 
and earnestly desires it and asks for it with im- 
portunity and violence ? shall receive the true purifica- 
tion and the unchanging life from the good Father 
who is in heaven, to whom through His Son Jesus 

* About twenty lines here are lost. See Introduction, 

» See St. Luke xi. 8; St. Matthew xi, 12. 



Xpvarod, TOU Kuptou Covrey Kat veKp@v, Kat dud. 
Tob ayiov TVEVLATOS ely doga, TULUM» Kpa7os, 
aicdveos peyanerorns Kal viv Kal eis yeveds yeve@v 
Kal €is TOUS ai@vas TOV alwvwv. apn. 

@ See Romans xiv. 9. 



Christ, the Lord of living and dead,* and through 
the Holy Spirit be glory, honour, might, and eternal 
majesty both now and for all generations and ages 
to come. Amen.? 

> With this doxology compare 1 Clement of Rome Ixi. 

and Ixv. (Loeb Classical Library, Apostolic Fathers, vol. i. 
pp. 117 and 121), 





Tue following fragment was discovered by Barnard 
in the Escurial Library with the heading “ Precepts 
of Clement,’ and was issued by him as an appendix 
to his edition of “The Rich Man” (Texts and Studies, 
edited by J. Armitage Robinson D.D., vol. v. No. 2). 
He conjectured that it might be part of a work 
mentioned by Eusebius (H.E. vi. 13) as being 
written by Clement of Alexandria and _ entitled 
“Exhortation to Endurance, or, To the Newly 
Baptized.” Stihlin has accordingly printed it in his 
edition of Clement under this title. There can be 
little doubt but that Barnard’s conjecture was right, 
as the style and thoughts are quite suitable both to 
Clement and to the subject. If this is so, we have 
a notable addition to our knowledge of Clement as 
teacher. Small though the fragment is, it is enough 


to present a clear and beautiful picture of the ideal 
of Christian conduct as he understood it; indeed, 
it would be hard to find another work which, in the 
same short compass, could give advice that so per- 
fectly described the good manners, the self-control, 
the purity of heart, the strenuous activity, the hopeful 
courage and the wide sympathy of the true Christian 

The fragment has been translated in full by 
J. Patrick in his Clement of Alexandria, pp. 183-185. 


vol. iii. 
p. 221 



‘Hovxtav pe Adyous emTnOeve, 7 novxlav de epyots, 
waavTws dé ev yrarrn Kal Badiopate: opodpornta 
de anopevye mpomrerip* ovUTWs yap 6 vos Siapevet 
BeBauos, Kal ody UO THS opodpornros Tapax cons 
YEVvopEvos aobevns €oTar Kat Bpaxds mrept Ppdvnow 
Kat ckoTewov op@v?: obdé ATTnOHjoETaL LEV yaorpt- 
papyias, nT7nOjoerat de emCeovTos bupod," TT) - 
Ojoerat de Tov aAAwy maby, ETOULOV avtots 
apTraywa TpOKEtpevos. TOV yap, voov del TeV 
malay emKpatetv dyqAov emit yovyou Opdvov? 
Kab nwevov: agopavra ™mpos Oeov. al oguxoAtas 
dvdmAeos €oo Tept oO opyds, pende vwOpos® ev Aoyors, 
pnde ev Badicpacw Oxvov TET mpwpevos, va cou 
pv0uos ayabos tiv jovxylav KoopA Kat Geddes tH 

1 gxorewdv dpav J. A. Robinson. cxorewav épwv Ms. 

2 @pdvov Barnard. O@pévov ms. 
3 unde vwOpds Barnard. pm dév wOds Ms. 





CuLTIVATE quietness in word, quietness in deed, 
likewise in speech and gait; and avoid impetuous 
eagerness. For then the mind will remain steady, 
and will not be agitated by your eagerness and so 
become weak and of narrow discernment and see 
darkly ; nor will it be worsted by gluttony, worsted 
by boiling rage, worsted by the other passions, lying 
a ready prey to them. For the mind, seated on 
high on a quiet throne looking intently towards God, 
must control the passions. By no means be swept 
away by temper in bursts of anger, nor be sluggish 
in speaking, nor all nervousness in movement; so 
that your quietness may be adorned by good propor- 
tion and your bearing may appear something divine 

N 2 371 

p. 222 


Kal Lepov TO oxXhwa paivnrar. pvdadrrov d€ Kal Tis 
drepnpavias Ta ovpBora, oxnLa gage ae Kal 
Kedardjyv eEnpuevynv Kat Bhya todd@v afpov Kat 
"H / \ \ > ~ ” » Sump Se 
Kal Tpoonyoptiat yAvicetae: aidas d€ mpos yuvatkas 
Kal Br€npa TETPApLLEvOV els hv. AdAer de TEpt- 
EOKELLEVWS dmavra, Kal TH pwvh TO XPT oULov 
azrodidou, 7H xpeta T@v | AKOVOVTY Ta pbeypa 
oes axpe dy* ral e€dxovaTov 7)? Kal pyre 
Svapedyov® THV aKOnY TOV TapovTwY v70 OLLLKpo- 
TITOS, LLNTE drrepBaAdrov * petlove TH Kpavyi. 
dvAdtrov dé Omws pe dev MOTE Aadnons a) per) 
Tpoeoketw Kal mpoevonaas’ pydé TmpoxElpws Kal 
\ ~ 6 ~ Co i e / A \ 
petaéd <tav>® tot érépov Adywv tbrdBaddAe Tovs 
cavTod": det yap ava® pépos axovew Kal dta- 
AéyecOar, xpovw pepilovra Adyov Kal aww 
/ \ > A \ > / / \ 
pavlave dé aopevws, Kal afbovws didacKe, nde 
b770 d0dvov moté codiavy amoxpUmTov pos Tovs 
ETEpous, [Node pealjnoews adioraco du aid@. v7reuKke 
mpeoBurépos i ica Tar pdow’ Tia Oeparrovras Oeod: 
KaTapYe oodias Kal apeThs. pundé eptaTiKos Ego 
mpos Tovs didrous, nde XAevaorrs Kar avdrav Kal 
yeAwtotro.ds: pebdos d€ Kal dddrov Kat vBpw 
ioyup@s mapaitov: ovv evpnpia a Pepe Kal TOV 
bmepjdavov Kal vBprotivy <ws>® mpads Te Kal 
peyaddpuyos avip. 

Keic@w d€ ool TaVvTa els beov Kal Epya Kal Aoyou, 

1 uetpov J. A. Robinson. jérpov ms. 
2 av Wilamowitz. 67 Ms. 3% Wilamowitz. ein Ms. 
4 Scagdedyov Wilamowitz. diadetvywv Ms. 
5 §repBaddov Wilamowitz. vmo8d\d\wv Ms. 



and sacred. Guard also against the signs of arrogance, 
a haughty bearing, a lofty head, a dainty and high- 
treading footstep. 

Let your speech be gentle towards those you meet, 
and your greetings kind; be modest towards women, 
and let your glance be turned to the ground. Be 
thoughtful in all your talk, and give back a useful 
answer, adapting the utterance to the hearers’ need, 
just so loud that it may be distinctly audible, neither 
escaping the ears of the company by reason of feeble- 
ness nor going to excess with too much noise. Take 
care never to speak what you have not weighed and 
pondered beforehand ; nor interject your own words 
on the spur of the moment and in the midst of 
another’s; for you must listen and converse in turn, 
with set times for speech and for silence. Learn 
gladly, and teach ungrudgingly ;“ never hide wisdom 
from others by reason of a grudging spirit, nor 
through false modesty stand aloof from instruction. 
Submit to elders just as to fathers.2 Honour God’s 
servants. Be first to practise wisdom and virtue. 
Do not wrangle with your friends, nor mock at them 
and play the buffoon. Firmly renounce falsehood, 
guile and insolence. Endure in silence, as a gentle 
and high-minded man, the arrogant and insolent. 

Let everything you do be done for God, both deeds 

« This generous precept finds an echo in Chaucer’s 
And gladly wolde he lerne, and gladly teche. 
OORT: y Tales, Prologue I. 308.) 

®’ Cp. 1 Timothy v. 1. In several places this fragment 
reminds us of the Pastoral [pisiles. 

6 <7y> inserted by Barnard. 
7 gavrod Stihlin. avrod ms. 
8 dva Barnard. éva ms. 9 <ws> inserted by Schwartz. 



Kal TaVvTO dvadpepe Xpiot@ Ta oavTod, Kal TUKV@S 
emt Oeov Tpéme THV puxyy, Kal TO vonpLa. emepeide 
TH Xpuorod duvdper womrep ev Ayueve TWh TO Dei 
pwtt Too owrhpos dvamravepLevov amo mdaons 
Nadas TE Kal mpagews. Kal wel TLEpav ToAAdKts 
[per ]? pev dvOpesrrots | Kolvov THY ceavToo ppovnow, 
Dee b€ € emt metorov ev vuKrt Opmoiws Kal ev TPE pa” 
He) yap Umvos GE emUKpaTelTa TONS TOV Tos eov 
evy@V TE Kat Dye: Bavatrw yap 6 aKpos Umvos 
epaptddos. [€TOXOS Xpiorod a ae Kabioraco < Tob oF 
thv Oeiav avyny KataAdptovtos e€ ovpavod: ev- 
ppoavyy yap €oTw oo. Sunvekns Kal amavaoTos oO 

Myée Abe TOV Tis poxfs TOVOV €V evwrxia Kal 
TOTOV dvécet, teavov de myo TO owpare TO 
xperddoes. Kal [A1) mpoatev emelyou ™pos Tpopas 
Tmplw 7) Kal deimvou Toph Kalpos” aptos de éoTw 
got TO O€imVvoV, Kal TOL yas TpoceoTwoay Kal TO 
eK devOpuv a wpatas tr de ézt THY tpodnv evatabas 4 
Kal p17) Avaoowdn yaoTpiapyiav emupaiveny pnde 
capKoBopos pnde pidrowos € €00, omroTe pa vooos® TUS 
lacw rt TaUTHY dyov. GAN’ avrt T@V ev TOUTOLS 
700vev Tas ev Aoyous Betous Kat Upvous etkppoowvas 
atpob Th mapa Geod cot Xopnyoupevas ° codgia, 
ovpavios Te ael ae dpovtis dvayero mpos ovpavor. 

Kai tas zroAAds mept owpaTos dviee juepipvas 
teBaponkws éeAriot Tats mpos Oedv, OT Got ye Ta | 

1 rodddxis [nev] after nuépay Stahlin: after Gep dé Ms. 
2 <rod> inserted by Barnard. 3 i@. Mayor. to Ms. 
4 edata0G@s Wilamowitz. doradds Ms. 
5 yécos Barnard. yvdcov Ms. 
8 xopnyouuévas Stahlin. xopyyounéry Ms. 



and words ; and refer all that is yours to Christ ; and 
constantly turn your soul to God; and lean your 
thought on the power of Christ, as if in some harbour 
by the divine light of the Saviour it were resting 
from all talk and action. And often by day com- 
municate your thoughts to men, but most of all to 
God at night as well as by day ;% for let not much 
sleep prevail to keep you from your prayers and 
hymns to God, since long sleep is a rival of 
death. Show yourself always a partner of Christ 
who makes the divine ray shine from heaven ;? 
Jet Christ be to you continual and unceasing 
nate not the tension of your soul with feasting 
and indulgence in drink, but consider what is needful 
to be enough for the body. And do not hasten early 
to meals before the time for dinner comes; but let 
your dinner be bread, and let earth’s grasses and the 
ripe fruits of trees be set before you; and go to your 
meal with composure, showing no sign of raging 
gluttony. Be not a flesh-eater nor a lover of wine, 
when no sickness leads you to this as a cure.° But 
in place of the pleasures that are in these, choose 
the joys that are in divine words and hymns,’ joys 
supplied to you by wisdom from God; and let heavenly 
meditation ever lead you upward to heaven. 

And give up the many anxious cares about the 
body by taking comfort in hopes towards God; 
because for you He will provide all necessary things 

a Cp. 1 Timothy v. 5. 

» This and the previous sentence may allude to Ephesians 
v. 14. 

¢ Is there an allusion to 1 Timothy v. 23? 

4 Cp. Ephesians v. 18, 19. 



p. 223 dvayKata mapeEet SrapKA Tpodyy Te THv els Cwnpv 
Kal KdAvupa owparos KaL Xeyepwvod ixous 
dreEnT ype. Tob yap 967) ood Baoitéws yi Te 
daca Kal ooa exveTar’ wes pedAy be avtob! T&v 
avrod Bepamovreay drrepBaddovrws TrepLeTret Kabdzrep 
tepa Kal vaovs avTod. dia O7) TovTO pnde vooous 
brrepBadAovaas beduIe pnoe ynpws epodov xpovep 
TpocsoKwpLevou" TravoETaL yap Kal vooos, OTav 
orAopiyw mpobécer TOU Lev Tas avrob evrodds. 

Tatra etdars Kal 77pos vocous ioxupav KaTa- 
oxevale Thy Wvy7y, <d0dponoov WOTTEp Tus av7p ev 
oTadlois apioTos dr penre Th Ouvdper TOUS movous 
dpioracbac. poe bro Avans Tdvv melov THY 
puyny, elTe vdcos ETTLKELEV Bapuver elte GAAo Te 
oupTimreL Ovoxepes, add yevvaios avOiora tots 
Tmovols TO vonpLa., xdpiras avdyov Oe@ Kat ev p€oors 
TOIs €mLTOVOLs TPAyLacL ATE oy copistepd te dv- 
Opwtrwv dpovodvrt Kal aTrep ov OuvaTov a. padov 
avOpesrrous evpetv. eAder de Kakoupevous,,” Kat TH 
Tapa Too Geo Bow Gevav en avOpcrrous airov 
emUWEVOEL yep aitobvTt TH pilw TH xapu, Kal Tots 
KAaKOUpLEVOLs 3 émuKkouplav mapeeet, THY AVTOD Ovvapy 
yveopysov avOpuwrrots kaborava Bovdcpevos, ws av 
ets emiyvwow eAGovres emt Oedv aviwow Kal Tis 
aiwviov JuaKcapLoTnTos atoAavawow, emrevOay 6 
Tod Oeod vids mapayévyntat ayaba Tots idiots azo- 

1 Barnard and Stahlin insert ra cHpara after a’tod, 
2 xaxouuévous Stahlin. kadXouuévois Ms, 
8 xaxovudvas Stéihlin. xadovuévors Ms. 



in sufficiency, food to support life, covering for the 
body, and protection against winter cold. For to 
your King belongs the whole earth and all that is pro- 
duced from it;* and God treats the bodily parts of 
His servants with exceeding care, as if they were His, 
like His own shrines and temples.’ On this account 
do not dread severe diseases, nor the approach of 
old age, which must be expected in time; for even 
disease will come to an end, when with whole-hearted 
purpose we do His commandments. 

Knowing this, make your soul strong even in face 
of diseases; be of good courage, like a man in the 
arena, bravest to submit to his toils with strength 
unmoved. Be not utterly crushed in soul by grief, 
whether disease lies heavily upon you, or any other 
hardship befalls, but nobly confront toils with your 
understanding, even in the midst of your struggles 
rendering thanks to God; since His thoughts are 
wiser than men’s, and such as it is not easy nor pos- 
sible for men to find out. Pity those who are in 
distress, and ask for men the help that comes from 
God; for God will grant grace to His friend when 
he asks, and will provide succour for those in distress, 
wishing to make His power known to men,’ in the 
hope that, when they have come to full knowledge, 
they may return to God, and may enjoy eternal 
blessedness when thé Son of God shall appear and 
restore good things to His own. 

] Cp:-Psalm xxix Ee 

* Cp. 1 Corinthians vi. 15 and 19, 
¢ Cp. Romans ix. 22. 



Meaning of the Term “ Mysteries.’—The term is 
applied to certain religious rites, the details and 
meaning of which are kept secret from all except 
those who have been formally initiated. Mvorypuov 
is derived from pve.v, to close the lips (ep. mute, 
mutter), and thus the idea of secrecy is contained in 
the word itself. Clement suggests three derivations 
different from this,' but they are plainly no more 
than random guesses. Rites analogous to the Greek 
Mysteries are found among primitive peoples all over 
the world. In Greece, however, the Mysteries 
reached a high degree of development, and proved 
themselves able for many centuries to provide some 
satisfaction to the cravings of men for communion 
with the divine. 

Origin of the Mysteries.—The Mysteries are gener- 
ally connected with the gods called chthonic, i.e. earth 
divinities, whose worship goes back to a time before 
the arrival of the anthropomorphic gods of Greece. 
M. Foucart holds that the Eleusinian Mysteries were 

i See p.31. 


imported from Egypt,! and that Demeter is the same 
as the Egyptian Isis. But while it is possible, we 
may even say probable, that the intercourse which 
existed between Egypt and Greece from the earliest 
times helped to shape the ideas of the Mysteries, 
most authorities believe that at Eleusis, as elsewhere, 
an ancient nature-worship, with magical rites designed 
to secure the fertility of the soil, was the source from 
which later developments sprang. When Greece 
was overrun by warlike tribes from the north, the 
inhabitants of the plain of Eleusis kept secret, we may 
suppose, these rites upon which so much depended, 
entrusting the performance of them to certain 
priestly families? who were careful to preserve the 
old ceremonies unaltered. By degrees, as the 
prestige of these Mysteries grew, other ceremonies 
were added, and legends, symbolic explanations, and 
religious teaching about the future life gradually 
gathered round the primitive institution. 

The Mysteries in Classical Times——The Mysteries 
of Eleusis overshadowed all others in importance 
during the classical period, a fact partly due, no 

1 P, Foucart, Les Mystéres d’ Eleusis, chs, i.-v. Clement 
mentions the tradition that Melampus brought the Mysteries 
of Demeter from Egypt (p. 33). : 

2 These families, the Eumolpidae and the Heralds, are 
mentioned on p. 41. It is sometimes thought that the 
Heralds were an Athenian family who were given a share 
in the management of the Mysteries when Eleusis became 
part of the Athenian state. On the other hand, they are 
often closely coupled with the Eumolpidae, and Clement 
(p. 40) seems to include both when he speaks of 76 iepopay- 
rikov . . . yévos. This use of the singular noun also occurs 
in a phrase (rd yévos 7d Kypixwv kal Evyodmdayv) quoted from 
an inscription by Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, vol. iii 
p. 163. 



doubt, to the connexion of Eleusis with Athens. 
The chief deities concerned in them were Demeter, 
her daughter Core (i.e. the Maiden) or Persephone, 
and Pluto or Hades. The first two are an older and 
a younger form of the earth-mother, the great 
goddess who under various names and titles (Rhea, 
Cybele, etc.) was worshipped from very early days in 
all the lands bordering on the eastern Mediterranean! 
Pluto is the god of the underworld, the giver of 
wealth (in the form of fruits of the earth), as his 
name, connected with ploutos, wealth, implies. By 
the seventh century s.c. the ancient ritual had given 
rise, under the influence of the Greek spirit, to the 
legend embodied in the Homeric Hymn to Demeter. 
Persephone, while gathering flowers, is seized by 
Pluto and carried down to the underworld. Demeter 
is in deep distress at the loss of her daughter, and 
wanders everywhere to seek her.? Failing to find 
her, she refuses to help the corn to grow, and man- 
kind is in danger of perishing, when Zeus prevails 
upon Pluto to restore the maiden to the upper world 
for eight months of each year. The growth of the 
corn, so plainly pictured here, seems to have been 
the chief original concern of the rites, though there 
were doubtless other elements in them with which 
the poet did not deal. 

About the sixth century B.c. another deity was 
introduced into the Mysteries, viz. Iacchus,? who is 
a form of Dionysus. Under yet another form, that 

* Thus Demeter is the mother of Zeus (p. 353; cp. 
Arnobius, Adv. Nationes v. 20), instead of his sister as in 
the later Greek mythology. 

2 The legend is alluded to by Clement ; see pp. 31 and 37. 

3 See p. 47. 



of Zagreus, Dionysus was worshipped by the Orphics, 
whose teaching dealt with the soul’s destiny in the 
future life. Though we know little of the actual 
course of events, it is likely that the deepening of 
religious thought in Greece in the sixth century, of 
which Orphism was one sign, had its effect at Eleusis. 
The legend of the rending of Dionysus is told by 
Clement,! who omits, however, to say that from the 
head, preserved by Athena, a fresh Dionysus was 
born. The story is, in fact, one of death and resur- 
rection, akin to those of Osiris in Egypt and Attis 
in Phrygia ;? and in spite of its details, repulsive as 
they are to us, it probably served as a basis for 
teaching on the subject of human immortality. 

The events of the Eleusinian festivals were briefly 
as follows :— 

A ceremony called the Lesser Mysteries was cele- 
brated at Agra? on the Ilissus, close to Athens, in 
February each year. This was regarded as a prepara- 
tion for the more important rites of Eleusis. A 
late author says that the Agra festival consisted of 
“a representation of the things that happened to 
Dionysus.” 4 

The Greater Mysteries began on the 13th day 
of the month Boedromion (corresponding to our 
September), when Athenian youths went in _pro- 
cession to Eleusis and brought back the “sacred 
objects” (ra tepd). These tepa were perhaps the 

1 See pp. 37-39. 

* Clement mentions (p. 41) that some identified Dionysus 
with Attis. SSee p. 7 

* Stephanus Byz., quoted in A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. 692, 
and in Farnell, op. cit. vol. iii. p. 352. The Mysteries held 

at Halimus in Attica (p. 71) were also concerned with 
Dionysus ; see Arnobius, Adv. Nationes v. 28. 



playthings of Dionysus mentioned by Clement.! 
They were enclosed in chests? and carefully guarded 
from sight. Their resting- place while in Athens 
was the temple of Demeter and Core, called the 
Eleusinium.2 On the 15th a gathering was held of 
candidates for initiation, at which a herald proclaimed 
the conditions—that no criminal or barbarian could 
be admitted. Certain instruction was then given by 
officials called mystagogues (i.e. introducers or guides) 
as to the various acts and formulas,‘ a knowledge of 
which was necessary in the course of the initiation ; 
and to this may have been added a symbolic ex- 
planation of the tepé and of the dramatic scenes 
represented in the Mysteries. There were also some 
fasts and abstinences to be observed. Strict secrecy 
was enjoined on all. On the following day the cry 
“To the sea, mystae’’ (4Aade ptorar) was raised, and 
the candidates underwent a ceremonial purification 
by bathing in the sea at Phalerum, and by offering 
a pig to the goddesses. 

The return journey to Eleusis took place on the 
19th. Besides the tepd there was carried a statue 
of Iacchus, to whom hymns were sung along the 
road.5> The next four days were occupied with the 
Mysteries proper. The site of the Hall of Initiation 
(reAeotHpiov) has been found and examined. The 

1 Pp. 37-39. Foucart (op. cit. pp. 408-12) denies that 
Clement is here speaking of the Eleusinian Mysteries. He 
thinks that the most important of the iep4 was an archaic 
wooden image of Demeter. 

2 These ‘‘mystic chests” are mentioned on pp. 41, 43 
and 45. 

* Clement (p. 99) describes this temple as being ‘‘ under 
the Acropolis.” 4 See p. 43. 

5 Aristophanes, Frogs 325 ff. 



Hall was large and capable of seating about three 
thousand people. There is no trace of secret 
passages, or of any arrangement for producing 
startling scenic effects. ‘The roof, or perhaps a second 
story,| was supported by many columns; and there 
was a lantern (oraiov) above the shrine (avaxtopov) 
of Demeter. 

There are many references to the Mysteries in 
ancient writers, but they are for the most part vague 
and general. Only the Christian Fathers profess to 
give details, and even they do not attempt a complete 
description, but select those parts which will help 
their attack on the old religion. The following list 
will give some idea of the ceremonies, though we 
cannot be sure of the order in which they took place. 

(i.) Solemn sacrifice to Demeter and Core. 

(ii.) Ritual acts to be performed and a formula to 
be said.2 Included in the acts was the 
drinking of a draught similar to that which 
Demeter had drunk when wandering in 
search of Core. 

(iii.) A journey representing the progress of the 
soul after death through the lower regions 
to the abode of the blessed. After much 
wandering in darkness amid scenes of terror 

1 Plutarch (Pericles 13) speaks of the ‘‘ upper columns” 
as distinct from those on the ground. 

2 See p. 43. 

3 There may also have been the sacramental eating of a 
cake from the chest, if the emendation éyyeveduevos (p. 42, 
n. >) is right. But this is by no means certain. Arnobius 
(Adv. Nationes v. 26), who seems to follow Clement in this 
passage, leaves out the expression, which may mean that he 
read épyacduevos and could not understand it. Probably 

some ritual action with the contents, whatever they were, 
of the chest is purposely concealed under a vague word. 



the initiate was suddenly introduced into 
brilliant light.! 

(iv.) An exposition of the ‘epa, or sacred objects, by 
the hierophant, who derives his name (6 tepa 
daivwv) from this office. 

(v.) Dramatic representations of the Rape of Core, 
the sorrowful wandering of Demeter, and 
the finding of Core.” 

(vi.) The exposition of an ear of corn, a symbol of 


(vii.) Representation of a marriage between Zeus 
and Demeter,‘ and the announcement that 
Demeter (under her name Brimo) has borne 
a son Brimos.° 

(viii.) Magical cries uttered by the initiates, e.g. ve, 
kve (rain! conceive !),6 and a ceremony con- 
sisting of the pouring of water from two Jars 
on to the earth.’ This was evidently an 
ancient fertility charm. 

It is probable that a pilgrimage was also made to 

the sacred places round Eleusis visited by Demeter 
in her wanderings. It may have been on this journey, 
when the well called Callichorus® was reached, that 

1 Clement’s language on p. 257 alludes to this. 

2 See p. 31. There seems also to have been a torchlight 
search for Core, in which the initiates joined. 

3 Hippolytus, Ref. om. haer. v. 8. 

4 The complete evidence for this can be found in Foucart, 
op. cit. pp. 475 ff. Not all authorities admit, however, that 
this ceremony formed part of the Eleusinian Mysteries. 
But there must have been something to account for the 
language of Clement on pp. 45-47, and the sacred marriage, 
of which other Christian writers speak in definite terms, 
would account for it. 

5 Hippolytus, op. cit. v. 8. ae Re 

7 Athenaeus, p. 496 a. 8 Pausanias i. 38. 6. 



the initiates were forbidden to make any signs of 
grief! As arule they were required to imitate the 
goddess, and this prohibition is singular. 

There were two grades of initiates at Eleusis. 
The story of Zeus and Demeter, together with the 
exposition of the ear of corn, seems to have been 
revealed only to the highest grade, the epoptae (i.e. 
those admitted to a vision of the sacred things; from 

The Eleusinian Mysteries were held in high 
repute for many centuries, and ancient writers (if 
we exclude the Christian Fathers) speak frequently 
of the good effect they produced on those who were 
initiated.2, The annual death and rebirth of nature, 
expressed in various mythological forms such as the 
rape of Core and the rending and rebirth of Dionysus, 
was made to point to a future life for man. By the 
actual initiation, a bond was created between the two 
goddesses and their worshippers, which assured the 
latter of divine protection on earth and beyond the 
grave. If the child of the sacred marriage was 
Plutus (wealth),? then the union of the deities would 
symbolize the blessings they together brought to 
mankind. But we need not suppose that the ancients 
inquired so curiously as we do into the exact mean- 
ing of their holy rites. They were for the most part 
content to observe in all simplicity old customs that 
came to them with divine sanction, and upon the 
due performance of which they believed so much 
depended, both of social well-being and of the soul’s 
future destiny. 

It should be noticed that, so far as Eleusis is con- 

1 See p. 41. 2 e.g. Cicero, De legibus ii. 36. 

3 Foucart, op. cit. ,p. 479. 


cerned, Clement, in spite of his vehement language, 
makes no charge of immoral practices. He considers 
the legends to be absurd and repulsive; while the 
sacred objects and the marriage of Zeus and Demeter 
seem to him indecent. But what he attacks is 
chiefly the interpretation he puts upon these things, 
an interpretation, we must admit, that is not 
altogether unreasonable. The worst item in his 
indictment—the story of Baubo—comes, as he frankly 
says, from the Orphic poems.1. The Hymn to Demeter 
gives a different account of Demeter drinking the 
draught—she is persuaded to do so by the harmless 
pleasantry of a servant maid.2 This was no doubt 
the official account at Eleusis. 

Many other mysteries existed in classical times, 
notably the Phrygian, the Samothracian, and those 
that were celebrated at Andania in Messenia. None 
of them enjoyed such widespread fame as_ those 
of Eleusis. There was, of course, a certain broad 
resemblance between all mysteries, and the Eleusinian 
may be taken as the highest instance of this type of 
religious worship. 

Mysteries in the Hellenistic Age.—After the con- 
quests of Alexander, the popularity of mystery cults 
increased, reaching its height towards the end of the 
second century a.p. Thus Clement was making his 
attack upon them at a critical time, when they were 
in full vigour and serious rivals of Christianity. 
Most, if not all, of those he mentions were doubtless 
of ancient origin, but there had been much cross 
influence at work. Clement speaks of mysteries 
associated with Aphrodite, Deo or Demeter, Attis 

1 See p. 43. 
2 Hymn to Demeter 202 ff. 


and Cybele, the Corybantes, the Cabeiri, Dionysus, 
Zeus Sabazius and Ge Themis. He also tells us that 
the mysteries of Attis and Cybele were similar to 
those of Zeus Sabazius and Demeter.! Both of these 
had their home in Phrygia. The legend of Zeus 
consorting with Demeter under the form of a bull, 
and then again with Persephone under the form of a 
snake, is common to Phrygia and Eleusis.2. But the 
cult seems to have been differently worked out, if 
we may judge by the two formulas that Clement 
has left us. In Phrygia the worshipper underwent 
a mystical marriage with the god, who was repre- 
sented by his proper symbol, a serpent.? At Eleusis 
the marriage was between the two deities. We 
may suspect that the omission of repulsive elements, 
and the general refinement and idealization of the 
legends, was carried further at Eleusis than else- 

The Mysteries and Christianity.—Two questions 
may be asked, and briefly answered, here. (i.) Was 
Clement’s attack on the Mysteries justified? (ii.) 
What influence did the Mysteries have on Christianity ? 

(i.) Rites which were held in respect by men like 
Sophocles and Cicero cannot have been merely the 
mass of stupidity and immorality that Clement might 
at first sight lead us to suppose. He makes no 

1 See p. 35. 

* This seems to be Clement’s meaning ; see pp. 35-37. 

3 See the sign on p. 35, ‘‘the god over the breast.” 
According to this, the worshipper must have assumed the 
character of a feminine consort of the god. But the formula 
‘**I stole into the bridal chamber” suggests a mystical 
union with the goddess, in which the worshipper must have 
been considered as masculine. The difficulty is dealt with 
by A. B. Cook, Zeus, i. 392 ff. 



attempt to describe the Mysteries fully, nor does he 
give them credit for any good they contained. Yet 
it can hardly be doubted that he was on the whole 
right. What angers him is not so much the general 
ideas and teaching of the Mysteries (with much of 
which he certainly must have been in sympathy) as 
the symbols displayed in them—the childish play- 
things, the phalloi, the representation of sacred 
marriages, etc. ‘These things had their origin in a 
rude society, where they were natural enough. But 
a time comes when a civilized people ought no longer 
to be content with the relics, however venerable, of 
a past age, when in fact such relics suggest quite 
different thoughts from those associated with them 
in the beginning, and when they have as a conse- 
quence to be continually explained afresh in order 
to meet moral or intellectual objections. The 
Greeks of the second century a.p. were no longer 
an unsophisticated people, and the ritual of the 
Mysteries was not an adequate expression of their 
highest religious ideas. 

(ii.) Much has been written on this question and 
widely different views are held. Christianity was 
preached by St. Paul to people who were well 
acquainted with the terminology of the Mysteries, 
and probably in many cases with the rites themselves. 
St. Paul uses words like rédeos and proriprov,} 
adapting them without difficulty to Christian teaching. 
Clement goes so far as to describe the whole Christian 
scheme of salvation in mystery language.2 The 
bitter hostility of the Church towards the Mysteries 
would forbid any direct or conscious borrowing ; but 

1 ¢.g. 1 Corinthians ii. 6, 7; xv. 51. 
2 See pp. 255-57. 


when words are taken, ideas are apt to come with 
them. It is not without significance that the word 
“ mysteries’? was afterwards used to describe the 
Christian sacraments, and above all the rite of Holy 
Communion. Moreover, both Christianity and the 
mystery religions were aiming at the same end: 
both promised “salvation” to their adherents. 
Christianity had a far truer idea than the Mysteries 
of what salvation meant, and this is one reason why 
it survived while the Mysteries died. But since 
both had to deal with the same human hopes and 
fears, the same problems of sin, purification, death 
and immortality, it would be surprising if the one 
owed nothing at all to the other. A comparison of 
the Synoptic Gospels with the developed theology 
of the fourth and fifth centuries will make it plain 
that, while Christianity had from the first its own 
distinctive character, which it never lost, it did not 
refuse the help of any elements in current thought 
and practice by means of which its message could 
be presented in a clearer or more acceptable form. 



References in italics are to be found in the notes or the Appendix. 

References marked with an asterisk (*) are commented on in the notes 

ApperA, 149, 292 

Academia, a spot close to 
Athens, where Plato and 
his followers taught, 97 

Acragas, 49, 55, 145 

Acrisius, a hero of Larisa, 

Actium, promontory of, 87 

Admetus, 75 

Adonis, 49, 71 

Aeacus, 71 

Aeolic dialect, 65 

Aether, 57 

Aethlius, 103 

Aethusa, 67 

Agamemnon, 81 

Agra, a suburb of Athens, 
where the Lesser Mys- 
teries were celebrated, 
71, 382% 

Alastors, avenging deities, 

Alcibiades, 29, 123 

Alcmaeon, of Croton (about 
500 B.c.), an early Greek 

physician and _philoso- 
pher, 149 

Aleman, lyric poet ofSparta, 
7th century B.c., 65 

Alcmene, 67, 85 

Alcyone, 65 

Alcyone, wife of Ceyx, 123 

Alexander the Great, 123, 
125, 211, 387 

Alexandria, 109, 121, 358-9 

Alexarchus, 123 

Alope, 65 

Amazons, 121 

Ammon, Egyptian god, 
equated with Zeus, 59, 

Amphiaraus, 29 

Amphilochus, 29 

Amphion, 3* 

Amphitrite, 65, 105 

Amyetus, 221* 

Amymone, 65 

Anaxagoras, Greek philo- 
sopher, 500-428 B.c., 149, 
152*, 293* 



Anaximander, early Greek 
philosopher,610-547 B.c., 

Anaximenes, early Greek 
philosopher, about 550 
B.c., 145 

Anchises, 71 

Andocides, Athenian orator, 
about 415 B.c., 221* 

Androcrates, a Plataean 
hero, 87 

Androgeos, son of Minos 
king of Crete, 87* 

Anius, a hero of Delos, 87 

Anticleides, Athenian 
author, after the time of 
Alexander, 93 

Antinoopolis, 111* 

Antinous, 111* 

Antiochus, Greek historian, 
5th century B.c., 99 

Antiochus of Cyzicus, 119 

Antisthenes, founder of the 
Cynic school of philo- 
sophy, 159, 169 

Antoninus Liberalis, Greek 
grammarian, about 150 
A.D., 84 

Apellas, 105 

Apelles, Greek painter, 
about 320 B.c., 141, 213 

Aphrodite, 33, 63, 69, 71, 
75, 88, 97, 101, 123, 131, 
137, 171, 387; Anaitis, 
149; Argynnis, 81; statue 
at Cnidus, 121, 131 

Apis, Egyptian bull god, 
85*, 111, 119 

Apocalypse of Elijah, 207 


Apocalypse of Peter, 182 

Apollo, 3, 29, 39, 59, 67, 
75, 81, 89, 95, 97, 99, 
105, 121, 171; of Actium, 
87; of Delos, 99 ; Smin- 
theus, 87; of the ways, 

Apollodorus, Athenian 
writer, about 140 B.c., 
31, 61, 98, 133 

Apollonia, 145 

Arabians, 101 

Aratus, poet, flourished in 
Macedoniaabout 270 B.c., 
165, 245 

Arcadia and Arcadians, 15, 
57, 59 

Archelaus, Athenian philo- 
sopher, about 450 B.c., 

Archemorus, 71 

Ares, 59, 71, 75, 103, 145, 
ik viper 

Argos and Argives, 83, 107, 
121, 233 

Argus, sculptor, 105 

Arion, Greek poet and 
musician, about 600 B.c., 

Aristomenes, Messenian 
king, 7th century B.c., 91 

Aristophanes, 153, 383 

Aristotle, 59, 150, 151, 209 

AristusofSalamisin Cyprus, 
wrote a history of Alex- 
ander the Great, 123 

Arnobius, Latin Christian 
Apologist, about 310 A.D., 
98, 881, 382, 384 


Arretophoria, an Athenian 
festival of Demeter and 
Persephone, 37 

Arsinoé, 67 

Artaxerxes, 149 

Artemis, 81, 83, 89, 95, 105; 
Taurian, 93; temple at 
Delos, 99; temple at 
Magnesia, 99 ; temple at 
Ephesus, 113, 121; statue 
in Icarus, 103; statue at 
Sicyon, 107 

Asclepius, 55, 59, 61, 119 

Ascra, 89 

Assyrians, 159 

Astrabacus, a 
monian hero, 87 

Athena, 39, 57, 59, 75, 77, 
99, 103, 105, 107, 119, 
125, 127, 171, 213, 382 

Athenaeus, 80, 81, 96, 104, 
123, 12h, 885 


Athenagoras, Christian 
Apologist, 2nd century 
ae D805 LGD 

Athenians, 41, 43, 53, 83, 
87, 98, 97, 105, 125, 233 

Athenodorus, 109 

Athens, 41, 53, 71, 99, 103, 
107, 121, 123, 125, 149, 

Attica, 41 

Attis, a Phrygian god, con- 
sort of Cybele in the 
Phrygian mysteries, 35, 
41, 49, 168, 382, 387 

Augustine, St., 102 

Avengers, The (Erinyes), 
58, 108, 221 

Averters of evil, The (Apo- 
tropaei), 93 

Baxsyton and Babylonians, 
149, 159, 211 

Bacchants, 31, 37, 45 

Bacchus and Bacchic rites. 
See Dionysus 

Bactrians, 149 

Barnabas, Epistle of, 232, 

Bassareus, title of Dionysus, 

Baton, 124 

Baubo, 41, 48, 387 

Berosus, Babylonian _his- 
torian, about 250 B.c., 

Bion of Borysthenes, philo- 
sopher, about 250 B.c., 

Blistiche, mistress of Pto- 
lemy Philadelphus, 109 
Brimo, title of Demeter, 

35, 385 
Bryaxis, Athenian sculptor, 
about 350 B.c., 105 
Bryaxis, sculptor, 109 

Caserrti, gods of the Samo- 
thracian mysteries, 39, 
41, 388 

Callimachus, Alexandrine 
grammarian and _ poet, 
about 260 B.c., 61, 79, 

Callistagoras, hero of Tenos, 

Calés, sculptor, 105 


Cambyses, 119 

Canobus, 109 

Capio, 7 

Carians, 61 

Castalia, sacred spring on 
Mount Parnassus, 27 

Cecrops, legendary first 
king of Athens and 
founder of the Athenian 
State, 99 

Celeus, 99 

Ceryces. See Heralds 

Ceyx, son of Aeolus, 123 

Chalcedon, 149 

Charmus, 97 

Charybdis, 251 

Cheiron, 93 

Chione, 65 

Chios, 149, 211 

Chrysippus, son of Pelops, 

Chrysis, priestess at Argos, 

Cicero, 57, 58, 116, 119, 
120, 143, 146, 261, 888 

Cimmerians, 195* 

Cinyras, ancient ruler of 
Cyprus, 33, 71, 101 

Cirrhaean tripod, at Cirrha, 
a port close to Delphi, 27 

Cithaeron, mountain range 
between Attica and 
Boeotia, 5, 7, 255 

Clarian oracle, of Apollo, 

Clazomenae, 80, 149, 292 

Cleanthes, Stoic philoso- 
pher, about 250 B.c., 161- 


Clement of Rome, Epistle of, 

Cleochus, 99 

Cletor, 85 

Cnidus, 121, 133 

Colophon, 27 

Condylea, in Arcadia, 81* 

Corybantes, attendants of 
the Phrygian goddess 
Cybele, 35, 39, 41, 388 

Coryphasia, title of Athena, 

Crates, 293* 

Cratina, mistress of Praxi- 
teles, 121 

Crete and Cretans, 57, 59, 
79," on 

Cronus, 57, 63 

Croton, 149 

Curetes, attendants of the 
infant Zeus or Dionysus, 

Cybele, Phrygian goddess 
(The. Great Mother), 31, 
35, 45, 47, 49, 169, 

Cyclaeus, a Plataean hero, 

Cynopolis, 85 

Cynosarges, 125 

Cynosuris, 63 

Cyprian poems, The, 63* 

Cyprus, 33, 49, 83, 131, 

Cyrbas, Cretan father of 
Apollo, 59 

Cyrus, 95, 97 

Cythnians, 87 

Cyzicus, 47, 119 


Darpauus, 133 

Daeira, wifeof Eumolpus, 99 

Damascus, 149 

Daphne, 67 

Dardanus, 31 

Darius, 119, 149 

Delos and Delians, 87, 99 

Delphi (or Pytho), seat of 
the oracle of Apollo, 3,5 

Demaratus, 93 

Demeter, 31, 33, 35, 41, 
43; )45;.88, 71, 75, 89, 
131, 141, 380-8 

Demetrius, historian, 105 

Demetrius Poliorcetes, king 
of Macedonia about 300 
B.c., 125 

Democrates, a 
hero, 87 

Democritus, Greek philo- 
sopher, about 430 B.c., 
149;* Foi, ,°155=73.' 203; 

Demophon, 105 

Demosthenes, 124, 189 

Derceto, a Syrian goddess, 

Diagoras of Melos, called 
the ‘“ Atheist’: Greek 
philosopher, about 425 
B.c., 49 

Dicaearchus, philosopher 
and historian, about 300 
B.C., 63 

Didymaean oracle (of 
Apollo) at Didyma near 
Miletus, 29 

Didymaeum, temple of 
Apollo near Miletus, 99 



Didymus, grammarian, Ist 
century B.c., 59 

Dinon, 147 

Diodorus, 86, 221 

Diogenes, historian, 147 

Diogenes, of Apollonia, 
philosopher, 5th century 
B.c., 145 

Diomedes, 75, 105 

Dionysius, 105 

Dionysius, the younger, 
tyrant of Syracuse, 117 

Dionysus, 4, 31, 387, 39, 41, 
45, 53, (3583, 935) 1075 
121, 123, 131, 171, 254- 
255, 381-2, 386 

Diopetes, ‘‘ heaven - sent” 
image of Pallas Athena, 

Dioscuri. See Twin Brothers 

Dipoenus, sculptor, 6th 
century B.c., 107 

Dodona, in Epirus : oracle 
of Zeus, 26, 27 

Domitian, emperor, 356 

Dorian mode, 7*, 13 

Dorotheus, 93 

Dosidas, or Dosiades, 93 

Dysaules, 41 

Ecpatana, 149 
EKétion, reputed founder of 
Samothracian mysteries, 
Egypt and Egyptians, 17, 
39, 33, 49, 57, 66, 83, 
85, 107, 109, 11%, 7113, 
147, 159, 380 
Elea, a Greek colony in 


south Italy, birthplace of 
the philosophers Parme- 
nides and Zeno, called 
Eleatics, 145 

Elephantine, 85 

Eleusinium, temple of 
Demeter at Athens, 99, 

Eleusis and the Eleusinian 
mysteries, 31, 34, 41, 43, 
46, 99, 379-88 

Eleutherae, 120% 

Elijah, 21, 23 

Elis and Eleans, 81, 87 

Empedocles, Greek philo- 
sopher, about 490 B.c., 
55, 145 

Endymion, 69 

Enyo, 221 

Eos, 69 

Ephesus, 45, 105,145, 357-9 

Epicharmus, 59 

Epicurus, founder of the 
Epicurean school of philo- 
sophy, about 300 B.c., 

Epimenides, 53 

Erechtheus and Erechthei- 
dae, 43*, 93 

Eresus, 151 

Erichthonius, 99 

Erinyes. See Avengers 

Eros, 97 

Ethiopians, 77 

Eubouleus, 37, 41 

Eudoxus, geographer, about 
130 B.c., 147 

Euhemerus, Greek philo- 
sopher (end of 4th century 


B.c.), who taught that the 
gods were deified kings 
and heroes, a theory after- 
wards knownas Euhemer- 
ism, 49 

Eumenides, 53, 103* 

Eumolpidae, 41*, 380* 

Eumolpus, 41, 99 

Eunomus, 3, 5, 7 

Euphorion, 87 

Euripides, 3, 51, 61, 93, 
108, 155, 165, 171-8, 
219, 255 

Eurymedusa, 85 

Eurystheus, 49 

Eve, 19, 30*, 31 

Fates, The, 221 
Fortuna, Roman goddess, 


Ganymedes, 69, 78, 111 

Ge Themis, 45* 

Greece, 33, 41, 49, 109, 239 

Greeks, 31, 43, 83, 111, 
147, 159, 253, 257 

Hanes, or Pluto, god of the 
under world, 37, 73, 77, 
89, 107, 381 

Hadrian, emperor, 111 

Halimus, a district near 
Athens, where mysteries 
of Dionysus were held, 
71, 382* 

Halys, river, 95 

Hebrews, 21, 159, 189 

Helen of Troy, 75, 171 


Helicon, mountain range in 
Boeotia, sacred to Apollo 
and the Muses, 5, 7 

Helius, 77 

Hephaestus, 39, 57, 59, 61, 
(eye ein eral gl 

Hera, 70, 77, 85, 103, 105, 

Heracleides of Pontus, 4th 
century B.c., 87, 151 

Heracleitus, Ephesian philo- 
sopher, about 515 B.c. ,45, 
73, 118-5, 145, 147, 152, 
203, 241 

Heracleopolis, 85 

Heracles, 49, 55, 63, 67, 
69, 75, 77, 81, 83, 86, 
89, 107, 181, 139, 171 

Heralds,anAthenian family, 
41*, 380% 

Hermes, 59, 115, 123, 125, 

Herodotus, 14, 48, 57, 66, 
8h, 86, 92, 96, 97, 119 
Hesiod, 33, 53, 67, 89, 96, 
165, 199, 211, 223, 253 

Hicesius, 147 

Hieronymus, 63 

Hippasus, Pythagorean phi- 
losopher, 145 

Hippo, philosopher, 49, 125, 

Hippolytus, Christian writer, 
2nd century A.D., 385 

Hippothoé, 65 

Homer, 7, 22, 39, 43, 53, 
59, GL,, 635, 67,069,275, 
Vi) B05 89; 95, 401, 177, 
127, 128, 129, 131, 135, 

137, 138, 171, 183, 191, 
201, 211, 219, 227, 235, 
239, 241, 245, 253, 257, 

Hyacinthus, 69 

Hylas, 69 

Hyperboreans, 60, 99 

Hyperoche, 99 

Hypsipyle, 67 

Iaccuus, name of the infant 
Dionysus, 43, 47, 141, 

lasion, 71 

Ilium, or Troy, 75, 105 

Immaradus, Athenian hero, 

Indians, 53 

Ino, 131 

Ionia, 239 

Irenaeus, 239, 347 

Isidorus, 109 

Isis, 113, 350 

Isthmian games, 71 

Ithome, a mountain in 
Messenia, 91 

JUSTIN MARTYR, 67, 162, 
165, 169, 239, 345, 352 

KAABA, The, sacred stone at 
Mecca, 101 

ians,,59;, 75, 81; 83,,8i, 
91, 233 

Laconia, 81 

Lamia, 125 

Laodice, 99 



Laomedon, 75 

Larissa, 99 

Leandrius, 99 

Leda, 79, 139 

Lemnos, 61 

Lenaea, 7*, 73 

Lesbians, 65, 93 

Leto, 89 

Leucippus, 5th-century phi- 
losopher, founder of the 
atomic system developed 
by Democritus, 149, 153 

Leucon, a Plataean hero, 

Leucophryne, 99 

Lot’s wife, 225 

Lucian, 67 

Lycaon, 77 

Lycopolis, 85 

Lyctians, a Cretan tribe, 98 

Lycurgus, 233 

Lydian mode, 7*, 13 

Lysippus, Greek sculptor, 
4th century B.c., 141 

Macar, king of Lesbos, 65 

Macedonians, 147, 193 

Maenads, 255 

Magnes, 59 

Magnesia, 99 

Marius, 93 

Marpessa, 67 

Maximus of Tyre, 90 

Meandrius. See Leandrius 

Mecca, The Kaaba at, 101 

Medes. See Persians 

Megaclo, 65 

Melampus, reputed founder 
of mysteries, 33 


Melanippe, 65 

Melicertes, 71 

Melos, 49 

Memphis, 85 

Menander, 155, 169, 171 

Mendes, 85 

Menecrates, 123 

Menedemus, a Cythnian 
hero, 87 

Merops, 97 

Messenians, 57, 91 

Metapontum, 145 

Methymna, 3, 81 

Metragyrtes, name for a 
priest of the Great 
Mother, or Cybele, 48, 

Metrodorus of Chios, philo- 
sopher, about 850 B.c., 

Midas, 33 

Miletus, 99, 145, 149 

Minos, 239 

Mithridates, 123 

Mnemosyne, 65, 67 

Monimus, 93 

Moses, 7, 21,:61, 157.3172, 
181, 183, 191, 235 

Mother, The Great (or, 
Mother of the Gods). 
See Cybele 

Muses, 4, 65, 67 

Myrmidon, 55* 

Myrsilus of Lesbos, Greek 
historical writer, 65 

Mysteries, 5, 29-47, 71, 257, 

Myus, reputed founder of 
mysteries, 31 


Neiwus, 57 

Nemean games, 71 
Nereis, 69 

Nero, emperor, 357 
Nicagoras of Zeleia, 123 
Nicander, 83, 115 
Nicanor, 49 

Ninevites, 217 

Niobe, 225 

Nomius, title of Apollo, 59* 
Nyctimus, 77 
Nymphodorus, 147 

Oceanus, 57 

Ochus, 149 

Odrysae, a Thracian tribe, 5 

Odrysus, 33 

Odysseus, 75, 105, 191, 23.4- 
5, 258 

Oeta, Mt., 63 

Olympia, 67, 103 

Olympian games, 71 

Olympichus, 103 

Olympus, Mt., 39, 61 

Omphale, 75 

Ornytus, 77 

Orpheus, 3, 9, 37, 43, 167 

Osiris, 49, 109, 111, 382 

Ovid, 143 

Oxyrhynchus, 85 

Pacroius, a small river in 
Lydia, famous for the 
gold found in its sands, 

Pallas. See Athena 

Pallas, father of Athena, 57 

Pan, 97, 1385, 139 

Pantarces, 121 


Panyasis, 75, 77 

Paphos, 101 

Paris, son of Priam of Troy, 


Parmenides, Greek philo- 
sopher, about 460 B.c., 

Parnassus, Mt., 39 

Pasiphaé, 133 

Patara, a city in Lycia, 105 

Patmos, Isle of, 357 

Patrocles of Thurium, 63 

Pausanias, 39, 77, 80, 81, 
87, 96, 98, 106, 107, 111, 
120, 388 

Pedasis, 161 

Peleus, 71, 93 

Pella in Macedonia, 125 

Pella in Thessaly, 93 

Pelops, 69, 71, 105 

Pentheus, 255* 

Peripatetics, 151 

Persephone or Core (The 
Maiden), 31, 35, 37, 41, 
71, 89, 93, 141, 381-7 

Persians, 87, 101, 147, 149 

Phaéthon, 71 

Phalerum, 87, 383 

Phanocles, 81 

Pheidias, 67, 71, 103, 105, 
121, 213 

Pherae, 75 

Philaenis, 139 

Philip of Macedon, 125 

Philippides, 97 

Philo Iudaeus, 133 

Philochorus, 63, 105 

Philomedes, title of Aphro- 
dite, 33* 



Philostephanus, 131 

Philostratus, 133, 241 

Phlius, 120 

Phoceans, 93 

Phoebus, title of Apollo, 
61, 67, 95 

Phoenicia, 87 

Phoroneus, 97, 233 

Phrygian mode, 7* 

Phrygians and Phrygia, 15, 
31, 33, 35, 53, 71, 75, 

Phryne, 123 

Pindar, 61, 213 

Pisa, 71 

Plataeans, 87 

Plato, 51, 52,196, 123,146, 
153-5, 187, 15 BY, 159, 1346 
212, 214- 5, 229, 241, 
245, 261, 263, art ; 284, 
285, 321 

Pliny, 104 

Plutarch, 49, 87, 90, 93, 
L07, 125, 144, iy 46, 213, 
221, 384 

Pluto. See Hades 

Polemon, 75, 81, 

Polycleitus, sculptor, about 
430 B.c., 213 

Pontus, 109, 123 

Poseidippus, 121, 131, 133 

Poseidon, 63, 65, 75, 105, 
131, 145 

Praxiteles, sculptor, about 
350 B.c., 121, 141, 213 

Priapus, 221 

Procles, ancient ruler of 
Samos, 103 


85, 105, 

Prosymnus, 73 

Prothoé, 67 

Ptolemaeus, 101 

Ptolemy II., Philadelphus, 
107, 109 

Ptolemy IV., 
101, 123 

Pygmalion, 131 

Pythagoreans, 165, 195 

Pythian games, 71 

Pythian oracle, 29 

Pytho, of Delphi, seat of 
the oracle of Apollo, 3, 
5, v1 

Pythocles, 93 


Ruacoris, 109 
Rome and Romans, 81, 93, 
103, 115, 121 

SABAZIAN mysteries, 35, 388 

Sais, 57, 85 

Samos and Samians, 87, 103 

Samothracian mysteries,31, 

Sarapis, 107, 109, 111, 113, 

Sardis, 75, 149 

Sauromatians, 147, 149 

Scirophoria, 37 

Scopas, Greek sculptor, 
about 370 B.c., 105 
Scyllis, ancient Cretan 

sculptor, 107 

Scythians, 47, 49, 61, 101, 

Selene, 69 

Seleucia, near Antioch in 
Syria, 109 


Semele, 79, 255 

Semiramis, a Syrian goddess, 

Sesostris, 109 

Sibylline oracles, 57*, 113, 
141, 159, 161, 167, 175, 

Sicily, 63, 119 

Sicon, sculptor, 107 

Sicyon and Sicyonians, 88, 

Silenus, 59 

Sinope, 107 

Sirens, The, 251 

Smilis, 103 

Socrates, 52, 159-61 

Sodom, 225 

Solon, 95, 97, 233 

Sophocles, 59, 165, 199, 
213, 388 

Sophocles the younger, 63 

Sosibius, 77, 81 

Spartans. See Lacedae- 

Staphylus, 81 

Sterope, 67 

Stoics and Stoicism, 120, 
146,151, 161, 261, 262-3, 

Strabo, 27, 67, 160, 221 

Susa, 149 

Syene, 85 

Syracusans, 83 

Taurians, 91 

Teaching of the Twelve 
Apostles, 232, 831, 345 

Teiresias, 257 

Telesius, 105 

Telmessus, 101 

Tenos and Tenians, 68, 87, 

Terpander, ancient Greek 
lyric poet and musician, 7 

Thales, Greek philosopher, 
about 600 B.c., 145 

Thebes and Thebans, 3, 538, 
85, 254, 257, 292 

Thebes (Egyptian), 85 

Theocritus of Chios, 211* 

Theodorus, 49 

Theophrastus, 151 

Theopompus, 91 

Theseus, 57 

Thesmophoria, festival of 
Demeter, 37, 39 

Thespiae, 103, 123 

Thesprotia, 27 

Thessalians, 85 

Thestius, 69 

Thetis, 71 

Thmuitans, 67* 

Thracians, 3, 5, 31, 37, 59, 
159, 167 

Thucydides, 120, 221, 326 

Thurium, 63 

Tiryns, 105, 107 

Titanis, 57 

Titans, 37, 39, 47 

Tithonus, 69 

Triptolemus, 41 

Troy, or Ilium, 75, 105 

Tuscan oracles of the dead, 

Tuscans, 41 

Twin Brothers, 55, 63, 107 

Tyche. See Fortuna 

Tycho, 220%, 221 



Uranus, 33 Zeno of Myndus, 99 
Zeus, 4, 51, 35, 39, 57, 59, 
61, 65, 67 69, 71, 77, 79, 

Varro, 103 
i * 83, 85, 87, 89, 93, 95, 
Venerable goddesses, 103 103, 105, 111, 119, 121, 
123, 127, 129, 131, 1389 
XENOCRATES, 149 157, si 235, 28h. 881 
Xenophanes, 49 Zeus Agamemnon, 81* ; 
Xenophon, 159-61 Zeus Ammon, Libyan 
oracle of, 26*, 27; Averter 
ZAGREUS, Orphic name for of flies, 81 ; of Ithome, 91 

Dionysus, 382 Zeuxippe, 67 



References in italics are to allusions only, or to passages mentioned 
in notes or Appendix. 

For references marked with a t see the Septuagint. 

GENESIS vi. 6 233 
en 183 vi. 13 181 
i. 14 142 x. 20 181 
i. 26 215, 263, 345 wx. 1-2 50 
iii. 14 23° xxv. 13535 = 157 
iii, 15 229 xxx. 14 235 
iti. 19 303 xxx. 15 207-9 
iii. 20 31 xxxii. 39 177 
iv. 21 13 1 SamMuEL 
wx. 26 224E Ne eos 18 
Exopus xvaviti. 7 29 
=x 4 141 ‘a 
1 Kines 
xx. 13-16 233 iii. 7 178 
Leviticus ii. 12 178 
xix. 18 233 xviii. 44 202 
Bi gees 29 
xxv. 23 207 PsaLms 
it, Lan 181 
DEUTERONOMY iv. 2 181 
v. 8 141 vii. 9 856 
vi. 4 181 Vili. 3 143 




viii. 4T T77 
xix. 8 241 
xix, 10 241 
Ket. oo 243 
xxiv. 1 223, 377 
Xxxlil. 6 143 
xxxiv. 8 193-5 
XXKxivV. 12 195 
xxxiv. 12 195 
lv. 7+ 229 
vii. 8 18 
lviii. 4, 5 227-9 
lxii. 8 229 
Ixix. ‘32 229-31 
lxx. 4 231 
Ixxii. 9 229 
lxxxii. 6 263 
xev. 8-11 187-9 
xevi. 5 141 
civ. 2 182 
cix. 3t 15, 187 
cexv. 4 101 
cxix. 105 181 
ii. 6 179 
Mi 13 183 
vi. 9, L1¢t 181 
Vili. 297 179 
xu. 27¢ 180 
Pee: 201 
i. 18 361 
i, 19, 20 209 
Blt 7 


viii. 19 29 

ix. 2 243 
x. 10-11,14+ 179 
axiit. 10 182 
wvuriv. 4 182 
Kis 23 

al. 8 177 
xi. 12 175 

xl. 18-19 179 
xlv. 19-20 179 
xix. 21-25 179 

li. 6 177 
liti. 3 235 
liv. 1 2D 
hiv 17T 205 
ly.°Tt 205 
lvii. 19 195 
lviii. 9 249 
lay ves 
isiv. lot 177 
Ixvi. 1 Wg 
iv. 26T ye 
Vili. 2 lin 
x. 12 181 
xvii. 10 356 
mn. 3 lf 

xxill. 23-24 .175 
xxxi. 33, 34 245 
xxxiv. 20 ar 

viii. 14 49 
avin. 23 Sol 
avxvan. 7 182 

xvuxiit. 20t 353 


DANIEL v. 18 183 
au: ‘ v. 25 355 
te ye v. 28 139, 233 
HoskEA v. 29-80 oon 
3 v. 39 807 
vi. 6 ool AT 243 
want vi. 19,20 205, 227 
bs vi. 20 297 
11. 10 182 vi. 91 305 
Vie’ 207 
Amos vil, 1 341 
iv. 4, 13 177 vii. 7 288 
vii. 11 Bor. 
JONAH vii. 13, 14 216 
a 356 vii. 14 327 
iii. 5, 10 217 Vil. ve ea 
vii. 2 
ZECHARIAH Vili. 22 oe 
‘ae Ge? its 1 
il. 2 199 ALY 229 
XA 339 
; MALACHI = 46 9335 
iv. 2 243 x. 41-42 BET) 
x. 42 335 
St. MatrHew oe 395 
rine) 23 5 dei 4 315, 365 
ata) ih 1 wi. 25 8384 
ii. 9 9 Sa ATs 27, 285 
vii. 10 331 xi. 28-30 259 
at. 12 B45 Rl. 7 ool 
Mie yg 185 ai. 50 288 
iv. 10 181 wii. 16 17 OSS 
iv. 16 243 xiii. 38 283 
ive Ae 193 avin. 6 202 
v.3 3803, 305 xvii. 27 315 
Veron LO Palle xvili. 3 185 
v. 6 305 xviii. 8 321 
v. 8 808, 309 xviii. 10 335 
v. 13, 14 345 xix. 21 289, 271, 299 



Sr. Marrnew—contd. iii. 9 331 
avi. 1-7 259 iv. 8 181 
xxiii. 9 319 v. .. a 
wuviii, 12 273 vi. 2 
wuiv. 29 182 vi. 29 233, 307 
aauiv. 31 B45 vi. 30 337 
axiv. 85 177 Vi. 38 341 
xxv. 30-40 333-5 vi. 45 305 
xxv. 41 187 vi. 46 333 
auv. 41-43 296 vit. 28 8335 
auvi. 75 862 ix. 62 852 

St. Mark = es pee 
1. 3 23 x. 27 329 
ae ae x. 29 329 
aoe ae x. 30-37. 329-31 
5: x. 41-42 291 
ix. 43-47 321 pone pie 
cae ies 279-81 ae oe 
x. 21 289, 291, 308, 7 Fe nie 

311 te 
aii. 4 334 

oft es es xii, 32 335 
Baieo 273, 327 xii. 34 305 
i x4 ae xii. 68 855 
ee nie xiv. 26 317 
ra = aS wiv. 38 299 
ce 30 321. 323 av. 7, 10 350 
x 31 323 xvi. 9 297, 337, 339 
we : xvi. 13 207 
xii. 30-3] 329 aan ae 183 
xiv. 386 195 mit. Soe 952 

St. Luxe xviii. 22 289 
4. 7-18 ZS win, & 296 
i. 20, 64 25 xix. 9 297 
4.79 2483 xati. 62 362 
ii. 49 185 : 
iii. 4 23 Str. Joun 
ih Hiny ¢ ll id 15, 17, 19, 
iii. 8 9 235 



St. Joun—contd. 



i. .215 23, 26: 181-3 

v. 4 Ook 
vi. 4 137 
vii. 12 289 
vi. 14-17 288 
vill. 15 195 
vit. 17 242, S44 
viii. 19-21 832 
15-day? 377 
x. 3 293 
x. 4 289 
xi. 36 271, 329 
xiii. 10 288 
xiv. 9 366 
1. 18 239 
1. 24 274 
ii. 6,7 389 
ii. 9 207, 253, 
ut. 18 46, 322 
t.. b7 307 
vi. 15,19 877 
vi. 19 13 
vii. 9 322, 855 
1x. 25 279 
ai. 25 QT 
xii. 31 349 
xiii. 4-13 349 
xiii. 5 349 
wiii. 13 277, 832 
vv. 51 889 
es: oop 
iv. 6 247 
iv. 7 343 
iv. 18 323 
Vy. LZ 293 
v. 19 851 




2 CorintTHIANs—contd. 1 Timotuy 
ix. 6 oie 12 BLL 
ixeg 337 1. on 345 

ii. 2% 191 
GALATIANS iv. 8 191 
ii. 21 287 iv. 10 191 
iii. 24 288 v. 1 373 
iii. 28 239 v. 6 375 
iv. 6 195 v. 23 375 
iv. 9 149 vi. 11 1] 
vi. 7 357 2 Timoruy 
vi: 15 243, 293 i 15 193 
Eo csnus iii. 16-17 193 
iv. 6 BLY 
ii. 2 19 mo oe OOF 
ii, 3-5 55 Tirvs 
ii. 12 47 is Shh 
ti. 17 194 ii, 11-13 17 
ti. 10 332 iii. 3-5 11 
iv. 17-19 187 
iv. 24 939 HEBREWS 
iw. 28 300. i. 6 185 
v. 8 203 14, 12 79 
v. 14 187, 375 i. 14 832 
v. 18, 19 375 ii. 11 242 
vi. 12 331 iii. 5 287, 288 
vid A117 249 nt yh 187-9 
vi. 17 226 vi. 13 189 
iv. 12 356 
PHILIPPIANS viii. 10-12 245 
ii, 6-7 23 ‘ied at 
iii. 13 273 agra = 
iv 5 193 xii. 22, Des 185 
aii. 23 3815 
CoLossIANS ait. 17 ace 
25, 26 185 JAMES 
iui. 9-11 239 v. 11 852 



1 Petrer 1 JowNn 
1.3 319 iii. 15 349 
te 206 iv. 8, 16 347 
i. 12 319 iv. 18 349 
ii. 9-10 137 w. 19 329 
ae Sd JUDE 
2 274 
i, 12 229 tu. 23 856 
ui. 14 139 au. 6 181 

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Vols. I-VII. 

Jutian. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. 

Loncus: Dapnnis anp Cuior. Thornley’s translation 
eed by J. M. Edmonds; and Parruentus. S. Gase- 

Lucian. A. M. Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols. I-V. 

Lycopuron. Cf. CaLLimacuus. 

Lyra Grarca J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. 

Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. 


Manetuo. W.G. Waddell; Protemy: Terrasrstos. F. E. 

Marcus Auretius. C. R. Haines. 

Menanper. F. G. Allinson. 

Minor Artic Orators. 2 Vols. K. J. Maidment and 
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Nonnos: Dionystaca. W.H.D. Rouse. 83 Vols. 

Opri1an, Co_tutuus, TrypHioporus. A. W. Mair. 

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Edgar. 2 Vols. Lirerary Setections (Poetry). D. L. 

Partuentus. Cf. Loneus. 

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Puro. 10 Vols. Vols. I-V. F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 
Whitaker; Vols. VI-[X. F. H. Colson. 

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Puitostratus: THe Lire or Apotitonius oF Tyana. F.C. 
Conybeare. 2 Vols. 

Puitosrratus: Imacines; CaLuistratus: DeEscripTions. 
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PHILOSTRATUS AND Eunapius: Lives or THE SopHists. 
Wilmer Cave Wright. 

Pinpar. Sir J. E. Sandys. 

Prato 1: Evrnyruro, Aporocy, Critro, PHarpo, PHAEDRUs. 
H. N. Fowler. 

Piato II: THeartetus anp Sopuist. H. N. Fowler. 

Prato III: Sraresmayn, Puitesus. H. N. Fowler: Ion. 
W. R. M. Lamb. 

Piato IV: Lacnres, Proracoras, Meno, Eutuypemus. 
W. R. M. Lamb. 

Prato V: Lysis, Symposium, Gorcias. W.R. M. Lamb. 

Prato VI: Cratytus, ParmenrpEes, Greater Hpptas, 
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Prato VII: Timaerus, Cririas, CriropnHo, MENExENUs, Ept- 
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Prato VIII: CxHarmipes, Atcipiapes, Hrpparcnus, THE 
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Prato: Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. 

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PiurarcHo: Moratta. 15 Vols. Vols. I-V. F.C. Babbitt: 



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Xenopuon: Scripta Minora. E. C. Marchant. 



AristotLE: History or Antmats. A. L. Peck. 
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Bagrius AND Puarpnrus. B. E. Perry. 




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